Job includes the concept of occupation which is defined as the principal activity in one’s life the purpose of which is to earn money. It is a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty for a specific fee. It is used interchangeably with the term employment which means a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee where the employer conceives of a productive activity, generally with the intention of creating profits, and the employee contributes labor to the enterprise, usually in return for payment of wages.
The term also involves employment in a government entity which mostly requires a college degree or a professional license. Other form of job is also seen in professional firms which require professional license as a condition antecedent to the employment therein. Job does not only include engaging in office works (where such is usually tagged) but also engaging in physical activity, labor and industry pursued with the purpose of earning wages. Simply stated, employment (or work) is any form of human activity pursued for the purpose of earning a living.
With the complexity of the society and the varying needs of every firm, working qualifications have inadvertently changed over time. This is due to the changes in the form of communications and processes which usually involve the changes in information technology. These changes have necessitated the need to upgrade the requirements for one to be admitted as an employee of a firm which usually involve sufficient knowledge in information technology. Hence there is the necessity of sufficient training and education (i. e. training and education in information technology).
The former is just an example however of the varying classifications or requirements by firms which include but are not limited to proficiency in English, pleasing personality, eagerness to work overtime and grace over pressure. For purposes of this article, we shall attempt to classify the kind of work that each individual may engage in relation to his educational background and the entities which may provide them. Student employment programs for High School and College Students Government entities usually provide for student employment programs which aid students in pursuing their studies while supporting themselves.
Students are paid an hourly rate based on their educational level and experience. This employment would usually involve research works and advocacy. A higher rate may be paid to students who possess some relevant previous work experience or where there is a shortage of students in the field of study required where students may be required to work for extra hours or when a university degree or year of study is required as a pre-requisite for another program which include but are not limited to bachelor of law, education, medicine, pharmacy or other sciences.
A student who has completed a university degree, and continues his/her studies at a college in a related field of study may also be paid higher rates. Examples of the programs which the government may provide are the legal aid programs in law schools and universities (state-owned) as well as the medical aid programs in state-owned medical schools. This is to ensure that students are equipped with the proper skills required in their fields while helping them upkeep with the financial demands of their studies.
Student employment however, is not limited to government provided student employment programs, it also includes employment in private enterprises which take into account the status of studentry as a consideration to such employment. Among these are employment in restaurants and fast food chains which allow flexible time to enable students to keep abreast with their studies while providing them the earning power. This does not include however, a requirement of completion of high school or college degree, for so long as the character requirements (i. e. illingness to work overtime, good public relations) as well as the health requirements including the physical requirements (i. e. with a height of not less than 5’2) are met. Hence many students can avail of the latter kind of employment. Work requiring technical and vocational skills Usually a two-year course in vocation is required to perform mechanical and technical work such as automotive repair, dress making, food service, custom cleaning, clerical, bookkeeping, building maintenance, grounds maintenance, machine operation, lighting assembly, and packaging.
These works are usually on a contractual basis, thus employees may not have the security of work. For most who have obtained a vocational degree, self-employment may be a better option. The Bachelor’s Degree in the Labor Market The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (the Bureau) reported that people 25 and older with college degrees increased by 20 million between 1992 and 2004. An estimated 40% of today’s college students are 25 years old or more which means that people are returning to or staying in school.
According to a recent study, employers seek for people with advanced degree which include a Master’s or Doctor’s degree. In fact according to such study, the most in-demand graduate degrees will be the Masters in Business Administration and advanced degrees in Electrical Engineering, Accounting, Computer Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. This does not mean however that a bachelor’s degree has little value in today’s employment market.
Some career fields have always required master’s degrees or higher such as physicians, lawyers, university professors while other professions particularly blue collar jobs have not. However, this does not prevent a requirement of a higher degree if one wants to move into the management ladder of the blue-collar job. The Bureau further said that of the 10 fastest-growing occupations, half of the demand required computer skills. In the field of health care, three among the top-ten rising occupations call for master’s degrees.
