I have selected Ceylon Electricity Board ( CEB ) , one of the chief participants in the energy sector of Sri Lankan economic system ( I have experienced working with them ) , to measure the cultural influences to employee motive scheme of the entity. CEB, which is a 100 % province owned endeavor, has important presence in Electricity coevals sector and is the lone participant in Electricity transmittal and distribution sector.
Therefore CEB acts as a monopoly in the power sector and does non confront any competition what so of all time. It has the legal right to administer electricity and therefore it has the bargaining power on how and where to buy electricity. Thus operations in a non-competitive place has resulted a lesser force per unit area on the direction to provide electricity at a competitory monetary value or to cut down the cost by bettering the systems and procedures.
Employee motive is important to any organisation whether its primary aim is to gain short term net income or long term growing or even to function the community in the instance of CEB. But it is non a simple pick of choosing the method and attack to actuate your organisations employees. First it will hold a big figure of employees and they may come from different backgrounds and different educational degrees. And within the organisation they will be in different sections and different hierarchal degrees.
Even sections may hold their ain aims and alone civilizations. Therefore the traditional methods of motive such as high wage and publicities are going inadequate to keep the employee morale at the degree required by the direction to run into its strategic aims. There are terrible surveies carried out on motivational patterns and it has identified successful advanced motivational patterns every bit good. But due to miss of cognition and fright for execution, these inventions are non yet widely practiced in developing states such as Sri Lanka.
Organizations have a civilization which is alone to the organisation. The entit ‘s success of human resource schemes to a great extent depend on the impact of the cultural influences. The success on choice of motivational schemes, execution of motivational schemes and alterations thereto will be effectual provided the civilization back such schemes and alterations. Schemes that are non accepted or supported by the civilization will non be productive unless actions are taken to alter the civilization.
Theories on Employee Motivation
There are figure of motivational patterns. Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs is the most common motivational theory good known in the universe. McClelland ‘s Need Theory, Herzberg ‘s Two Factor Theory, Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory are some other common theories. All these theories discuss the factors that motivate employees and stress the demand to fulfill the factors to anticipate employees to be induced and to work for the organisation ‘s primary ends. Now let us look at each of the employee motivational demands by analysing the extent of execution at the authorities endeavor CEB.
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow ( cited in A Theory of Human Motivation, 1943 ) explained that demands of employees ( human existences ) can be prioritized in a peculiar order and the demand to accomplish them occurs in this consecutive order. Therefore by sing the employees current achieved and unachieved demands an entity can foretell the employees ‘ desired demands and can fulfill these demands to excite the employees to a higher degree of public presentation. These demands are represented in a pyramid that shows the largest and lowest, prioritized demands at the underside. Satisfying the underside demands will make the demand to accomplish the following degree of demands and so on boulder clay self realization demands are satisfied.
At CEB compensation degree, publicities and occupation security are the primary tools that the direction uses as agencies of employee stimulation. The salary graduated tables of the employees are comparatively high at CEB holding considered the instruction, experience and accomplishments of mean employee in the economic system. With the better salary staff members have the capacity to fulfill the demand of equal nutrient and shelter as required by them. Besides since CEB is a authorities owned entity and since there are no any employee slacks in the history at big graduated table, the occupation security is besides is at a satisfactory degree. They have the assurance that the authorities save them even at the most pessimistic state of affairs. They are finically good secured even after their retirement as they are entitled to a pension.
The possibility to accidents when working is minimum and the past experiences of the organisation is really low. Besides CEB has an insurance coverage that ensures the well-being in a instance of an accident at work clip. Besides the entire work hours that an mean CEB employee want to pass and the work burden is non high compared to private sector employees. Therefore the employees are non stressed to run into deadlines and they enjoy an equal clip for relax and enjoy with the household members taking a balanced clip spent on work and life. Besides since the employees are strongly organized in labour brotherhoods they feel the assurance of being a group member and protection from the group in instance of differences with the direction i.e. safety in Numberss. Thus we can reason that the direction of CEB is successful in run intoing the physiological, safety and Social demands ( belonging love ) of employees.
Therefore we have to look at the following degree of demand to be satisfied by a human being as per Maslow. Are the employees are good accepted, respected and do they experience sense of accomplishment at CEB? At CEB employees are given marks via budgets. These budgets largely relate to be controls and there is no other any systematic method to give the employees disputing marks. Therefore, the employees do non acquire the opportunity to experience the sense of satisfaction or the glorification by accomplishing a disputing mark by exerting their experience, accomplishments and competency.
