Demonstration and Laboratory Method of Teaching in Nursing
The demonstration method teaches by exhibition and explanation. Although it is sometimes used to refer all illustrative teaching, the term demonstration usually is taken to mean explanation of a process, as opposed to exemplification of the object itself. One of the advantage of demonstration is that it trains the student in the art of careful observation, a quality which is so essential to a good nurse. The demonstration method in itself is learning through observation; it uses several senses. A second advantage of demonstration is its concrete quality.
The student not only can hear the explanation, but also can see the procedure or process. As a result, the demonstration method projects a mental image in the students mind, which fortifies verbal knowledge. The demonstration method has universal appeal, because it is understandable to all and also adaptable to both individual and group teaching. MEANING Demonstration as a teaching strategy refers to the visual presentation of the action and activities or practical work related to the facts and principles of a delivered lesson by the teacher in the classroom, aiming to facilitate the task of teaching and learning.
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A teacher while using this strategy, demonstrates in a practical form, the objects, instruments, phenomenon, action and events related to the teaching of the lesson. DEFINITION “Demonstration can be defined as visualized explanation of facts, concepts and procedures”. (Basavanthappa B. ,T. ). The purposes of demonstration: a) Those designed to show the learners ‘how’ to perform certain psychomotor skill. Here the learner must reproduce exactly the behavior of demonstration. b) Those designed to show the learner ‘why’ certain things occur.
Here the behavior is intended only as a strategy to aid the learner’s understanding of a concept of principle. Uses of the Demonstration Method * To demonstrate experiments and the use of experimental equipment in the science laboratory. * To demonstrate procedures in the classroom and the ward. To review or revise procedures to meet special situation or to introduce a new procedure. * To teach the patient a procedure or treatment which he must carry out in home. * To demonstrate a procedure at the bed side or in the ward conference room.
Demonstration of a procedure in its natural setting has more meaning than when carried out in an artificial environment, such as the classroom. * To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport with patients, so that most efficient nurse patient relationship may be established. Advantages of demonstration method * It activates several senses. This increases learning, because the more senses used the better the opportunity for the learning. * It provides an opportunity for observational learning. * It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the ‘why’ of a procedure. It commands interest by use of concrete illustrations. * It correlates theory with practice. The demonstration method, as used in the teaching of nursing procedures, has several added advantages. These have particular reference to student demonstration of procedure already learned. * It gives the teacher an opportunity to evaluate the student’s knowledge of a procedure, and determine whether re-teaching is necessary. * It points out that the student must have the knowledge and must be able to apply it immediately. This, of course serves as a strong motivational force. Return demonstration under the supervision of the teacher provides an opportunity for well directed practice before the student must use the procedure in ward. PHASES OF DEMONSTRATION Planning and preparation * Formulate the behavioral objectives. * Perform a skill analysis and determine the sequence. * Assess the entry behaviors of learners and determine prerequisites. * Formulate the lesson plan, with particular reference to : a. Ensuring optimum visibility. b. Preparing for all materials. * Review the knowledge. * Understand the entire procedure. * Have the equipment ready in an orderly manner. * Outline the steps. Rehearse the demonstration. * Arrange for proper lighting. * Make proper seating or standing arrangements. Performance phase * State the objectives to the learner. * Motivate them by explaining why the skill is important. * Demonstrate the total skill at normal speed. * Write the sequence of steps on the chalk board or give a checklist for steps of the demonstration. * Demonstrate each part skill slowly, in the correct sequence. * Avoid the use of negative examples and variations in technique. Evaluation * Obtain feedback by questioning and observation of non verbal behavior. * Clarify doubts. * Provide opportunity for return demonstration. Provide verbal rather than physical guidance. * Make the environment psychologically safe by providing a friendly atmosphere and constructive criticism. * Remember that learners will acquire the skill at different rates, so individualize the planning to cater for the fast and slow learners. * Replace all the articles. ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD DEMONSTRATION Every step of a well conducted demonstration should be understandable and exemplary of the best possible procedure which might be used under the circumstances. It should allow for reflective and critical thought as the demonstration proceeds.
The following principles are applicable to all demonstrations performed by the teacher and the student. 1. The demonstrator should understand the entire procedure before attempting to perform for others. This sometimes necessitates review before performance. 2. All the equipments should be assembled and pretested before the demonstration takes place. This saves time and ensures that the apparatus will be in good working condition. 3. Advance knowledge : The group as well as the demonstrator should have advanced knowledge of the general procedures to be followed in demonstration. , its relation to the unit and its purpose.
