University Outline Introduction Opener. Thesis statement: However, they still need to be conscious of the advantages and disadvantages of surrogacy that has brought to them as well as the surrogate mother. There are several advantages and disadvantages that the intended parents must consider before they decide on surrogacy. Advantages provide an alternative to adoption procedure options lifelong relationship with the surrogate mother Disadvantages high cost time consuming different of opinions and control paternity legal issues
Conversely, for a woman decides to be a surrogate mother, she needs to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages. Advantages experience great joys financial compensation lifelong relationship with the intended parents uncomforTABLE medical tests putting health at risk emotional or psychological problems scams Conclusion. Pros and Cons of Surrogacy How suffer is it for women unTABLE to get pregnant? In Harcourt et al. ‘s (2007) article about the low birthrate in Japan, women are blamed for the responsible to give birth as Haiku Wingspan, the minister of health, labor ND welfare in Japan, had labeled them as the “birth-giving machines”.
Although women have the responsibility to give birth, some of them might face some difficulties. This can be proven by a survey done by Keeper. In United States, there are about 10 percent of women between ages 15 to 44 have difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant (Keeper, n. D. ). Unfortunately, women have the ability to get pregnant, but some of them are unTABLE or unwilling to get pregnant. This is because they are facing some health problems or worrying about their body shapes will get distorted.
Anyway, the desire of having their own child would not exterminate, especially for the infertile couples. Thus, surrogacy provides a way for them to have a child by using a third party to carry the child until birth. To begin, the couple must first search for a surrogate mother who is willing to help them and TABLE to get pregnant. Based on what World (2001) had defined, surrogate mother is “a woman who enters into a contract for the gestation of her own or another woman’s fertilized ovum and for the relinquishing of her parental rights to the newborn baby/’ (p. 19). According to The Surrogacy SOURCE (n. D. ), the surrogate requirements are in the age ranges of 21 to 38, have delivered at least one child that she is currently raising, have had past pregnancies without complications, is a non-smoker, non-drug user, have no history of arrests, do not exceed a body mass index of 30 and have undergo certain medical examinations. There are two types of surrogacy which are straight and host (Surrogacy UK [SKU], n. D. ). Straight surrogacy is also known as traditional surrogacy (SKU, n. D. ).
It is the simplest and cheaper form of surrogacy compared to the host (SKU, n. D. ). It usually results from artificial insemination (SKU, n. D. ). Artificial insemination is the fertilization of a female with sperm from a male partner or donor (World, 2001). The sperm Of the male is placed in the uterus at the time of a fertile woman’s ovulation (World, 2001). It can be done by the woman herself without any medical supervision (World, 2001). On the other hand, host surrogacy is also known as gestational surrogacy which is more complicated and expensive than the straight surrogacy (SKU, n. . ). It generally results from in vitro fertilization or IF (SKU, n. D. ). IF is a method that consists of inducing the hyperinflation, collecting the ova from the woman’s body, inseminating the ova with sperm and freezing the high quality embryos back into the woman’s uterus (World, 2001). The surrogate mother does not use her own eggs but uses the eggs of the intended mother or the donor during this process (SKU, n. D. ). Therefore, she is naturally unrelated to the baby (SKU, n. D. ).
Furthermore, the intended parents can know the sex of the child through the method of IF which can also let the parents choose the embryos that are free of genes for diseases hey have or carry (World, 2001). Nonetheless, a successful pregnancy is still influenced by the factors of the age of patients, age of the surrogate mother, knowledge of medical personnel, quality of eggs, sperm and embryos, timing of the process of insemination, endometrial and hormone levels, the latest technologies and the mother nature that we cannot control (Wiseacre Partners USA LLC [YWCA], n. After knowing all, the couple can choose the type of surrogacy according to their situation. However, they still need to be conscious of the advantages and disadvantages of surrogacy that has brought o them as well as the surrogate mother. There are several advantages and disadvantages that the intended parents must consider before they decide on surrogacy. One of the advantages is surrogacy provides an alternative to adoption (Keeper, n. D. ). Most people tend to prefer surrogacy more than adoption when overcoming the problem of infertility because they can be involved in the process of pregnancy.
