When people come together with the same vision of helping and changing a community s way of living, it is essentially what community development is all about. Community development has many different definitions, however they are all based around the same values.
The main value community development maintains is that it is about creating and empowering he communities that need help. With this in mind, not only is community development happening in New Zealand it is also happening all over the world. As long as there is communities in need of help and development there will always be that requirement for community development (Kenny, 2011). In this essay I am going to critically discuss my understanding of community development. I will then begin to analyses neo-liberal, Marxism and feminism theory and how it relates to community development practices.
I will also apply examples of practices from research and literature. Finally, will discuss the issues that community development faces when working with tang when in a Treaty of Waiting and bi-cultural context. Community development has been around for generations. Community development approaches can provide the chance to practice key, precautionary crisis interventions (Colluded & Rome, 2010). Community can often refer to many groups of people. This can include very large groups of people to smaller groups. When further analyzing communities we notice that some communities need more help than others.
You begin to see that communities need help with housing, education, food and advocacy. Community development is about, UT not limited to, creating individual welfare rights, advocacy and enabling community self-help projects (Maybe, 2011; Colluded & Rome, 2010). Community development like already mentioned, takes place amongst a group of people with similar interests or commonalities. These groups can sometimes take on a more formal approach, for instance Red Cross – which is an international cooperation; to groups that are very loose, for example, a group of mums going for weekly walks.
Whatever the type of group, the people are essentially a form of community (Hill, 2013). The role of community development is to help immunities to recognize strengths and to venture on issues and needs as they themselves see them. As a community development worker it is about facilitating rather than opposing change onto people. Thus, community development workers work with and for the people. They also do so by not having a patronizing perspective as an outside expert, but on the foundation of joint emancipation (Kenny, 2011; Williams, 2004 & Miller, 2008).
Analyzing this further, community development is a way in which we can empower communities to take collective control and responsibility for their own development. Having effective intro and responsibilities for your development allows you to identify, develop and address strengths, issues, needs and problems within your own time and mind. Efficient community control requires adequate resources, including incomes, material resources and knowledge and a strong skill base (Kenny, 2011; Chile, 2006).
Looking at community development we can get an idea of what it means to adapt theories to community work. Neo-liberalism emphasizes the control of individual rights. It is about individuals being the rightful owners of their lives and therefore have essential rights and responsibilities (Hill, 2013). Relating this theory to community development, rather than focusing on citizenship rights, neo-liberalism focuses on how individuals make inappropriate choices that result in disadvantage. With this in mind, it is the responsibility of the individual to gain inclusion.
An example of this would be community development initiatives that educate people on gaining employment (Kenny, 2011). Developing this idea further, our National party supports neo-liberalism and this is evident to see when we discuss their philosophy. Their philosophy states that they support the idea of people having individual freedom and choice. This statement emphasizes the neo-liberal principle of being in-charge of yourself and no one else (National Party, n. D). Having a neo-liberal agenda is essentially about decreasing state responsibility.
The main value is to look after your own well-being and development, as opposed to relying on the state to support you. Here you can see the irony between community development and the neo-liberal perspective. Both argue for empowering people to take control of their lives, however community development focuses on the collective approach which is contradictory to the individualistic neo-liberalism perspective (Pusses, 1991). Community development integrates self-determination, linking communities to be collective about their goals.
With some community development workers adapting to neo- liberalism, they become more business focused in terms of approach and presentation (Miller, 2008). Here the focus becomes more tactical and activities involve around business plans and individual ideas. At first glance community development and neo-liberalism seem like a perfect match. However, with the notion that community development proves to be collectivism in the sense that achievements and goal settings, this is where the similarities between immunity development and neo-liberalism end (Kenny, 2011).
Further clarifying this, neo-liberalism’s ideas can be seen in the Tape initiative. This community development initiative is based on the notion of responsible driving as well as decreasing drink driving. It emphasizes the importance of self-determination and being responsible for your own actions. With this in mind, being responsible for our actions is very much the underlying principle of neo-liberal thought. Adding to this is self-determination- only you have to power to choose whether to drink drive or not.
The backlash of this statement is that if you decide to drink drive ND you cause a crash it is not just you who suffer the consequence, but also the other person who was following the law (Ketene, 2006). Throughout the 198(Yes community development really needed the input from neo-liberalizes. Community development initiatives needed to be more individualistic as they thought that it would help a community flourish. With years of the welfare state making commencements to programs, from a collectivist view, community development boomed. Organizations like the European Union was formed.
It was aided by the neo-liberal concept of social resources. With neo-liberalizes being giggly focused, it promoted self-reliance and local enterprise and essentially this became the framework for community development (Ketene, 2006). The Tape initiative does not just operate from a neo-liberal view but also through Marxism. Marxism is about individuals expressing their life. Individuals are therefore the outcome of their own input. Marxism theory conceptualizes the social system in reference of mode of production. Mode of production is separating society as a collective into two groups.
The first group being the owners of the production source and secondly, the workers who make the production happen. Essentially its rich world vs. poor world (Marx & Angels, 1976). Marxism places its fundamental values on freedom, equality and society. It claims that welfare and well-being are social standards which are based on the values of harmony and teamwork. Marxist theory suggests a welfare society where the well-being of people is a main consideration and that the mode of production is set up to meet human needs rather than to make profits (Marx & Angels, 1976).