Otherwise students’ attention will not be focused on the procedure; they will be distracted by the questions relating to the performance. To negate any possibility of such distraction, the student should receive specific instruction about everything, from the apparatus to the demonstrator and the method she will use. 4. A positive approach should be used. Emphasis should be placed on what to do, rather than what not to. 5. Everybody should have a good view of the demonstration. This necessitates that the group be fairly small in size so that everyone can be seated. 6. Running comments.
The person in charge of the demonstration should accompany it with running comments relative to materials used, amounts necessary, processes taking place, and anticipated results. However the commentary should be limited to essential facts. If an actual patient is used in the demonstration, explanations and comments must be regulated accordingly. 7. The setting for the demonstration should be as true to life as possible. Demonstration of a nursing procedure should be done on a live model wherever possible. If a patient is used, he would be told the purpose of the demonstration and shown every other possible courtesy.
No patient should be used without his consent. 8. A discussion period should always follow the demonstration. This affords an opportunity for reemphasis, questioning, recall, evaluation and summary while the procedure is still fresh. Directions should be distributed before demonstrating a nursing procedure. This saves continuous dictation on the part of the teacher and writing on the part of the student. 9. Prompt practice. If the purpose of a demonstration is to teach for a skill, the student should be given an opportunity to practice the procedure as soon as possible after the demonstration. The students vary in their ability to learn.
The sooner the practice takes place after demonstration, the better the learning. TECHNIQUE FOR THE DEMONSTRATION Teacher responsibilities a. Time demonstration in accordance with students background of knowledge and readiness for practice of new knowledge. b. Arrange for demonstration to be as much like actual situation as possible. c. Select patient or other person as model requiring nursing activity to be demonstrated; explain purpose of demonstration and obtain necessary legal clearance prior to demonstration. d. Obtain necessary equipment, duplicating that being used and include variations in other available types. e.
Study directions and practice demonstration exactly as it would be performed before observers. f. Provide students with advance information regarding activity to be demonstrated. g. Arrange physical setting for demonstration so that all observers are comfortably located to hear and see; repeated demonstrations may be needed to accommodate a large group. h. Explain purpose of activity, results desired, equipment to be used. i. Proceed with each step of activity in logical sequence but pace so that motions can be clearly identified and interpreted. j. Coordinate each step with running comments, explaining exactly what is being done. Make clear, definite, complete sentence. * Introduce statements with verb. * Use only positive terms describing only that what is to be done. * State pertinent scientific principles underlying steps of activity. h. Show how various aspects of activity could be modified to meet immediately needs of the patient. i. Provide discussion period immediately after demonstration; repeat portions needing clarification. j. Provide opportunities for prompt, supervised practice periods in accord with objectives of demonstration and needs of individual students. k.
Evaluate individual student progress in accord with expected levels of ability in development of desired skill. l. Plan follow up experience needed to assist students in learning activity and applying it to other situations. STUDENTS RESPONSIBILITIES a. Familiarize self with objectives for demonstration. b. Study written materials and suggested references. c. Observe patients and equipment in use as examples for planned demonstration. d. Follow steps being demonstrated along with written information. e. Contribute to follow up discussion by the following. 1. Identify basic principles underlying the activity. 2.
Identify how activity can be modified to meet individual needs of the patient. 3. Ask for clarification of points not understood. f. Translate observation of demonstration into return demonstration. g. Seek opportunities for practice activity until needed skill is reached. h. Evaluate self, regarding growth and areas of help needed to perfect the skill. i. Seek opportunities to build on newly gained knowledge and skill in making application to other areas. j. Demonstrate learned activity to others needing assistance. k. Request for demonstration of unfamiliar procedure or equipments. DEMONSTRATION OF SKILL BY A TEACHER
OBSERVATION OF SKILL BY STUDENTS PRACTICE OF SKILL BY STUDENTS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF TAECHER TECHNIQUE OF DEMONSTRATION TYPES OF DEMONSTRATION INDIVIDUAL DEMONSTRATION One person practices the skill in a given situation. Eg. Practicing open bed making. GROUP DEMONSTRATION Two or more person practice the skill in a given situation. Eg. Lifting and transporting the client. LIVE DEMONSTRATION Practice the skill in a real situation. Eg. Checking the temperature of a patient. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION It is a combination of lecture and demonstration. This method is used extensively in teaching sciences and nursing subjects.
