Military Branches includes the Army, Air Force, Coast Guard, Navy, and Marine Corps.
The first branch of the military is the Army. It is primarily concerned with land warfare. They also have some civil functions such as flood control and improvement of rivers and harbours. The Army can also be used to suppress civil disorders and enforce federal laws. The Army has three components: the Regular Army, the Army Reserve, and the National Guard. Regular Army soldiers are officers and enlisted personnel who volunteer for service for a specified time. The reserves are civilians who are trained officers and enlisted personnel. They may volunteer for active duty or full time service when needed. Regular Army personnel who serve less than eight years in active duty automatically become members of the reserves for a specified time. The National Guard, like the Reserve, is composed of trained civilians. They may be called out by the governor to deal with riots or other emergencies, or may be ordered into a federal service by the President.
Air Force is the air arm of a nation’s military forces. It is usually separately organized as coequal with the army and the navy. The striking power of an air force is based on airplanes and missiles. Armies and navies may also employ airplanes and missiles for specific purposes. Air forces have four principal reasons: Strategic, Defensive, Tactical and Logistical.
Coast Guard is an armed force responsible for law enforcement, marine safety, aid to vessels and aircraft in distress, pollution control, and other duties in coastal waters and navigable rivers. Coast Guard’s readiness to meet any emergency is indicated by its motto, Semper Paratus, meaning “Always Ready.”
Navy is the nation’s armed forces that operate on water. A navy consists not only of combat vessels, but also of aircraft and everything necessary to supply the fighting craft and maintain them in continuous operation. Thus, naval bases, airports, and training centers are also a part of a nation’s navy. A navy’s purpose is to defend its home shores against a conventional attack or invasion, to defend against ballistic- missile submarines, to protect its merchant shipping, and to provide support for invasions.
Marine Corps is one of the armed forces of any countries. Marine Corps and the Navy are the two services within the Department of the Navy. The Marine Corps is organized as a complete operating unit with all combat branches of service, including aviation. The corps is trained for amphibious operations, and provides ships’ detachments and security forces for shore stations. Marines also fight as regular infantry forces when needed.
1. Military Branches. New Standard Encyclopedia. Volume 11. Pages 436-457.