Through surrogacy, couples with infertile problems or single parents can still experience the joy of creating a new life (Hendricks, n. D. ). Whereas adoption only pays money for a child and moieties it may contains a lot of legal issues. Also, surrogacy can benefit individuals or infertile couples by allowing them to have their own children who are biologically related to at least one of them (Baronage, 2009). Since the baby is their own child, they will be more closely attached and emotionally linked to the child.
It is great for single fathers or mothers who are unTABLE to carry babies naturally. Besides, they can choose between the two types of surrogacy which is best fit to their situations (Hendricks, n. D. ). For examples, f the woman is fertile but has problems on health, she can choose the method of IF, in which she contributes her eggs and her partner’s sperm for the surrogate mother to carry (Hendricks, n. D If the woman is infertile, the couple can still choose the straight surrogacy, by using her partner’s sperm and the eggs from the surrogate mother (Hendricks, n. . ). Additionally, surrogacy can establish a lifelong relationship between the intended parents and the surrogate mother that she could play a positive role in the life Of the child and the parents (Baronage, 2009). In contrast to the advantages, arrogance has a lot of disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is the high cost (Baronage, 2009). A survey done in 2009 found that the average cost of surrogacy ranged from 25 thousand dollars to 100 thousand dollars (Baronage, 2009).
This is because the cost has to cover everything, such as medical fees, agency fees, fees to hire a surrogate mother, fees to get the necessities of the surrogate mother, legal fees and adoption fees (Baronage, 2009). Furthermore, surrogacy is also time-consuming (Baronage, 2009). Basically, the couple will need some times to research some information bout surrogacy agencies (Baronage, 2009). Then, they will need to find a woman who is willing to become surrogate mother and meets all those requirements.
Next, surrogacy will also waste a lot of time on numerous attempts at fertilization and waiting the baby to be formed (Baronage, 2009). Moreover, if the time to save the money and run through the legal procedure of adopting the child later is considered, it will take some years (Baronage, 2009). In addition, the intended parents cannot arbitrarily control the behavior of the surrogate mother or they may have different opinions (Pearce, n. . ). To illustrate, the intended parents cannot control the surrogate mother when she refuses to go through certain medical tests (Pearce, n. The surrogate mother may smoke or take drugs without informing the intended parents. Other than that, the partner of the surrogate mother might intercourse with her before her pregnancy is confirmed (Pearce, n. D. ). Perhaps, she may agree do not to have sex with anyone, but it always occurs a possibility that she will broke up the rule and ends up with her partners child (Pearce, n. D. ). Sometimes, legal issues may arise when the surrogate other refuses to contribute the child to the intended parents after the child is born (Pearce, n. D. ).
As a result, this is very difficult for the judge to decide who owns the parental rights of the child since surrogacy laws vary from state to state. Conversely, for a woman decides to be a surrogate mother, she needs to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages. Surrogate mothers are known as to offer a child for childless couples (Lott-Harrison, n. D. ). This action is actually a chariTABLE behavior that not everyone is TABLE to do so. Through this, surrogate mothers can experience the great joys of bringing a ewe life to the world and giving happiness to childless couples (Griffin, 2012).
Another advantage of surrogate mothers is that they can get financial compensation from the intended parents (Lott-Harrison, n. D. ). The surrogacy agencies websites reveal that a surrogate mother can earn 18 thousand dollars to 50 thousand dollars per pregnancy, which includes the fees of necessities, insurances and health benefits (Lott-Harrison, n. D. ). This not only supports them to have a better life, but also a way to let them release from their debts that they owed. Surrogate mothers do share an advantage, feeling relationship, with the intended parents (Circle Surrogacy, n. D. ).