The metabolic process providing my energy while was walking at an easy pace is aerobic metabolism. During aerobic metabolism, mitochondria absorb from the surrounding cytoplasm these molecules: ADAPT, phosphate ions, 02, and organic substances like private. These molecules go through the citric acid cycle.
The electron transport chain is also involved to create ATOP. For each molecule of private that goes into the citric acid cycle, the cell gains 17 ATOP lessees. Glycogen reserves can also be used and converted to glucose. Glycoside breaks down glucose molecules to create more private. However, if not enough glycogen is available, the cell can also use amino acids and lipids to do this. This is a very efficient process but also only contributes a fraction of the ATOP during aerobic metabolism.
At moderate levels of activity, most of the energy during aerobic metabolism comes from work done by the mitochondria. The muscles involved during this process need all of the energy produced as ATOP, and there is no extra left over in this particular metabolic process if muscle activity increases (“Muscle Tissue” P. 306-7). 2. (8 puts) Trace the sound of the bee from your outer ear to perception. (Include all focusing, conduction, transduction, transmission and perception processes and structures).
Sound vibrations from the buzzing bee vibrate the air molecules as pressure waves around my ear and enter the auricle which is cone-shaped in order to direct these sound waves into the ear via the external acoustic meat’s. The sound waves reach the tympanis membrane through the external acoustic meat’s and cause it to vibrate. When the tympanis membrane moves, it causes the auditory icicles to move. The auditory icicles are made up of the mallets, incur, and stapes. These icicles are important because they amplify the sound.
The stapes then transfers this movement to the oval window and the pressure waves move through the periphery of the scale vestibule. These waves then disturb the basilar membrane as they move toward the round window of the scale tympani. This causes vibrations of hair cells against the dictatorial membrane. The information about where the sound originated and about how strong the pressure waves are is interpreted by the central nervous system over the cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII (“The Special Senses” P. 84-5). 3. (4 puts) Turn your head to the right. Create a table that describes which muscles move which bones across which joints under the control of which nerves). Action: Muscle: Origin: Insertion: Nerve: Bends head towards shoulder and turns face to opposite side Gastrointestinal Clavicle head attaches to sterna end of clavicle; sterna head attaches to imbruing Mastoid region of skull and lateral portion of superior uncial line Accessory Nerve X’; Cervical Spinal Nerves (CO-CO) Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that side Supplies (Supplies capitals, supplies services)
Copious processes and ligaments connecting inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae Mastoid process, occipital bone of skull, and superior cervical vertebrae Cervical Spinal Nerves Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that side Longitudes capitals Transverse process of inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae Mastoid process of temporal bone Cervical and thoracic spinal nerves Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that side Longitudes serviceableness process of superior thoracic vertebrae Transverse processes of middle and superior cervical bureaucratically and thoracic spinal nerves Extends vertebral lump and rotates toward opposite side Semifinal’s serviceableness processes oft-TO or TO Copious processes of CO-CO Cervical spinal nerves Rotates head to that sidelong capitals Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae Base of the occipital bone Cervical spinal nerves Flexes or rotates neckline’s coli Anterior surfaces of cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae Transverse processes of superior cervical vertebrae Cervical spinal nerves (“The Muscular System” P. 339-341) 4. (6 puts) Move your eyes and look at the bee. (Create a table that describes which nerves control which muscles to cause the needed eye movements).
Eye looks down Inferior Rectum Spheroid around optic canal Inferior, medial surface of eyeball Calculator Nerve Ill Eye looks laterally Lateral Rectum Spheroid around optic canal Lateral surface of eyeball Abductees Nerve VI Eye rolls, looks down and laterally Superior Philodendrons around optic canal Superior, lateral surface of eyeball Trachea Nerve IV (“The Muscular System” P. 335) 5. (8 puts) Trace the image of the bee to perception. (Include all focusing, transduction, transmission and perception processes and structures). After a retinal molecule absorbs light, the normally 11-CICS form of the bound tenant molecule straightens to become the 11-trans from. This change activated the poops molecule. Poops activates transduction which is a G protein. This G protein then activates postmistresses. Postmistresses is an enzyme that breaks down cyclic-IGMP.
The break-down of cyclic-IGMP removes them from the gated sodium channels and makes the gated sodium channels inactive. Because of this, sodium ion entry into the cytoplasm decreases. This sodium ion reduction then reduces the dark current. Active transport continues to remove sodium ions from the cytoplasm even though the gated sodium channels are closed. This asses the transmigrate potential to drop down to -70 NV and hyperplasia. This hyperventilation decreases neurotransmitter release. The adjacent cell is then aware that the photoreceptor has absorbed a photon. A specific ganglion cell keeps track of a specific portion of the visual field.
Rods are also called M cells and give the brain information about a general location of received photons and light rather than very specific information. Cones are also called P cells and can be much more specific than rods. The P cells are smaller and more numerous than M cells. This helps them be better at giving information about edges, fine detail and color. The activation of a P cell gives information about a very specific location. The P cells give high resolution information. Axons from the ganglion cells converge on the optic disc, penetrate the eye, and continue toward the diminishable on the optic nerve II. From there the information is split in half and travels to the back of the brain and to the occipital lobe.