Along with social policies, community development should also support and take care of each individual within that community. Furthermore, people in the community should have equal social resource services not only for human needs but for their well-being as well (Kenny, 2011). Community development is the process of building impartial and energetic communities in which collectively, everyone can communicate, participate and share the rewards of a sustainable, economic and social development (Twelve’s, 1991). Marxism has helped teach community development on what it means to be human.
It helps community development workers to recognize that they are not only representatives of change but also agents of control (Twelve’s, 1991). The main job of community development workers is to advertise collective action. The theory of that community development workers are also agents of control for the welfare state has been the most echoing review of the Marxist theory. This review is believed because community development has been used through programs and policies such as unemployment benefits to control the working class.
This then ensures that these types of clients never end as to not threaten upper classes position in society. Community development recognizes that workers are there to assist the community; social change cannot happen without he community being involved (Twelve’s, 1991). In relation to the Tape initiative that I mentioned earlier, an example of Marxism that is present would be signs of Moor feeling marginal’s as they are being signaled out to be the main culprits to drink driving (Maybe, 2011). If we consider the sole parent benefit, we also see how Marxism is also used in and throughout this particular policy.
Emphasizing the fact that the state wish to keep the rich being rich and the poor getting poorer philosophy, having these programs in place within community development, it is essentially keeping their place and allowing them o be exploited under the capitalist system. Marxism identifies that community development can only serve to be effective in eliminating the capitalist society. Due to community development working within this society, it makes it hard for change to occur (Payne, 1991). As we look closely into community development we see how different theories effect different initiatives.
Another strong theory involved with community development is feminism. Feminism is in some ways like Marxism and community development. Marxism and feminism encompasses different schools of views or customs, each proposing definite interpretations ND explanations of the roles of women in society (Behavior, 1972). Feminists challenge the historical ways that women’s identity and roles have been built. Feminists overall aim is to eliminate the circumstances that are accountable for women’s subjugation, to empower women and to change how societies have been constructed in the benefits of men.
Feminism continues to be relevant to community development. This type of community development is about reducing and ultimately eliminating gender inequalities both in society and in the home (Kenny, 2011). An example of feminism in action is the Peoples’ Centre in Wellington. With groups of people coming together with the same vision of helping the minorities, it gives the community opportunities to better themselves and provide equal opportunities. Although not solely a feminist approach, it is visible to see the values of feminism show through, such as equality.
Further developing on feminism in community development, another example is the Council of single mothers and their children’s group. Defining themselves as a feminist self-help collective, it is about helping women, help themselves (Behavior, 1972). With aims such as eradicating social discrimination and empowering women to seek better futures for themselves, this group is a much clearer example of feminism in the community development context. This group is clearly about gender inequalities and trying to resolve this major issue.
You can also see how aspects of neo-liberalism work alongside feminist theory. Such as the self-help scenario (Morrison & Braining, 2009). Overall, community development incorporates theories, some of which involving more than one. Community development also faces issues, these changing with certain cultures and communities. All community development initiatives/programmer has issues that need to be overcome. After all it is problems to which the initiative was created in the first place. These concerns change dependent on the aimed community (Kaki, 2004).
For example, the tang when of New Zealand. When dealing with tang when in a community development context, it is important to recognize issues that could potentially arise. All cultures are different just like all communities have the similarities and differences. It is important to recognize the Treaty of Waiting and the role it plays with our Moor, especially in terms of community development. Sartor Hannah social revise is an iii based community development initiative. Whose focus is on developing and supporting Hannah members to positive well-being and also preventative strategies.
Part of this service is recognizing the Treaty of Waiting and upholding it principles. The service promotes tint-reinvigorating and self- determination for clients and workers. These two principles not just emphasize the connection between Moor, the crown and the community but also supports values of neo-liberalism (Nash, Nonfood & Hay, 2001 However, by recognizing the Treaty of Waiting there is inevitable issues when applying for contracts with overspent agencies. Despite the service having their own values and trying to uphold them, the need to secure funding puts them in a tough situation.
They have to comply and opt into programs which deal with specifically for a wider, bi- cultural community (Kaki, 2004). This is also another example of Marxism – where the state are in control of the funding. Ultimately it places services and initiatives like Sartor in a difficult position. In order for development to continue, changes must be made (Nash, Nonfood & Hay, 2001). Bi-cultural practice also plays an important role when working with tang when. Community development practitioner’s work needs to ensure a bi-cultural framework.
In other words, to allow for more than one cultural perspective on issues arising. Utilizing this with tang when will allow for smoother more effective development (Nash, Nonfood & Hay, 2001). In conclusion, community development has many definitions however the main idea is to help communities help themselves by providing the necessary skills, education and support systems. Community development also requires help from many different theories and perspectives. In this essay I have discussed he relevance of neo-liberalism, Marxism and feminism.
Neo-liberalism regards an individualistic perspective and expects you as a person to be responsible for your own decisions. In a community development context it is about using the resources available, such as skills and support to ultimately better yourself. Marxism talks about the separation of society. Community development contradicts the idea of Marxism in the sense that we are enabling the lower class to better themselves which in turn threatens the upper class community. The last theory discusses feminism and in relation to community development the quality of genders being the main focus and priority.
In the end I discussed the issues community development faces when working with tang when and in relation to the Treaty of Waiting. It is important to recognize the different theories and issues that arise when working in a community development context. Community development is a complex arena with many different communities to focus on.