Graphization, Standardization, Modernization

Table of Content

Language Graphitization

Graphitization refers to the development, selection, and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language. In other words, graphitization deals with changing the written form. It includes the writing system, letters, numbers, and so forth. Linguist Charles A. Ferguson made two key observations about the results of adopting a writing system. First, the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community’s repertoire.

Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language, the vocabulary, grammatical structures, and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety. Second, the use of writing often leads to a folk belief that the written language is the “real” language, and speech is a corruption of it. Written language is viewed as more conservative, while the spoken variety is more susceptible to language change.

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However, this view ignores the possibility that isolated relic areas of the language may be less innovative than the written form or the written language may have been based on a divergent variety of the spoken language. In establishing a writing system for a language, corpus planners have the option of using an existing system or inventing a new one. An example of this graphitization is the transformation of the old Indonesian writing system into the new Indonesian writing system as follows: Kamoe (Kamu), Doeloe (Dulu), Atjeh (Aceh), Peroet (Perut), Mendjadi (Menjadi).

Language Standardization

The definition of language standardization, according to Kamwangamalu (2001:194) based on Crystal (1985), is “standardization is a natural development of a standard language in a speech community or an attempt by a community to impose one dialect as standard.” He explains the activity of standardization as a direct and deliberate intervention by society to create a standard language in a situation where non-standard varieties are used, referring to Hudson (1980).

Similarly, Ekkehard Wolff (2000:332) states that language standardization is a means in “language development,” selection, and promotion of variants within a language. It usually involves the development of language-related activities like grammars, spelling books, dictionaries, and literature. It also involves changing some spoken forms of a particular language to be written down in an official manner with the intention of making this particular variety the preferred variety. When one deals with language standardization, it is targeted at turning linguistic varieties into standard languages in two senses.

First, in a sense of an approved and accepted norm above all vernacular, colloquial, and dialectal varieties for general and normative usage in certain domains such as literature, science, education, the media, the churches, public sectors, and so on. In the second sense, it is a regular and codified normative system of reference supported by a standard orthography, standard reference grammars, and standard dictionaries. There are four processes of language standardization: selection, codification, elaboration, and acceptance.

Selection is the main stage where dialectical choice is made.

The corrected spelling and grammar of the text are as follows:

The criteria for selection can be of such factors as historical significance, resolution by expert bodies, legislation, demographics, and others.

  1. Codification After the selection of a dialect, what follows is codification, which includes grammar, sounds, and other rules. The result of codification will be grammar books, synonym and antonym dictionaries, regular dictionaries, guidance on how to write different types of letters, and so on.
  2. Elaboration This is the stage at which the selected dialect and the codified norm are used in different domains like education, media, literature, and other areas. The main purpose of this elaboration is to socialize the codification.
  3. Acceptance deals with the acceptance of codification in society. Society will accept or not accept the codification based on various factors. Examples of language standardization include changing from the old Indonesian writing system, Van Ophusyen, to the present Indonesian writing system, Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan. Other examples are listed below:

a) The use of prefixes “me-” and “ber-” explicitly and consistently. Example: Standard Indonesian: Adit berjanji akan pulang liburan ini. Non-standard Indonesian: Adit janji akan pulang liburan ini.

b) The use of grammatical functions. Example: Standard Indonesian: Fikri berlibur ke kota Semarang. Non-standard Indonesian: Fikri ke kota Semarang.

c) The use of “bahwa.” Example: Standard Indonesian: Fadil tahu bahwa adiknya tidak lulus ujian. Non-standard Indonesian: Fadil tahu adiknya tidak lulus ujian.

d) The use of verbal aspect + agent + verb. Example: Standard Indonesian: Hadiah itu telah saya terima. Non-standard Indonesian: Hadiah itu saya telah terima.

e) The use of synthesis. Example: Standard Indonesian: Siswa memberitahu bahwa besok siang akan ada rapat osis. Non-standard Indonesian: Siswa kasih tahu bahwa besok siang ada rapat osis.

f) The use of “kah,” “lah,” and “pun.” Example: Standard Indonesian: Bagaimanakah memasak sayur itu? Non-standard Indonesian: Bagaimana cara memasak sayur itu?

g) The use of correct prepositions. Example: Standard Indonesian: Rezka pergi ke kampus dengan temannya. Non-standard Indonesian: Rezka pergi ke kampus sama temannya.

h) The use of repetition forms. Example: Standard Indonesian: Semua mahasiswa diharapkan masuk ke aula. Non-standard Indonesian: Semua mahasiswa diharapkan masuk aula.

i) The use of flexible components. Example: Standard Indonesian: Pak Budi mengatakan bahwa hari ini praktikum. Non-standard Indonesian: Pak Budi bilang bahwa hari ini praktikum.

j) The use of standard words. Example: Standard Indonesian: Apotek, akhlak, aktivitas, dll. Non-standard Indonesian: Apotik, ahlak, aktifitas, dll.

k) The use of official terms. Example: Standard Indonesian: Acak, sahih, tataran, dll.

Bahasa Indonesia Baku vs. Tidak Baku: Random, Valid, Level, etc.

  • The use of standard grammar:
    • Example: Bahasa Indonesia Baku: Materi itu sudah kita kuasai.
    • Bahasa Indonesia Tidak Baku: Materi itu sudah dikuasai kita.

Language Modernization Modernization is a form of language planning that occurs when a language needs to expand its resources to meet the functions and demands of the modern world. Modernization often occurs when a language undergoes a shift in status, such as when a country gains independence from a colonial power or when there is a change in the language education policy.

The most significant force in modernization is the expansion of the lexicon, which allows the language to discuss topics in modern semantic domains. Language planners generally focus on creating new lists and glossaries to describe new technical terms, but it is also necessary to ensure that the new terms are consistently used by the appropriate sectors within society.

There are three strategies for language modernization:

  1. Borrowing words
  2. The standardization of words from indigenous languages
  3. The creation of new words

An example of modernization is the extension of some words, such as:

  • Kegiatan (Aktivitas)
  • Pengaturan (Manajemen)
  • Percepatan (Akselerasi)
  • Perubahan (Konversi)
  • Tepat guna (Efektif)

Graphization, standardization, and modernization are three parts of corpus planning. Corpus planning, which deals with the development of linguistic factors of a language, in this case, the internal features of a language, is aimed at the development of the language. By developing languages, language preservation is also accomplished.

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Graphization, Standardization, Modernization. (2016, Oct 26). Retrieved from

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