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Computerized Student Organizations Election System

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    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Project Context Student organizations elections have always been an activity for every school. It is an activity wherein each student is required to choose from sets of candidates who will represent each position in the Student Council. In order for the student to accomplish this, the student must go through several processes.

    First the student goes to the Student Council Area if he/she is a registered voter, then goes to the voting area and chooses the candidates he likes.After that, the student submits the filled-up ballot form to the voting administrator in order for his vote to be counted The introduction of computerized system will enhance the speed and efficiency of voting process. Results could be attained even right after the elections reducing the time to a mere fraction compared to the time it takes if the voting is done manually. It also increases the level of voting experience because of multimedia enhancements.

    Computerize voting has the capabilities to produce election results with much greater accuracy than traditional paper-based voting system.Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 1 Computerized Student Organizations Election System The manual voting system of student organizations like USSG, FVLP, SPORTS CLUB and Department Organizations of theIfugao State University Potia Campus lacks the advantages of a Graphical User Interface that the Windows OS could offer.

    It is in this effect that the proponents have decided to propose and finish a computerized voting system to improve the existing manual voting system. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-20122 Computerized Student Organizations Election System PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION Purpose The result of this study will help the student voters to enjoy fast voting process by just clicking the names of their selected candidates.

    The purpose of this study was to convert the traditional paper-based voting system into a computerized voting system which will benefit the students and concerned individuals and to provide an accurate and clean election result of the different student organizations in Ifugao State University,Potia campus.The proposed system was based on the information collected from the concerned individuals and it was studied andcarefully analyzed. The proposed system has the ability to process the voter’s identification and store it in the database. It has the capability to secure the informations that is being stored on the database and lastly it has the capability to count accurately all the votes thatwerestored on the database in a short period of time.

    The Student Organization like USSG, FVLP,SPORTS CLUB andDepartment Organization is to resolved the problems encountered during Student Organizations election. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 3 Computerized Student Organizations Election System The problem which usually encountered during manual voting are as follows: a) Boredom b) High risk of cheating c)Time consuming c) inaccuracy A ComputerizedStudent Organizations ElectionSystemwill be useful in speeding up the transactions and it will lessen the work of the assigned student officers during student organizations elections.

    The result of this study will be beneficial to the following: 1. To the students, their votes will be easily processed. 2. To the school, it is one way of promoting the school by letting the people know that the institution is providing the youth especially the students with quality and relevant computer-trained system analysts and programmers.

    3. To the future researchers, the proposal will serve as reference for future researchers. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 4 Computerized Student Organizations Election SystemOBJECTIVES The objectives of the project was to develop a Computerized Student Organization Election System for the Ifugao State University. It specifically aimed to: 1. Ensure accurate andsecured castingof votes during student organization elections. 2.

    To reduce the costs of conducting paper based election like printing of ballots, printing of list of voters and other paraphernalias. 3. To lessen the period of time in counting the votes 4. To prevent voters from voting more than once during the election.

    Department of Computer ScienceBSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 5 Computerized Student Organizations Election System SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT Scope The scope of a Computerized Student Organization Election System of the Ifugao State University,Potia campus was intended only for the Organization like University Student Supreme Government (USSG), Future Vocational Leaders of the Philippines (FVLP), Department Organizations and the Sports Club Organization. It covers and upgrades the manual voting into computerized election system in checking the attendance of the voters.

    This organizational election system can be used in yearly elections because all organizations like USSG, FVLP, Department Organizations and SPORTS CLUB has only one year term in serving the organizations. Limitation The Computerized Student Organization Election System is a LAN based system and it does not support online base which delimits the number of computers to be used. It is intended to be used only for the Student Organizations Election ofIfugao State University,Potia Campus, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao and not for local or national election. CHAPTER II Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-20126 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Review of Related Literature A computerized voting system is a LAN based or Online based voting system which is capable in processing the transaction during elections. Computerized Voting System is often associated with schools and Universities, but are commonly found in other groups, such as large corporations or for use by employees of a civilian government. Using Computerized Organizations Election system hasalready been used by other schools / universities in order to make a fast and reliable casting of votes during school organizational elections.

