English Is The Most Widely Spoken Language In This World

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English is one of language that we need to be mastered at nowadays beacuse english is the most common language in this world, that is why learning english is really important and all people all over the world are learning english as their second language. Because of those reasons so english has been taught in school, and there are four aspects in learning english: reading, speaking,writing,listening, and reading is one of important skills in English learning because some textbooks used English as a teaching media. According to Pang, S. E, et al. (2003) argued that reading is an activity that related to perception and thought. They said that reading consist of two related process; word recognition (refers to process in spoken language) and comprehension (refers to make sense of words, sentences and connected text) of the text.

And based on Fischer (2003) stated basically, reading is simple ability of constructing visual information from encoded system and comprehending each part of meaning. Then, it becomes to signify exclusively the comprehending of a continuous text of written signs on an inscribed surface. But most of us are having trouble in reading such as lack of vocabularies and it is one biggest reason most of us are lazy to read some english textbook, while english texbook is common teaching media that most teacher use it to deliver their materials. In reading compehensions activity are included understands the meaning of text, ability to understand meaning of words, ability to follow organization of passage and to identify antecedents and references in it, and etc, and some of us or even must of us (students) are getting confuse when we have to analyze the main idea of the text, understanding all of the text and etc,.

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So many of people says that reading is not easy to learn in other side reading is really important part in learning english. So how to solve the common reading problem above? Of course we must find out the easiest way or appropriate method for improving reading comprehension, one of the technique to deliver reading is jigsaw technique. The Jigsaw technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assemble to complete the (Jigsaw) puzzle. It was designed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson to help weaken racial cliques in forcibly integrated schools.

The technique split classes into mixed groups to work on small problems that the group collates into a final outcome. For example, an in-class assigment is divided into topics. Students are then split into group with one member assigned to each topic. Working individually, each student learns about her or his topic and present it to their group. Next, students gather into groups divided by topic, each member present again to the topic group. In same topic groups, students reconcile point of view and synthesize information. They create a final report. Finally, the original groups reconvene and listen to presentations provide all group member with an understanding of their own material, as well as the findings that have emerged from topic specific group discussion.

This chapter provides the elaboration of theoretical review of research findings (result). It consists of the previous study, the theory or definition of Jigsaw Technique, the definition of reading and reding comprehension. The first research is from a thesis which written by Kadek Winten (2013) who conducted study entitled “Improving reading comprehension through jigsaw technique to the eight grade students of SMPN Satu Atap jungutan in academic year 2012/2013” inside this thesis the writer wanted to solve the problem which faced by the students especially in raeding comprehension and after she did the research instrument the result was indicated that most of students liked this technique in learning english especially in reading comprehension. So jigsaw technique was effectife to imroving students’ reading comprehension skill at SMPN Satu Atap Jungutan.

The second research is still from a thesis which written by Suwandi (2012), who also conducted entitled “Improving students’ reading comprehension through jigsaw technique in SMP Negri 2 Ngrampal, Sragen in the academic year of 2011/2012. The writter also identified the same problem wit the first author, he wanted to improving students’ reading comprehension, and the result of thid research are 1) Jigsaw improved the students’ ability in comprehending reading text at SMPN 2 Ngrampal, 2) the effectiveness of jigsaw in improving the students’ ability in comprehending at SMON 2 ngarampal was very high 3) the strenght of jigsaw that students become active and cooperative in learning english.

The third research was taken from a journal written by Sabbah Salman Sabah who conducted a study entitled “The effect of jigsaw on ESL students’ reading achievement”, this study used a quasi-experimental pre-posttest design to investigate the effect of using jigsaw cooperative strategy on ELS students’ achievement in reading comprehension. And the result revealed significant differencies in favor of the experimental group. So according to the three previous studies above it can be conclude that using jigsaw technique is effectif in improving students’ reading comprehension. There are many forms of cooperative language strategies used in teaching the skill of reading. A commonly used one is the jigsaw strategy. It consists of regular instsructional cycles of activities that include reading, grouping, regrouping, expert good discussion, team reporting, testing, and finally team recognition.

There is evidence to suggest that when stduents cooperatively and collaborativelly discuss and share their perspective about a text,greater understanding is achieved, leading to a greater overall comprehension development. Furthermore, jigsaw reinforces important cooperative learning elemenets, such as positive interpedence and individual accountability. This is because in Jigsaw learners must teach one another in order to get the “big picture” and must learn “all the information, not just their own portion, since they are tested individually”. Each students within a team has a piece of the information to be laerned by all the students and each student is responsible for teaching their section to the other student in the team. When all the pieces are put together , the students should have the whole picture- hence the name, jigsaw.

The third theory that explains the rationale behind the jigsaw strategy is contructivism the assumption that leraning is an active process of constructing rather than a passive assimilation of information or rote memorization enhances the merits of jigsawa strategy which is built encouraging active learning rather absorbing information from a teacher or a book. Contructivism is a learning theory whuch “posits that knowledge is not passively received from the world or from authoritative sources but constructed by individuals or groups making sense of their experiential worlds”. contructivist learning theory owes much to the work of Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and John Dewey, and acknowledges that “knowledge is never neutral, that the ways in which knowledge is medicated and created arae as dynamic and importants as the knowledge itself”.