Simply need to accomplish is non satisfied as the employees like. Besides the acknowledgment that the employees get is questionable. First the lower degree of employees is non respected by higher hierarchal employees. Therefore the employees feel that they are acquiring the attending, position that they truly require from the top degree. Besides since the employees are non allowed to exert the experience, accomplishments to the success of the organisation, the employees experience a deficiency of ego regard that can be achieved through command, assurance and freedom. Maslow ( cited in A Theory of Human Motivation, 1943 ) emphasized that demand to gain self respect instead making self respect based on celebrity and outer acknowledgment alternatively of interior competency.
As ego esteem demand is non fulfilled most of the employees ca n’t believe of the following degree of demand i.e. self-actualization by going command in the country the employees want to be. A self-actualized individual “ can accept their ain human nature in the Stoic manner, with all its defects, with all its disagreements from the ideal image without experiencing existent concern ” ( Maslow, 1954 ) . Therefore the ego actualized people have the ability to separate the difference good and bad from established societal norms which lack of rationale justification. These people have the ability take unneeded signifiers of deficiency of morale, shame, guilt or anxiousness. The staff does non hold the chance to fulfill this demand at all.
McClelland ‘s theory of Needs
- As per MacClelland ( as cited in The Achieving Society, 1961 ) , three factors affect employee motive.
- Need for Achievement: achieve in relation to put of criterions by endeavoring to win.
- Need for Power: the desire to do others behave that they would n’t hold behaved otherwise.
- Need for Affiliation: the demand to make closed interpersonal relationships.
We have discussed earlier that at CEB employees are non satisfied with the demand for accomplishment. At CEB the power of an single depends on his association with certain non-formal political groups. Therefore, a individual out of these political groups does non hold the ability to exert the power as he/she likes. His/her determinations and orders will non be accepted by the whole group if the group do non accept him. Thus the in-between degree employees who have given the power through appellations feel troubles in fulfilling their demand for power at CEB. Need for association is satisfied by the members who are widely accepted in the above mentioned little political groups. The employees who do non belong to any of these political groups feel non secured at CEB.
Two Factor Theory
This theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause occupation satisfaction and set of factors that cause dissatisfaction. ( Herzberg, F. , Mausner, B. & A ; Snyderman, B.B, 1959 ) Hackman J. R. , & A ; Oldham, G. R. ( cited in Motivation through design of work, 1976 ) explains these factors that is utile the motivational scheme of an organisation.
Incentives ( e.g. disputing work, acknowledgment, duty ) that provide positive satisfaction such as acknowledgment, accomplishment and forces growing that arise from intrinsic conditions of the occupation, and Hygiene factors ( e.g. position, occupation security, salary and fringe benefits ) that do non give positive satisfaction instead consequence in dissatisfaction in instance of absence that arise outside the work such as from supervisory patterns and company policy.
Now allow us use two factor theory to CEB. As discussed earlier, non being of hygiene factors that consequences dissatisfaction are fulfilled to a certain extent at CEB as direction ‘s primary concern on employee motive assures equal wage and occupation security. The ego position that the employees perceive tends to be low as they require and deficiency of flexible disposal and non-existence of quality supervising consequences dissatisfaction among employees. Most significantly the direction of CEB has ignored the importance of motivational factors as per two factor theory. Lack of disputing work and clear duty assignment has lead the employees experiencing short of acknowledgment, accomplishment and forces growing in the entity. The terminal consequence is deficit of morale of employees to elate the concern public presentation that authorities requires.
Adams asserted that employees seek to keep equity between the inputs that they bring to a occupation and the result that they receive from it against the sensed inputs and results of others ( Adams, 1965 ) . The employee perceptual experience of the just and unjust intervention at the work topographic point and ensuing impact on employee motive is the base for equity theory. Equity Theory in concern, introduces the construct of societal comparing, whereby employees evaluate their ain input/output ratios based on their comparing with the input/outcome ratios of other employees ( Carrell and Dittrich, 1978 ) . Percept of just intervention enhances the motive while the opposite de-motivates employees. The inputs to the work topographic point and outputs that employee expects to be just can be listed down as follows.
Sense of accomplishment
Political influences and engagements are common to CEB as it is a authorities organisation. Most of employees are appointed through recommendations of politicians. This starts at the clip of enlisting. Political penchants are indispensable to be selected to a station unless the place extensively requires educational makings and accomplishments to carry through the duties attached to the occupation.
The publicities, promotion of duty degree, acknowledgment and other benefits ( result ) non needfully depend on inputs of the employees. Rather it depends on the association to certain political groups within the entity. Therefore, most employees feel that difficult work, committedness, trueness, competences, are of small usage for bearer promotions and other expected results. Thus the just intervention is non seen at CEB. Thus, the employees who are adept and committed either effort to cut down their public presentation or to supply low quality service or to happen another entity that treat the employees in an just mode.