Because of its economy of time and material, it is often used to replace individual laboratory work. Kinney’s study of lecture demonstration as compared to individual laboratory method revealed that students using the former method gained more basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology than the students who used latter method. TELEVISION LECTURE METHOD The demonstration method using tv to show the use of an equipment. Eg. Endoscope procedure. RETURN DEMONSTRATION The learner first observes the teacher and then practices the skill in a real situation. Eg. Starting an iv fluid. DISADVANTAGES OF DEMONSTRATION * Number of students is limited. Keeps the students in a passive situation * Offers little possibility of checking the learning process. * Do not allow for individual paces of learning. * High cost in personnel and time. * Difficulty in repeating demonstration in order to acquire competence. LABORATORY METHOD INTRODUCTION The term laboratory method has received various definitions, interpretations and applications in many field of education. According to Webster, the word laboratory was originally applied to workroom of the chemist, a place devoted to the experimental study of natural sciences, to testing, analyzing and preparing various chemical materials. t therefore first came to have wide use in the teaching of physical science and in experimentation to prove and discover new facts. DEFINITION Laboratory Method utilizes raw data or material things to produce better understanding of the subject matter or lesson. Laboratory method is considered as planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of problems. It is a procedure involving firsthand experience: 1, with primary source materials or facts derives investigation or experimentation in the solution of a problem, answering a question. 2,through which the student can acquire psychomotor skill. PROPERTIES
It uses the principle of learning by doing, Using reality instead of symbols. – Reality has more vividness Investigatory or experimental. OBJECTIVES : 1. Make use of the power of observation and reasoning. 2. Manipulate learning equipments . 3. Make use of reality to make learning easier and more permanent . 4. Make use of the scientific attitudes. 5. Use the laboratory method or procedure. 6. Develop the habit of reasoning. 7. Have a clear understanding of science concepts. 8. Develop the habit of doing systematic work. PURPOSES OF LABORATORY METHOD 1. To provide firsthand experience with materials or facts with solution to problems. . To provide experience with actual situation such as nursing labs and the hospital wards. 3. To make the students skillful in the manipulation of apparatus, practicing lab technique. 4. It helps students to acquire scientific attitude and scientific approach in problem solving. 5. To learn the method of procedure. 6. Helps to translate theory to practical. PRINCIPLES INVOLVED 1. Development of skill through self activity. 2. Correlation of theory and practice. 3. Provision of a situation as real as possible. 4. Mastery of simple machines of nursing practice. 5. Provision of an opportunity to evaluate the students performance.
TECHNIQUE OF THE LABORATORY METHOD STEPS; 1. THE INTRODUCTORY PHASE 2. WORK PERIOD 3. EVALUATION INTRODUCTORY PHASE The introductory phase involves the establishment of objectives and a plan of work. TEACHER PREPARATION * Calls for the selection of purpose and objectives for the laboratory method , to solve a problem, to understand a process, to develop a skill, etc. * The selection of general plan of work and to provide correlation of the laboratory aspect of the course with the class work. * Teacher advance preparation is necessary to ensure that the proper materials and equipment will be available for the laboratory work. The teacher can give whatever instructions may be necessary for the student to proceed without wasting of time. * Teacher preparation consists of thinking over what the students will be doing i. e. , the verbal preliminary instructions that they will require, the difficulties they are likely to encounter and some of the questions by which the quality of their work can be appraised and their learning experience improved. STUDENT PREPARATION * Orientation and motivation achieved through proper instructions and guidance. When the instructions are short , they may be given verbally, but when long procedures are involved or complex equipment must be handled, instructions should be in writing. * The teacher who stands at the students elbow and prompts at every step, achieves the same effect. * Laboratory procedures should be prepared in a manual, state the problem to be solved or procedure should be followed, fill in the necessary background and a general mode of procedure and leaves it to student to formulate a precise plan of investigation, setting up the plan and reaching at her own conclusions.
THE WORK PERIOD It is that period during which individual student or groups of students do their particular work under the supervision of the teacher. The laboratory method presumes skill on the part of the teacher, emphasis will be more on the organization and the exposition of knowledge. The emphasis is on the ability to guide a student creatively in the accomplishment of tasks, without depriving her of the chance to do her own work, and without allowing her to commit mistakes.