The Jigsaw strategy consists of a regular instruction cycle of activities that include reading, grouping, regrouping, expertgoup discussion, team reporting, and finally team recognition. Rolheiser and Stevahn (1998) associate the jigsaw strategy with Wittrok’s theory of cognitive restructuring that emphasize the importance rehearsing, explaining and elaborating on reading material in order link information into existing cognitive structures for long term memory. Cohen (1994) pinpoints that teachers have special responsibilities in a classroom where jigsaw is dominant. The jigsaw teachers usually make pre-instructional decisions about grouping students and assigning appropriate tasks. They also do all the necessary preparation as dividing the topic into appropriate chunks and designing the activities for each chunk. They monitor students and interfere when necessary, facilitating class reflection or summary.

They are also responsible for evaluating students’ learning and the effectiveness of each group’s work. In general, a teacher who implement the jigsaw strategy have the following roles: A facilitator. He/she does not only facilitate the communication process among learners, but also between the learners’ various classroom activities and the text. An organizer of resources and a resource himself. A guide within the classroom procedures and activities. A group process manager: this implies that the teacher should monitor, encourage and bridge gaps in students’ lexis, grammar and use of strategies. He/she should provide alternative and extensive activities and help learners in self-correction discussion. A needs analyst. This means that he/she should assume the responsibility for determining and responding to the learners’ linguistic needs.

The Jigsaw Strategy involves the following procedures: dividing class into home teams (mother groups), each consisting of 3-6 students and dividing the reading material into a number of sub-topics that match the number of students within each home team. Each member in each home team takes a sub-topic to study. Group members in each home team who are studying the same topic meet to form expert teams in order to study and discuss their sub-topic and become experts in that sub-topic.’ Experts’ then return to their original home teams to teach their sub- topics to the members within their home team. The advantages using Jigsaw technique Students are interdependent in a positive way Individuals are accountable Students interact to promote student learning Group use good teamwork skills Students are directly engaged with the material, instead of having material presented to them, which fosters depth of uunderstanding.

Students gain practice in self-teaching, which is one of the most valuable skills we can help them learn Students gain practice in peer teaching, which requires them to understand the material at a deeper level than students typically do when simply asked to produce on an exam During jigsaw, students speak the language of the discipline and become more fluent in the use of discipline-based terminology Each student develops an expertise and has something important to contribute to the group Jigsaw encourages cooperative and active learning and promotes valluing all students’ contributions Students have an opportunity for analyzing how well their group are functioning.

A number of studies have documented effective use of Jigsaw in a variety of types of classes: undergraduate statistic, undegraduate biology lab, undergraduate psychology, prospective elementary school teachers, and project-based computational science and engineering at U.S Naval Academy. The disadvanatge using Jigsaw technique One common situation is using the jigsaw technique: “new infromatioin is divided equally among all groups members, and each student must teach his or her portion to the other group members”. The downside to this is when a student does not complete his or her portion. Unfortunately in group projects or assigments, one students may choose not to work as hard as others, or simply allow others to do it for them. This one student hurts the entire group and brings the morale down. Additionaly Ormond (2008) states that “in some cases, stuedents may simply not have the skills to help one aenother learn”. So to help overcome the disadvantages, the teacher should remain active within the groups.

There are many definition of reading by experts and some of them are draw what reading actually is comprehensively; Based on Acbershold and Field, as quoted by thomas S. C. Farrel, he says “Reading is what happen when people look at a text and assign meaning to the written symbols in that text.”. Christine Nuttal views reading as means getting out the text as nearly as possible the message the writer into it.” Pamella J. Haris et all, define as what is caled reading compehension. They define reading comprehension is the process understanding the message that the author trying to convey.” The last definitions given by Anthony, Perason and Raphael, as also quoted by thomas S. C. Farrel, he says, “Reading is process of constructing meaning through the dynamic inteactions among the reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation.”

So based on definitions ofnreading above eccroding to so experts so it can be conluded that reading is an activity where we not only read a text but also understanding the meaning of that text or try to understand what the authors want to convey. Definition of reading comprehension The are also many definitions of reading comprehension for example According to Pang et al (2003) argued that reading is an activity that related to perception and thought. They said also reading consist of two related process; word recognition (refers to process in spoken language) and comprehension (refers to make sense of words, sentences and connected text) in which, some of readers usually utilize their background knowledge, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, experience with text and also other strategy to get message of the text. But, reading is not end with this.

Based on Fischer (2003) stated basically, reading is simple ability of constructing visual information from encoded system and comprehending each part of meaning. Then, it becomes to signify exclusively the comprehending of a continuous text of written signs on an inscribed surface. Pang et al (2003) said that comprehension is an active process in the construction of the meaning because it consists of vocabulary as a process of thinking and reasoning. There are three elements in comprehension; The reader who is doing the comprehending The reader has a cognitive ability, motivation, experience and knowledge in process of reading comprehension. It purposes to know how to limit the defiance of second language faced by students/ readers because of some of them ar

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