    The researchers conducted a research like interviewing co-students,used library books and surfing the internet. Computerized Student Organization Election System was created using PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor). Php is a general-purpose serversidescripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document, rather than calling an external file to process data.

    Ultimately, the code is interpreted by a Web server with a PHP processor module which generates the resulting Web page.It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalonegraphical applications. PHP can be deployed on most Web servers and also as a standalone shell on almost every operating system and Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 7 Computerized Student Organizations Election System platform free of charge. A competitor to Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP) server-side script engine and similar languages, PHP is installed on more than 20 million Web sites and 1 million Web servers.PHP was originally created by RasmusLerdorf in 1995. The main implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group and serves as the formal reference to the PHP language.

    PHP is free software released under the Php License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL) due to restrictions on the usage of the term PHP It is a server sidescripting language like ASP which means PHP scripts are executed on the server. Php supports many databases such as (My SQL, IBM Informix, ORACLE, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC) and many other databases that are popular today.PHP is an open source software which means you can download and use it for free. It supports most of the popular operating systems today such as Windows Operating system, LINUX, MacOS, and UNIX Operating System.

    MySQL “My S-Q-L”, officially, but also commonly (“My Sequel”) is the world’s most used relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases, It is named Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 8 Computerized Student Organizations Election System after developer Michael Widenius’ daughter.TheSQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language.

    The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation. Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL. For commercial use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality.

    Applications which use MySQL databases include: TYPO3, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, Drupal and other software built on the LAMP software stack. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale World Wide Web products, including Wikipedia, Google (though not for searches), Facebookand Twitter. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 9 Computerized Student Organizations Election System The database that manages the data in computerized Student Organization Election system is the MySQL database Server. MySQL which is ideal for both small and large application.It supports Standard Query Language and compiles on a number of platforms. Just like PHP, MySQL is free to download and used.

    PHP combined with MySQL is a crossed platform. You can develop a system in Windows and served on a UNIX platform. Computerized Student Organization Election System is a LAN based system. The computers are connected via connection links such as UTP cables, switch and router.

    Local Area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or a home.A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to the Internet or otherWAN. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 10 Computerized Student Organizations Election System The vision is for a Computerized Voting System to replace the current paper-based voting system at Ifugao State University,Potia Campus, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao with the capability to provide fast, accurate, clean and secure election.Computerized voting system provides services such as computerized registration of voters, computerized registration of candidates, ability to secure data and accurate counting of votes. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 11 Computerized Student Organizations Election System CHAPTER III Technical Background Computerized Student Organizations Election System comprises a central computer having a control center, an output center and a database. A secure data transfer link connected to client computers.Candidates can file their candidacy and register their names on the Administration area/server which will be saved on the database.

    The names of the candidates will be sending to the client computers on the voting area. Client computers are where the voters choose their candidates but before they can vote they must have to register first, filling up the necessary information about their identity and input it to the server. Voters have to register first for security purposes to avoid voting more than once. All the information inputted to the client computers will be sent to the controlcenter/server and will be saved on the database.

    After registering they can now log-in to vote their desired candidates. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 12 Computerized Student Organizations Election System This computerized student organizations election system can be run on one computer as a server and 10clientscomputers that areconnected to the server with the use of cables such asUnshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), a Switch hub for the connections of the computers.

    The minimum required hardware of the computers to be used are PENTIUM 4 with at least 280 Mb free hard disk space and a 512 MB RAM.Computers with higher specification are required to get much better performance of the system. The required software in this system is a computer running any of the most popular operating system used today such as Windows OS, Linux, Mac OS, and UNIX Operating System. Phpis serves as the programming language to be used and MySQL is the database.

    Web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer 8, Google Chrome or Safarri is also required to run the application. The server will be the one to process all the information stored on the client’s computer.It counts the votes, shows the result andstores it on the database. The server has the capability to delete and edit informations that aresaved on the database.

    You can also reset all the votes on the server. After which, when all input votes are counted, results are now ready to be printed. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 13 Computerized Student Organizations Election System CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY Locale The Ifugao State University Potia Campus, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao was the former Potia Agricultural High School and Ifugao State College of Agricultural and Forestry.The School was created under R. A. No.

