This literature review discusses the impacts of overpopulation on the environment in China through four main studies. Each study directed its research on one consequence: the water issue and the aquatic ecosystem, the overexploitation of land and resources as well as the extinction of green land, climate change, GIG emission and desertification of land . Several methods and sources were used such as Pressure-State-Response (USSR), urban-rural population model or other research papers written previously.
The results of these studies clearly show that the overpopulation has multiple negative impacts on the Chinese environment and that strategies and policies regarding these issues should be established. The population of China is growing exponentially and it is a serious issue because of its impact on the environment. The water deficiency is growing and as it is presented, the expectations of the Chinese people exceed the capacity of the land. Since the population of China is increasing fast, the arbitration of land and the agricultural development increase at the same rhythms.
As it is presented, unman activity and human density are the main explanation for climate changes. According to Shies Hang’s study, the southwest of China is experiencing a desertification, in other words the land becomes like a desert left with no resources. Each article presents a different way of conducting its research to prove its point. In Asian Hong et al. Research, the methods used to pursue the study are Pressure?State-Response (USSR), the landscape ecology method and Remote Sensing – Global Positioning System (RSI-GAPS) 7.
According to the authors, there are three types of indicators: Pressure indicators, State indicators and Response indicators. The indicators either presented a high or a low number. If the number is high, it means that the region suffered from important water degradation; if the number is low, it means the opposites. The analysis of the research is made through a process called Analytical hierarchy process (APP) that has four specific indicators.
Joanna Sheen’s study uses urban-rural population model to do predictions about the density of the population and is also represented as spatial demographic-economic model 8, whereas Shies Wang conducted its research y investigating the studied region and by using indicators such as aerial photos and satellite images. He then compares and analyses the results with previous images and researches from the land 9. The only piece of work that did not use any kind of Research method was written by Hung Mining-Et et al. Who preferred to write the paper in reference to researches and studies made and scientific predictions 10.
One of the most important consequences of overpopulation is the expanding deficiency in water resources. Investigators processed in six districts of China which are part of one region Jinn) that was recognized for its important source of water, aquatic ecosystem and surface. Due to industrial development and human actions the water condition became polluted and rarer 1 1 . Researchers found that water deficiency and erosion, rainy climate, poor land vegetation, climate change, loss and decrease of agricultural production, which all lead to desertification of land, are all consequences of the activities of the overpopulation 12.
Mining-Et et al. ‘s study presented that the GIG level increased rapidly and the national security is at risk. GIG growing production loud also make the lack of water and air pollution worse than it actually is; also they stated that climate change, in addition to being caused by overpopulation, is influenced by poor sustainTABLE development, poor resources management and over-use of energy. This study shows that such changes have impact such as poor water resource and low agricultural production.
These consequences engender other concerns such as the lack of food, the decrease in water resources and the desertification of land 13. The conclusions are clear regarding this area, the exceeding use of natural sources is a threat for the environment’s protection and conservation 14. Hong et al. Are from the same opinion when they wrote that water condition is getting worse and it affects China’s population’s lifestyle as well as the aquatic ecosystem 15. 10 Hung Mining-Et et al. , 363-366 11 Asian Hong teal. , 321 12 Shies Wang et al. , 127-129 13 Hung Mining-Et et al. 363-364 14 Joanna Sheen, 39 15 Asian Homogenate. , 319 In the field of environment, every single factor is closely related to another one. Each of the four studies shows how the desertification of land, the migration, the exceeding use of resources and the poverty of population are inked. In Wang et al. ‘s research, poverty is shown to be one of the most devastating causes of desertification because farmers, in order to survive and feed their families, have to increase the production of grains. The overexploitation of the land then leads the land to become rocky 16.
According to Sheen’s study, agriculture is over-used and China has to import grains to meet the population’s needs 17. The deterioration of the environment and the growth of the land desertification are strongly correlated with the increasing population of this region as well as their activities 18. In reference to Wang et al. , Sheen and Mining-Et et al. ‘s studies, since the land is experiencing a phenomenon of desertification because of the exceeding use of agriculture and the high density of population in rural zones, populations are migrating to cities that have already exceeded their capacity in supporting people.
Basically, what Sheen is trying to explain is that the construction of urban areas and the overexploitation of lands lead to a decreasing number of green land which causes the environment to deteriorate, because the more people there is, the more resources needed 20. The biggest problem China is facing is the lack of policing and measures adopted regarding the protection of the environment. According to Mining-Et 16 Shies Wang teal. , 131 17 Joanna Sheen, 36 18 Shies wangle. , 124 19 Shies Wang et al. 124-131; Joanna Sheen, 36-39; Hung Mining-Et et al. , 363-364 20 Joanna Sheen, 35-36 China’s way of ‘fighting’ against climate change is to invest in the development of sustainTABLE technologies as well as establish ins measures and policies regarding the environment 21 . Asian Hong et al. Specified that the conservation and the protection of water are essential to the survival of the and and aquatic ecosystem 22. The researchers from the other articles did not write about the policies that should be established to preserve the environment.
Studies show that the impacts of overpopulation are multiple and they do affect the ecosystem in China. Shies Wang et al. ‘s study proved that the land is overloaded with population growth and has met its capacity. This forced farmers to deforest the land of the Lilliputian district in order for them to increase agricultural production. Also, even though the environment is favorTABLE in this region for such phenomenon to happen, restricted natural sources, overpopulation activities, rapid population growth and social instability make the process happen faster.
The consequence of overpopulation’s production of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere exceeds the national average for smelting sulfur by over 13. 8 times in some regions such as Biggie and Gunny which causes air pollution and desertification of land 23. The results of the study conducted in the region of Jinn by Asian Hong et al. Clearly showed that this region has the best water condition because of its good conservation of environment, poor population density and important agitation.