The speaker rebuts the arguments in the reading material by pointing out the connection between jogging and heart disease, the benefits for joggers’ joints and its effect on staying health.
First of all, the speaker claims that heart disease is not directly triggered by jogging; however, the reading states that jogging can lead to heart disease. According to the lecture, most joggers suffering heart attacks are those who had some trouble with their hearts before, or those who seldom exercise so that their hearts couldn’t stand the stress caused by a sudden movement. Therefore they should consult a doctor before jogging.
Furthermore, as for the joint injury caused by jogging, the speaker does not challenge the statement in the reading paragraphs straightly. Instead, he argues jogging can strengthen the muscles at the body joints despite certain minor strain, and in the long term, the joints can benefit a lot from jogging.
Finally, the speaker raises the issue that jogging is quite effective in keeping fit. This point disagrees that jogging is not the best exercise to loss weight and walking can consume the same calories as an alternative demonstrated in the reading. In fact, the speaker holds the view that jogging can burn more energy than walking in the same time; and due the busy modern life, people hardly have time to do some exercise so jogging would be a more effective way for them to keep fit. In one word, the more people keep jogging, the fitter and healthier they are.
Nazca Lines in Peru
The lecture apparently refutes the points illustrated in the reading material. According to the professor, Nazca Lines in Peru don’t relate to astronomy, art and racing, whereas all three of them are the assumptions about the Lines in the passage.
The first point the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that most of the stars in the sky do not match Nazca Lines because there are too many stars to avoid the coincidence,.