Advanced Motivational Practice
sAdvanced motivational patterns require organisations to supply quality of life by supplying pleasance and relax clip through fringe benefits in add-on to the traditional motivate tolls such as publicity, pay-for-performance, vacations and personal accomplishments. Provision of game suites, forming trips to full household, kids care units are some non pecuniary inducements that cut down the emphasis degrees of employees and do the employee life easier and happier. CEB is non gone to this phase to exert advanced motivational patterns and to guarantee the employees relaxed forces, good satisfied forces life.
Cultural Impact to Employee Motivation
Culture is a profoundly rooted value or shared norm, moral or aesthetic rules that guide action and service as criterions to measure one ‘s ain and others ‘ behaviours. ( Hofstede, G. , 1994 ) Now let us analyse CEB how CEB ‘s civilization form up the motive scheme sing good known cultural theories.
Strong Vs Weaker Culture
In a strong civilization staff is aligned to the organisational values in a strong mode. Conversely, there is weak civilization where there is small alignment with organisational values and command must be exercised through extended processs and bureaucratism. As the employees are profoundly involved in strong civilization people do non believe beyond the group motives, actions and purposes when their forces thoughts contradict with them. Besides if a members thought is different from the group ‘s thoughts it is discouraged at the initial phase or is considered as a negative influence because it consequences struggles within the group.
CEB has a weaker civilization. The organisations core values, schemes, ultimate ends are non widely shared among employees. Though there are core values to the organisation they tend to be some written paperss that are non shared or known by employees. Therefore, the employees non take these aims earnestly taking the consequences diverting from the ultimate aims. The demand for proviso of efficient merchandise with choice service to the terminal consumers is a great illustration that is non earnestly considered or valued by CEB employees.
Therefore, the higher-ups ever require to supervise the advancement of the work and to bring on the employees to carry through the duties. This consequence the employees non acquiring a opportunity to experience the mark and to carry through it and to acquire the satisfaction of accomplishment. In add-on since the end congruity does non be the part of each hierarchal degree to run into the long term ends are non clarified taking the uncertainnesss in the heads of employees.
This theory concerns about the comparative equality of power distribution among employees at different organisational degrees. In civilizations of low power distribution people accept power dealingss that are more advisory and democratic. Regardless of the difference in formal places people act jointly with harmoniousness esteeming each other. Subordinates are given opportunity to demand the right and even to knock the higher degree employees. Thus communicating is so strong from the top to bottom of the organisation. But at civilizations where the power distance is high, bossy actions can be observed from the direction. Here the subsidiaries acknowledge the power of formal places. Besides the people perceive power differences.
Power distance is another of import cultural characteristic that we can observe. At CEB the distance between higher hierarchal degrees and lower hierarchical degrees are accepted to a greater extent. Therefore the employees show a greater regard to for their higher-ups. Therefore when a determination is taken at a higher degree the thoughts of lower degree are non needfully considered and participative determination devising is non practiced as it should be. This has lead to an inordinate communicating spread between the top degree and underside degrees in the organisation.
The demand of lower degrees is non communicated together with the other suggested betterment to heighten the systems of CEB. Thus the employees do non acquire the opportunity to lend their thoughts to the development of the organisation and the demand to acquire the regard of others and demand of regard of others are non fulfilled. Even the existent thoughts, ends of the top direction are non good communicated ensuing non-strategic behaviours. Further the short term and long term nucleus demands for the entity are non communicated to the lower degree as it should be.
This dimension concerns about the efforts of members in the society to mange the nervous originating from uncertainness. In these sorts of civilizations people set up rigorous regulations and guidelines and expect the others to follow them. The employees in a these sort of and organisation has to follow the formal good structured regulations. Therefore the employees do non alter their employer often. But in instance of low uncertainness turning away civilizations people expect flexible regulations and guidelines. They concerns about the divergences in the environment or even the alterations in the rivals and ever seek to follow the current patterns to get by up with what is required. Employees in a similar civilization are ever ready to accept new challenges and do non waver to go forth the current employer to travel for a better compensation, work conditions or comfortable occupation though it appears challengeable.
CEB has a civilization of high uncertainness turning away. Therefore the employees are loath to alter. Most of them are functioning the entity for a long period of clip and has non changed the occupation more than one time or twice. Besides they fear about the mass restructuring procedure that the authorities tries to implement by clip to clip. Therefore the employees counter onslaught to alter the organisation through strong trade brotherhood motions conveying the differences public. This is due to the low assurance of security in the concern and lower tolerance to take a hazard. As the employees are loath to alter it is highly hard to accomplish higher accomplishments at CEB.