Teacher should have the right proportion of reserve and readiness in advancing suggestions when necessary, she must be able to gauge the student’s abilities, to know at what point to offer help and when to withhold it. The length of the laboratory period determined by the nature of the problem and the objectives. The activities should be adapted to the type of work to be done. Students may work individually or in small teams within a large group. Adequate records should be kept so that student progress can be checked and waste of time prevented. Provisions should be made for individual differences.
For students who will complete their tasks more quickly than others , can be given additional assignments that will help them to deepen their knowledge or they may be released to work on some related learning areas in which they are especially interested. EVALUATION PHASE When the laboratory work has been completed, the class should meet together for discussion of common problems, for the organization of findings, for the presentation of results of individual or group problem solving activity. A wide variety of activities can be utilized in this phase. 1. Review of the plan for solving the problems. . Reports by the students on gathered data or other findings. 3. Presentation of illustration materials or special contributions by students working on special problems. 4. Organization of findings and summarization and conclusions by the group. The findings and conclusions may be exhibited and scored or rated by the members of the class or by competent judges outside the class. 5. Exhibits of various projects may be set up and explained by their student sponsors. 6. Tests or examinations may be used as means of measuring achievement relative to certain outcomes. ADVANTAGES OF LABORATORY METHOD . It gives students real opportunities to discover things for themselves. 2. Enables students to carry out the steps in problem solving. 3. Helps students to develop skills in making accurate observation and arriving at their own conclusions. 4. Reinforces knowledge and attitudes while allowing students to practice the psychomotor skills. 5. Provides a real worldview of nursing. 6. Most supportive of the concept that faculty members are catalysts in the learning activity. DISADVANTAGES 1. It is time consuming. 2. It needs constant supervision. 3. Needs manpower and material. . Need adequate physical set up and facilities. 5. Difficult to control the variables that influence learning. 6. Most costly learning activity. SOME GUIDES TO EFFECTIVE USE OF THE LABORATORY PROCEDURE IN THE CLINICAL SETTING 1. Every human being is a person who has the right to be respected because of his personal worth and dignity as a human being. Therefore the teacher should show respect for the student, patient, the doctor and other persons encountered in the clinical setting. 2. Every nursing student is an individual, she has her own needs , interests and abilities.
The teacher should consider individual differences when planning and supervising nursing students. 3. Every student should be helped to establish realistic and worthwhile goals for both her class work and her clinical learning experience. 4. The teacher should assess and help the student to assess and help the student to assess her knowledge in relation to the particular setting, supplement and reinforce it through the student’s own efforts in reading and study. 5. Selection of learning experience should be in relation to the knowledge and skill of each student and flow along a continuum from the simple to complex. 6.
The teacher should adopt her instruction and supervision to the capacities and needs of each student. 7. The teacher should familiarize the student with the situation and to reassure her in functioning in it. 8. Every nursing student regardless of her educational level is at times stressed, anxious and insecure; the teacher should relate to each student as a friend and be there to help and guide. 9. Every student desires to grow personally and professionally during her clinical education, the teacher, through discussion and conferences should show interest in each student and in her progress towards and achievement of attaining her goals. 0. The teacher should encourage each student to act independently when warranted but should be available when the student needs her. Clinical experience must be well planned and well supervised. THE LABORATORY IN NURSING EDUCATION The laboratory method is used in any course in the nursing curriculum; it may be used 1. In the classroom, in courses which employ problem solving activities, in which students gather firsthand information from outside the classroom, for eg. A community nursing project. 2. In a laboratory , such as science, nutrition or nursing, and 3.
In the clinical setting, such as the hospital and the community based setting. Professional nursing practice requires not only relevant knowledge and understanding, but also the ability to apply knowledge in nursing actions. Nursing skills can be learned through firsthand experience in the clinical laboratory under supervision, therefore laboratory method is one of the most important method in nursing curriculum. RATIONALE FOR CLINICAL LEARNING EXPERIENCE One obtains knowledge by observation, study thought and by experience.