    4933 which was officially authorized to open during the school year 1971-1972 . It was converted into a state college by Batas Pambansa Blg. 189 in January 1983. In July 2009; Republic Act No.

    9720 converted the Ifugao State College of Agricultural and Forestry into Ifugao State University. The Campus is accessible to Santiago City in the southern side via Oscariz,Ramon, Isabela being only 24 kilometers away and San Mateo,Isabela in the northeastern side being only 22 kilometers away. It is only 9 kilometers away from Magat High Dam.It had an original land making it the biggest campus in land area among the IFSU campuses.

    The teaching staff and administrative staff are presently composed of ninety eight (98) competent people. Out of this number,fifty (50) are full time teachers, and forty eight (48) are full time supportive staff. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 14 Computerized Student Organizations Election System POPULATION OF THE STUDY The population of enrolled students in the Ifugao State University Potia, Campus, school year 2011 – 2012 second semester are reflected in table 1.1 COURSE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY / ASSOCIATE IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY BACHELOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE BACHELOR OF FORESTRY IN AGRICULTURE BACHELOR OF HOTEL AND RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT HOME TECHNOLOGY NUMBER OF STUDENTS 156 147 81 167 40 29 9 BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN HOME MANAGEMENT 39 MIDWIFERY BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY TOTAL POPULATION 38 170 876 Table 1. 1 Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 15 Computerized Student Organizations Election SystemAs reflected in table 1. 1 there are 156 students in Bachelor of Science in Information Technology / Associate in Computer Technology, 147 students in Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education, 81 students in Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education, 167 students in Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, 40 students in Bachelor of Science in Forestry, 29 students in Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management, 9 students in Home Technology, 39 students in Bachelor of Science in in Home Technology, 38 Midwifery students and 170 Criminology students.All in all, the total of students enrolled in IFUGAO STATE UNIVERSITY Potia Campus, Alfonso Lista, Ifugao for the second semester of school year 2011 – 2012 is 876. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 16 Computerized Student Organizations Election System University Student Supreme Government (USSG) Organizational Chart DSSD USSG Adviser USSG President V-President Treasurer Business Managers Secretary P. I. O Auditor Escort Muse Sentinels Figure 1.

    1 The corresponding organizations such as FVLP and SPORTS CLUB have the same organizational chart.The USSG Adviser and USSG President will be replacing to FVLP Adviser and FVLP President if it is FVLP organization as well as the SPORTS CLUB organization. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 17 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Fishbone Diagram People Process Student Equipment Register Teacher Computers Vote Switch Hub Count Votes UTP Cable Crimping Tool Fast counting of votes. Accurate counting of Votes. System Admin Graphical User Interface Ink Adviser Bond Paper Materials Environment Management Figure 1. 2The people involved in Computerized Student Organizations Election System are the students, teachers and the system administrator.

    For the system to run, equipments such as computers, UTP cable, crimping tool, and switch hub are needed. The system administrator will be the one to manage the graphical user interface (GUI) program. With use of the system, result of the student election will be declared and printed right after the election. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 18 Computerized Student Organizations Election System TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY ? Hardware CompatibilityThe system is compatible in a computer with a Pentium 4 processor, 280 Mb free hard disk space, 512 Mb of Random Access Memory and a CD ROM/DVD ROM. Higher specification of computer is recommended for better performance. ? Software Compatibility The system is a cross platform, it is compatible with windows, Linux and other operating system as long as a web browser such as Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safarri and Internet Explorer is installed.

    Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 19 Computerized Student Organizations Election System ? Relevance of the TechnologiesThe relevance of the technologies used in the system such as the PHP is that it has several frameworks which are to be used in different situations and as per the requirement of the project. These frameworks are highly useful in creating the structural design of the project and rapid application development.

    Moreover, the PHP application could be integrated with any database especially with MySQL. The PHP MySQL combination allows easy and smooth database amalgamation. MySQL is the world’s most used relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.PHP with MySQL combination are cross platform which means your application can run in different operating systems most widely used today such as Windows, LINUX, UNIX and Mac OS.

    Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 20 Computerized Student Organizations Election System SCHEDULE FEASIBILITY GANTT CHART OF THESIS Computerized Student Organization Election System Project 2011 – 2012 NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH Gathering Information Documentation Requirement Analysis Architectural Design Coding Debugging System testing Implementation Support and Maintenance Figure 1. 3 Department of Computer ScienceBSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 21 Computerized Student Organizations Election System We gathered all the informations about the system from November 2011 until the third week of March 2012. We searched the internet for necessary information and some werefrom the students and concerned individuals of IFSU, Alfonso Lista Campus. We started planning with the group on what are we were going to do to finish the project and the things to be needed to finish the project.

    We analyzed the system and determined both the hardware and software requirements for the system on the second week of December 2011 until the last week of February 2012.We planned to design the project from the third week of December until the third week of February. We started the coding from the first week of January and we tried to finish it on the first week of March. The last two months will be the implementation and maintenance of the system.

    ? ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 22 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Existing Operational Cost Supply Quantity 20 yards 15 boxes 7,205 15pcs. 10boxes Ink refill for pentel pen Staple wire Total 125 3,450 45 reams Manila PaperBallpoint Pen,Fine black, Pilot Bond Paper 8.

    5×11 Total 150 257 11,187. 00 Table 1. 2 Developmental Cost Current Printing 2,000 450 P2,450. 00 Proposed Operational Cost RJ 45(6pcs) 50 4 computer units 44,000 1 Printer 2,000 Switch (16 ports) 6,000 40mtrs.

    UTP cable 450 P52,500. 00 Savings = POC – EOC = 52,500 – 11,187 =P 41, 313. 00 Year Savings 1 41,313 Payback Period (1+1)n 1x. 1+1=1.

    1 Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 PV 45,444. 3 CPV 45,444.

    3 Remarks / 23 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Table 1. 3 Developmental Cost – CPV of mark + no.of x mark PV of check mark = 2450 / 45444. 3 = 0.

    05391 Net Present Value = CPV of 1st Year – Developmental Cost = 45,444. 3 – 2,450 = 42,994. 3 Return of Investment = NPV x 100% DC = 47,894. 3 x 100% 2,450 = 19.

    55 x 100% = 1. 955% ? Requirements Modeling Input Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 Process Output 24 Computerized Student Organizations Election System 1.

    Save voter information to 1. Registration of Nominees. the database. 2.

    Save nominee information to 2. Registration of Voters. the database. 1.

    Show results. 2. Print result 3. Vote desiredcandidate.

    4. Count votes. Figure 1. 4 The System Administrator will register first all the nominees and voters .

    All the information will be saved on the database. After all voters and nominees are registered, voters can now log-in to their account and vote for their desired nominees. Their votes will be automatically count and after all voters finished voting, the administrator can view and print the result. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 25 Computerized Student Organizations Election System ? Data Flow Diagram Student Progress Report Apply tothe DSSD Application Denial of Application Acceptance Approval Register to the Student Information System Administrator System Database Student Print Result Count Votes Figure 1. 5 Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 26 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Data Flow Diagram The Nominee will file his/her candidacy to the DSSD. The DSSD will then check if the student nominee is qualified or disqualified for the position. If the student is qualified, the information about the nominee will be forwarded to the system administrator for registration.The system administrator will also register all the voters and all the information will be saved on the database.

    During the election, the voters will vote their preferred nominee. The result of the election will automatically be saved on the database and it will appear immediately just after the election is finished. The system administrator can print the result for the declaration of winners. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 27 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Flow Chart of the Existing System ? Nominee Registration Start Nominee Get application formFill-up application Submit to the DSSD Nominee registered End Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 28 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Figure 1.

    6 Nominee Flow Chart of the Existing System The Nominee will get an application form from the DSSD, he/she will fill up the application form and submit it to the DSSD. The DSSD will now approve the application form submitted by the nominee. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 29 Computerized Student Organizations Election System ? Voter’s Registration Start Fill-up the attendance sheet Vote Cast VoteEnd Figure 1. 7 Client Flow Chart of the Existing System The voter will first fall in line for him to fill-up the attendance sheet. After that he/she will get a ballot and vote fot his/her desired candidate and after voting he/she will submit and put the ballot on the ballot box. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 30 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Flow Chart of the Proposed System ? Client Flow Chart Figure 1. 8 Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 31 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Client Flow Chart of the Proposed SystemThe voter will log-in to his account, the system will now checked if the password is correct, if no it will be redirected to the log-in page and if the password is accepted, the page will be redirected to the voting area. In the voting area the voter has the option to change his password or if not, then he will proceed voting. The voter will select the organization where he wants to vote and choose his desired nominees. After voting, the information will be saved and the voter will now have the option to log-out his account.

    Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 32Computerized Student Organizations Election System ? Admin Flow Chart Start Admin Log in No Accept Password A Yes Home Setting E Change Password Yes Save No No All Users H Yes Yes A A No Nominee Details D No Add User Yes Input User User inserted Yes Save No B Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 No A 33 Computerized Student Organizations Election System A B Vote Results Select Buttons Yes Yes Print Result Yes Votes result B No No Reset votes No Yes No A Select buttons Yes Reset votes? Yes Votes has been reset No No C C B Log out Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 34Computerized Student Organizations Election System Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 35 Computerized Student Organizations Election System D Select department Select Position Yes Yes Yes Add Nominee Nominee Added No Update Yes Nominee Updated Yes No Data Updated Delete No Yes Are you sure you want Delete? Yes No No No Nominee Delete H Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 36 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 37 Computerized Student Organizations Election System F Yes Delete Select Yes Delete User NoEdit Selected Delete No Yes Edit User Yes Update User No Yes No Save No G Delete Select Yes Yes Delete User No Edit Selected Delete No Yes Edit User Yes Update User No Yes No Save No E Figure 1. 9 Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 38 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Administrator Flow Chart of the Proposed System The system administrator will log-in as administrator, the system will check the password is accepted.

    If password is not accepted, the page will be redirected to the log-in page and if the password is accepted, the page will be redirected to the administrator area.On the administrator area, the administrator has the options to change his password, view all users, view nominee details, add user, view the result of the election and reset all the votes in different organizations. At the all users page, the administrator can view all the users such as the administrator, nominees and voters. On this page, the administator has the option to select and delete a user that is being registered on the system.

    The Nominee Details page is the page where the administrator views the nominee details and he has the options to select, update and delete nominees that is being registered or save on the database.The Add User page is where the administrator registers all the voters and all the information will be saved on the database. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y.

    2011-2012 39 Computerized Student Organizations Election System The result of the election will appear immediately just after the election and the result can be viewed by the administrator at the Vote Result page. He will now then have the option to print the result for declaration of the newly elected officers. The Reset Votes page is where the administrator reset the votes in different organization.If the administrator did reset the votes, all the information will be saved on the database.

    Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 40 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Design ? Output and User-Interface Design Figure 1. 10 Log-in Screen The log-in screen is where the administrator enters the username and password to access the admin area.

    It is also the log-in page of the voter wherein he/she is required to enter his/her id number and password for him/her to vote. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 41Computerized Student Organizations Election System Figure 2.

    1 Home Page This is the first screen when you access the administrator area. Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 42 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Figure 2.

    2 All Users Area Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 43 Computerized Student Organizations Election System The all users area is where you can view all the voters and their department and you have the options to delete and edit the selected user when you are the system administrator. Figure 2.

    3Nominee Details Area Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 44 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Nominee details area is where you can add nominees. Figure 2.

    4 Department of Computer Science BSIT S. Y. 2011-2012 45 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Add User Area Add user area is where the administrator register voters. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 46 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Figure 2. 5 Vote Result Area It is where the administrator views the result of the election and prints theresult. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 47 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Figure 2. 6 Reset Votes Area The administrator can reset the votes in different student organizations in the reset vote area. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 48 Computerized Student Organizations Election System Network Model Star Topology Figure 2. 7 In the local area network with a star topology, each network host is connected to a central hub with a point-to-point connection.The network does not necessarily have to resemble a star to be classified as a star network, but all of the nodes on the network must be connected to one central device.

    All traffic that traverses the network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a repeater. The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement. Department of Computer Science BSIT S.

    Y. 2011-2012 49 Computerized Student Organizations Election System An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes. The primary disadvantage of the star topology is that the hub represents a single point of failure. Security I

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