Even the direction attempts for dramatic alterations the in-between degree and operational employees does non accept and cope-up with the alterations so easy. Therefore dramatic accomplishments are non easy to see. Besides the creativeness is non supported by the civilization. First the employees are loath to believe about mass graduated table alterations. Thus the inclination to bring forth new thoughts is comparatively low. Second the generated thoughts are hard to implement in a successful mode as expected due to higher opposition. Because of this factor most employees do non trouble oneself about pass oning the new thoughts to exceed degree as they are non confident about their cogency at CEB.
Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
Individualist civilizations have loose ties among each other. Main concern is the good being of him/ her or immediate household members but non others. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between persons are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate household. On the collectivized side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, frequently drawn-out households ( with uncles, aunts and grandparents ) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning trueness.
CEB is a civilization where individuality is strong. Therefore the people motivate forces accomplishments, free clip, challenges and other single wagess such as ego regard. In Bolshevism civilizations concern about the accomplishments of group and deter self- realization, self-fulfillment and ego esteem. Thus because of the individuality the employees of they tend to concentrate on forces accomplishments. As we go from the bottom top of the Maslow ‘s Hierarchical Needs, from physiological to self-actualization all are forced by the cultural impact of individuality.
Besides as this individuality is so strong, the politically backed direction ever prefers the benefit of their ain members or loyal employees to the group compared to the wellbeing of the CEB as a whole. This has resulted inordinate staff degrees. In-addition unstructured, non crystalline public presentation rating has resulted unjust publicities that truly de-motivate existent winners.
Further the regard that the in-between degree direction requires are non given together with the power that they want to exert because of this unjust, unequal intervention for employees.
Long vs. Short term orientation
This theory considers the clip period that the society attentions in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations. Long term oriented society ‘s value actions that affect the hereafter accomplishments or failures. The ensuing shame of unsuccessful work in the long tally and the glorification of long term success is perceived and cared by members in these sorts of societies. In short term oriented societies people value actions and attitudes that are affected by past and present actions and work. Peoples more concern about the current stableness, current accomplishments and seek continue the current degree instead than sing about long term ends, marks and success.
We can state that CEB operates in a civilization which is short term oriented. The employees more concerned about current position. They does non be after for long term growing at CEB and happen short roots get developed at CEB. Because of this it is hard to the employees to fulfill the regard needs or self realization needs the upper degrees of the Maslow ‘s pyramid of demands. They do non accomplish in great borders. They do non experience the glorification of regard of others as they are non respected.
Besides there callings are stagnated for a high period of clip and they do non hold the assurance to seek to get command accomplishments. In add-on as the employees do non hold the competition the person ego development is rather low. Therefore the top direction does non see the employees as competent work force and the employees are non good recognized at CEB as they require.
How Culture affect Motivation
At CEB the employees are good paid compared to avarage employees in the economic system and the occupations are good secured as the endeavor is a authorities owned interest. Therefore the employees physiological, societal and security demands are fulfilled. However CEB has a weaker civilization. Therefore the end congruity is at minimal degree and employees do non experience the long term marks and they do non cognize the way to accomplish them. They feel that the marks as unrelated and unattainable purposes. Therefore the employees do non get the satisfaction of accomplishments. Besides the high power distance creates hapless communicating that minimizes the possibility to convey new thoughts to the top and besides to implement them.
As the schemes are non good communicated it is hard to the employees to aline with the strategic model of the organisation. Besides the power distance creates weak relationships among different hierarchal employees and the credence, and needs to be respected by others are non satisfactorily fulfilled. The uncertainness turning away cultural influence makes it hard to bring forth and implement new thoughts. Thus the employees ‘ creativeness and demand to be good accepted and respected for accomplishments and competency are non satisfied. Because of the individualistic civilization the employees more concern of their ain accomplishments.
But the unstructured public presentation rating procedure and biased rating methods makes uncertainties about the just intervention to employees and de-motivate existent winners. Finally the short term orientation makes the employees think about the current position and employee tend to concentrate on salvaging the current position. Therefore, dramatic accomplishments are rare and in lower competition bulk do non develop in the occupations that cut down the single assurance and ego regard.
Therefore, we can understand the cultural impact on lower motive patterns at CEB and need to alter the civilization in a dramatic mode to guarantee a conceptual alteration in how employees perceive the organisation, single accomplishments, schemes in a extremist manner to guarantee a motivated work force.