The other three are network systems or data analyst. Computerization and offshore job sourcing of what once were mid-range professions have further narrowed down the field to computer literate business administration graduates. This may in one way or another lead to the trend of adults coming back to school to earn higher degrees or at least finish their bachelor’s degree. Advanced Degrees May Mean Higher Earnings The Bureau has reported data affirming that earnings rise with the level of degree attainment and consequently, unemployment falls.
The bureau’s data in 2000 showed that accountants, computer programmers, financial managers, computer managers, post-secondary teachers, sales representatives, sales supervisors, secondary school teachers with master’s degree are paid relatively higher than those with only bachelor’s degree (and in some, high school degree). It also shows that the unemployment for persons 25 year and older are 3. 5% for those who have finished high school only, 1. 8% for those who have finished a bachelor’s degree, 1. 6% for those who have master’s degree, . 9% for professional degree and doctoral degree.
This only shows that as the degree earned gets higher, unemployment rate also gets lower. Advanced Degrees as an Element of Employment Insurance Based on the foregoing, it can be inferred that advanced degrees may offer an element of employment insurance, as more workers holding master’s degrees held their jobs through layoffs compared to those holding bachelor’s or high school diplomas. As can also be seen, unemployment among workers with high school diploma was three times higher than unemployment among those with professional or doctoral degrees a while twice that of workers holding bachelor’s or master’s degrees.
The Increasing Complexity in Jobs Require Greater Skills Jobs are increasing in complexity. This truth requires progressively greater skills across information technology, management, and financial analyses. Job descriptions thus now call for an employee who can perform almost every task competitively with minimal supervision. An example would be an accounting graduate who requires a license for him to be able to attest on financial data and climb up to the ladder of shall we say, Chief Executive Officer. An engineer may earn a Master’s degree in wanting to become the head of a team producing the latest software.
All of these mean that as the corporate ladder goes up, much is required for the person to climb therein. To stay in an Era of Down-Sizing and Cost Cutting, One must have a Significant Educational Background The increasing demand for higher profits leads many companies to down-size as mode of cutting costs. This means that many employees are replaced with machines to perform the supposedly manual work. Since those who are in the manual work are usually employed in a contractual basis, the tendency of lay-off is very high as the company may lay-off those whose contracts are no longer needed.
Since most of those being employed on a contractual basis doing the manual work are those who did not finish even a bachelor’s degree, logic would dictate that persons with minimal education such as high school diploma holders and some college degree earners are the subject to lay-off. This would inevitably support the conclusion that those who have higher degrees, while not only earning more, are secured more. Economic Considerations May Be Vital but What Maybe Important is the Sense of Fulfillment Derived From the Nature of Work
Though inevitable for human survival is the economic value of an undertaking, still of primary consideration is the satisfaction that is derived from such undertaking. Many may be employed in a contractual capacity, doing the manual work such as automotive repairing, dress making, food service, custom cleaning, clerical, bookkeeping, building maintenance, grounds maintenance, machine operation, lighting assembly, and packaging, however such may be a source of fulfillment though not financially rewarding.
This explains while others, knowing the increasing demands for educational attainment and training opt not to go back to school and instead continue with pursuing their own undertaking. A person may be satisfied being just a full time teacher instead of being a college dean or division head. A person may be happy as a food server and not as a restaurant owner. These situations may be funny but real life experiences dictate their existence. To sum, the demands in educational attainment are increasing in today’s complex society, hence making education (i. . earning of a high degree) a form of security and economic insurance. This however is subject to the individual choice which dictates the undertaking a person may likely engage in relation to his own satisfaction, which may or may not be financially rewarding.
http://www. jobs-emplois. gc. ca/fswep-pfete/student/index_e. htm http://www. gatewayindustries. org/vwcp. html http://www. worldwidelearn. com/education-advisor/indepth/is-your-college-degree-competitive-in-today-tough-job-market. php Salary. com