To learn professional nursing, the student must have the opportunities to gain knowledge through study and experience, to apply knowledge in the life setting and to acquire the attitudes, appreciation, ideals and skills needed to practice the art of nursing. The nursing curriculum provides through 1. Class work , theoretical 2. Clinical learning experience. Class work and clinical teaching experience are planned as an integral part of the course. TEACHER PREPARATION Objectives should be behaviorally defined so that the proper learning experiences can be identified and evaluated. SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE
To select the right learning experience to meet the clinical objectives and learning needs of each student, the instructor must: 1. Have a mastery of nursing knowledge in the area she is teaching 2. Know the patients, their state of health, nursing needs, so that she can select those patients which will meet the learning needs of each student. 3. Have rapport with nursing service personnel, for selection of learning experience and to have guidance. Clinical case assignments are made: 1. To provide the student with opportunity to learn to collect information about her patient. . To assess this information 3. To determine the patients nursing needs. 4. To make nursing care plan. 5. To implement, evaluate and modify the plan as needed. 6. To learn the importance and the techniques of establishing effective nurse patient relationship, relationship with other personnel and with patient’s family. 7. To establish continuity of patient care. STUDENT PREPARATION Preparation of the student for the working phase of the laboratory experience is concered. Attaining the background knowledge which she will bring to the clinical situation. 1.
The general foundational knowledge like humanities, natural science, nutrition, sociology etc. 2. Nursing knowledge gained in the class room, theoretical aspect of nursing correlated with nursing procedures learned in the laboratory. Actual preparation for the clinical assignments themselves, which will help each student to set objectives and high standards of practice for herself so that she will have the means of judging her own performance and determine how well she is doing. THE WORKING PERIOD The working phase is the teacher supervised learner work period in the lab.
TEACHER GUIDANCE The teacher needs special skills for the implementation of working phase. The teacher should respect each student as a person with own inherent dignity and rights, she should relate to her student as a friend in that she is there to help and guide the learner. Teacher will support her students, reassure them whenever necessary. The students will learn best when given responsibility as well as opportunity to practice nursing actions. EVALUATION Evaluation in clinical setting is done in two phases. 1. Daily evaluation of the student as she progress in a course 2.
Secondly, done by culminating activity. it is the evaluation at the end of the course and is made to determine whether the student has acquired the knowledge , skill , the attitudes and appreciations necessary for her to be promoted in the next course. 3. Behavioral definitions can be made for setting up specific criteria for areas of expected competence and for rating the level of competence of each course. 4. Conferences should be made with each student frequently in which student should be encouraged to evaluate herself and her performance. 5.
A final record which summarizes the typical behavior of the student, substantiated with anecdotes, should be prepared and placed in her permanent file. THE ROLE OF DEMONSTRATION IN LEARNING NURSING PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS—JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN NURSING ABSTRACT The learning of nursing psychomotor skills has traditionally been associated with lecturer demonstrations. In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on the development of independent learning within nurse education, and this study aims to investigate the potential for self-learning of psychomotor skills in nursing.
Students were sampled from a number of different nurse education facilities in Northern Ireland, and a true experiment was carried out. Results indicate that students can learn a psychomotor skill both with and without a demonstration. Students who received a demonstration appeared to pay more attention to the principles of asepsis and communication; however these students were also more likely to pick up bad habits from the lecturer. This study adds to the existing research base for the learning and teaching of psychomotor skills in nursing.
COCLUSION Demonstration and laboratory method are two teaching methods used in nursing education, both having their own merits and demerits. REFERENCES 1. Heidgerken. L. , E. ,(2008). Teaching and learning methods; Lecture, demonstration and laboratory teaching and learning in Schools of nursing, principles and methods (3rd ed. ,pp-427-447). Konark: Delhi. 2. Neeraja. K. , P. (2008). Teaching method; Text book of Nursing education(1st ed. ,pp-252-261). Jaypee: Noida. 3. Malarvizhi, S. , Santhi, S. ,A. 2012). Methods of teaching; Text book of communication and education technology(1st ed. ,pp186-245). Emmees: Bangalore. 4. Clement, I. (2012). Methods of teaching; Text book on communication and education technology(1st ed. ,pp196-242). Emmees: Bangalore. 5. Basavanthappa. B. , T. (2009). Teaching learning methods; Nursing education(2nd ed. pp467-486). Jaypee: Delhi. 6. Sankaranarayan, B. , Sindhu, B. (2009). Teaching learning methods;Learning and teaching nursing (3rd ed. ,pp141-144). Brainfill: Calicut.