Together, the diminishable and the brain stem process the information and control eye reflexes and pupil dilation and/or constriction in order to see clearer and focus in on an object. Depth perception is a phenomenon that takes place when the usual cortex of my occipital lobes reviews the slightly different information obtained by each eyeball. The superior chocoholic of the mandarin make motor commands that control unconscious eye, head, and/or neck actions that respond to visual stimuli. My eyes in the bright summer light looking at a bee that is so close (on my right shoulder) are likely to constrict so as to limit the photon stimulation on my retina and so as to focus on just the tiny bee (“The Special Senses” P. 569-74). 6. (11 puts) Move your left hand to swat the bee. Create a table that describes which muscles move which bones across which joints under the control of which reverse). Limit your discussion to the movement at the shoulder and elbow only (do not include any UN-needed muscles nor discuss the movement at any other joints). Move Left Arm Toward Right Side Flexing and medial rotation at shoulder Deltoid (anterior part)Clavicle and scapula (accordion and adjacent scapular spine) Deltoid tuberose’s of hummers Auxiliary nerve (CO-CO) Medial rotation at shoulder Subsidiaries Scapular Foss of scapula Lesser tubercle of hummers Scapular nerves (CO-CO) Adduction and medial rotation at shoulder Trees Major Inferior angle of scapula
Passes medially to reach the medial lip of intercultural groove of hummers Lower scapular nerve (CO-CO) Adduction and flexing at the shoulder Acrobatically Carotid process Medial margin of shaft of hummers Miscellaneous nerve (CO-CO Flexing, Adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder Pectorals Major Cartilages of ribs 2-6, body of sternum, and inferior, medial portion of clavicle Crest of greater tubercle and lateral lip of intercultural groove of hummers Pectoral nerves (CO-TO) Adduction and medial rotation at shoulder Ultimatums Doors Copious processes of inferior horrific and all lumbar vertebrae, ribs 8-12, and turbocharger fascia Floor of intercultural groove of hummers Tetrachloride nerve (CO-CO) Adduction at the shoulder Triceps brachia (long head) Infringed tubercle of scapula Electron of ulna Radial nerve (CO-CO) Bend left forearm towards right shoulder Flexing at elbow and shoulder Biceps brachia Short head from the carotid process; long head from the supercargoes tubercle; both on the scapula Tuberose’s of radius Miscellaneous nerve (CO-CO) Flexing at elbow Brachia Anterior, distal surface of hummers Tuberose’s of ulna Miscellaneous nerve (CO-CO) and radial nerve (CO-CO)
Flexing at elbow Aphrodisiac’s Ridge superior to the lateral epicycle of hummers Lateral aspect of stolid process of radius Radial nerve (CO-CO) (“The Muscular System” P. 353-355) 7. (2 puts) What molecule provided the energy for the movement of your arm? ATOP (adenosine troposphere) provided the energy for the movement of my arm. 8. Feel the pain of the stinger in your skin. A. (3 puts) What layers of the skin are penetrated and what tissue types make them up? The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin, and it is made of stratified Squamish epithelium. The dermis is deep to the epidermis and it is made of ensue irregular connective tissue. The hypodermic is deep to the dermis and is made of adipose tissue (“The Tissue Level of Organization” P. 114-126). B. 5 puts) Trace the pain sensation from the receptors to perception. There are pain receptors on the shoulder that communicate to the central nervous system. Because a bee sting is a stinging, injection-like pain, it would be considered “fast pain. ” Fast pain sensations are carried by militated Type A fibers. The amelioration helps the information to travel faster down the neuron. The bee sting stimulates the dendrites of inspectors in the shoulder and causes popularization. The initial segment of the axon must reach threshold in order to release an action potential. Once an action potential is released, it travels by neurons to the central nervous system.
When the action potential reaches the central nervous system, glutamate and/or substance P are released as neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters make it easier for neurons to travel along pain pathways. This is known as pain perception (“Neural Integration l: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System” P. 498). 9. (8 puts) Explain your autonomic response to this event. State which division is aging control and describe exactly how that division will effect breathing rate, heart rate, and pupil size. (Note: don’t just describe the effect, but describe the control pathway that leads to that effect, including any chemical messengers involved The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is taking control.
This division increases breathing rate, heart rate, and pupil size. The visceral motor nuclei in the hypothalamus activates autonomic nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord. The brain stem and spinal cord in turn activate autonomic ganglia that then stimulate visceral effectors such as smooth muscle, glands, radial muscle, and adipose. Smooth muscle effectors affect blood vessels by constricting them and increasing blood pressure and speeding up blood flow in order to increase oxygen circulation. The smooth muscle also affects the constriction/dilation of the lungs. The sympathetic nervous system wants to dilate the lungs to increase breathing rates and oxygen intake.
The glands that are stimulated cause the body to perspire. The cardiac muscle increases heart rate. Adipose can be used for energy because they are fatty acids (lipids) and can be used to make ATOP during glycoside very quickly (“Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-order Functions” P. 518-523). 10. (6 puts) Describe the elements of the homeostasis control system that caused the sweating and the red skin. Include the control pathway involved. The control pathway of the sympathetic division that caused the sweating and the red skin was the sympathetic chain ganglia. Peregrination fibers carried motor commands that affect the head, neck, limbs, and thoracic cavity.
The unlimitedly postcolonial fibers that control the body wall enter the gray ramps and return to the spinal nerve for further distribution. They then are able o innervate the sweat glands of the skin and the smooth muscles in blood vessels. This innervations causes the sweat glands to sweat and the blood vessels to constrict. Constricting the blood vessels is helpful because it will raise blood pressure and increase oxygen circulation (“Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher-Order Functions” P. 521) 11. (1 puts) Describe the metabolic process providing your energy while you were running (as fast as you could) after the bee stung you.