How has this been formed from the Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand?
The enzyme RNA polymerase has synthesized this RNA fragment from a template strand of DNA. Transcription factors inserted RNA polymerase between the strands of DNA, which then uncoiled and unzipped a small part of the double spiral. Traveling the length of the text unit, the RNA polymerase broke the weak hydrogen bonds keeping the nucleotide subunits together. The open bases then attached to their complementary base pairs, which had entered the enzyme through the transcriptional hole, making this strand of courier RNA (messenger RNA).
RNA nucleotide bases differ from DNA bases in one regard: DNA is made up of Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Adenine (A), and Thymine (T), but as RNA’s oxygenated sugar units do not adhere to Thymine, it is replaced by Uracil. The Cytosine bases bond with Guanine bases, and Adenine bases with Uracil, so the DNA template which gave rise to this RNA fragment was: TAC-GCA-TTT-CGT-CTC-CCT-GTT-ATT. The resulting strand of RNA then detached from the individual DNA strand.
How is this RNA transformed into a protein?
The newly-formed strand of messenger RNA is transported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. Here it enters cellular organelles called ribosomes, which hold the messenger RNA in place – triggering the arrival of a transfer RNA carrying the first amino acid. Each of the three codons on the messenger RNA template must match up with their exact complementary anticodon on the transfer RNA.
The following transfer RNA pairs up with the anticodon for the subsequent messenger RNA codon, and so on – from the start codon to the stop codon. Peptide bonds join the amino acid carried by each transfer RNA with its neighboring amino acid, making a long chain (polymer) that separates from the ribosomal fragments when the process is complete, upon which a protein has been synthesized. The unique sequence of the hundreds of amino acids in the polymer determines the 3-dimensional form of the protein, and that form determines the protein’s function.
Discuss the work of the Austrian Monk Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel’s Law of Segregation resulted from his monohybrid cross experiments, where he cross-fertilized pea plants with specific traits to analyze how they passed on their traits to subsequent generations. For example, by crossing pure red-flowered plants with pure white-flowered plants, he found that the first generation of offspring were all red, but one in every four of the second generation were white-flowered. Identifying such forms in offspring phenotypes, Mendel’s hypothesis stated that, through meiosis, individuals inherit two separate, randomly-selected alleles (genetic factors) for every trait, one from each parent. These alleles are dominant or recessive, which influences how the offspring express that trait.
Mendel also experimented with dihybrid crosses to see whether separate genetic traits affect one another. Detecting that all four phenotypes were produced in the same ratio (9:3:3:1) when cross-breeding round, wrinkled, yellow, and green seeds led to the second of his most important laws. The Law of Independent Assortment states that the alleles of different genes are selected completely independently of one another during gamete formation. Therefore, for example, there is no relation between a person’s ear shape and eye color. Although Mendel’s work was disregarded during his lifetime, Mendelian heritage became decently recognized in the early 1900s and he is now known as the male parent of modern genetic sciences.