“Abstract” Articles written by third party sources and one article written by Frederick Herzberg himself are covered in this paper. Mr. Herzberg’s theory of management focuses on one area mainly. The area of focus deals with job satisfaction and everything that leads to job satisfaction. Unlike my previous papers, this paper will focus on one main subject. I will try to explain in detail the Herzberg theory. “Introduction” The Herzberg theory is the subject of this paper. The purpose of this paper is to explain Mr. Herzberg’s management theory.
The background of the Herzberg theory comes from five different sources and those sources all wrote about or either published Mr. Herzberg’s theory. The sources are (Accel-Team, 2005), (Chapman, 2004), (Gawel, 1997) who wrote a paper on the Herzberg theory, (Herzberg, 2003) Mr. Herzberg’s published paper supports my paper and finally (NETMBA, 2005). The scope of this paper will attempt to cover every thing Mr. Herzberg based his theory on. Finally, this paper is organized as close to the Mr. Herzberg’s theory as possible. “Thesis”
The different methods used to motivate employees are the focus of this paper. Different approaches to employee motivation led Mr. Herzberg to study and write on the subject. This paper will explain those same studies published by Mr. Herzberg, while focusing on employee motivators. This paper will also cover information gained from charts and surveys presented by Mr. Herzberg. “KITA” Herzberg begins by looking at three forms of motivation which employ KITA. The first employs physically attacking an employee to motivate them to do as you would like them to, negative physical KITA.
The second employs motivation through psychologically or emotionally attacking an employee to get them to do as you would like, negative psychological KITA. Third, bribing an employee with reward or incentive to get the result you would like to, positive KITA. Each approach has it pro’s and con’s. KITA stands for Kick in The Ass. Positive KITA is not good either. Why positive KITA is not good is simple. Many incentives are traded away in exchange for employee’s performance.
Ever increasing salaries and benefits packages, time spent away from work, increased cost of training, and more to satisfy the wants and needs of the employee are just a few of the reasons why positive KITA is not a good an sound management strategy. The primary goal of any manager is to get the work accomplished. This can be accomplished by placing a carat in front of the employee to string them along. By giving employees more responsibility the employees will gain a sense of accomplishment. This is the desired approach to motivate employees. By empowering employees with meaningful resources they will work at their peak efficiency.
No KITA will be required to motivate employees from then on. “The Herzberg Theory” The Herzberg theory is research from a wide range of work environments involving different people from different occupations. Initially Herzberg’s research was from a small segment of the work force. The Herzberg theory has evolved with each successive study. Many companies and managers, at one time or another, used the same theory concluded by Mr. Herzberg. One thing can be said about the Herzberg theory is that no matter the industry or occupation studied the same findings can be found in all case studies. Mr.
Herzberg’s theory deals with two areas of interest. The first is motivation and the second is hygiene. Both of these areas were discovered at the same time because they both were contributing factors of employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction. “Motivators” Motivators are the positives factors found throughout the Herzberg studies. Motivators must exist for employees to reach satisfaction. Motivators are listed as achievements, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and growth or advancement. Employees have shown satisfaction with their jobs when they have a stake in the areas listed above.
This does not mean employees are dissatisfied when motivators are not present but rather, there is no satisfaction present. So it can be said that employee motivators directly leads to employee satisfaction. “Hygiene” Hygiene is the negative factors found through out the Herzberg studies. Hygiene factors include company policy, administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, and security. When employees were dissatisfied, those factors listed above were most commonly associated with employee dissatisfaction. When hygiene factors were not present dissatisfaction was not present.
This does not mean employees were satisfied. Mr. Herzberg wrote (Herzberg, 2003, 7) The growth or motivator factors that are intrinsic to the job are: achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and growth or advancement. The dissatisfaction-avoidance or hygiene (KITA) factors that are extrinsic to job include: company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, and security. “The Surveys Say” A number of surveys conducted since the Herzberg theory help to reinforce Mr. Herzberg’s theory.
Employees surveyed chose achievement as their greatest motivator. Company policy and administration appears as the greatest hygiene factor affecting those surveyed. As stated by Mr. Herzberg “The findings of these studies, along with corroboration from many other investigations using different procedures, suggest that the factors involved in producing job satisfaction (and motivation) are separate and distinct from the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction” (Herzberg, 2003, p. 6). A conclusion can be referenced from Herzberg surveys. Factors contributing to job satisfaction were motivational and accounted for 81%.
And, factors contributing to job dissatisfaction were hygiene and accounted for 69%. “Job Enrichment and Charted Information” Herzberg charted studies of job enrichment proves improvements in job satisfaction can be obtained. Two groups of workers were studied over a six month period. Group one was the achieve group and group two was the control group. During the six month period group one out performed group two. Group two went about there work as normal with no change to how they accomplished their task. The workers of group one were introduced to changes in their work practices and procedures over the first two months.
Initially group one saw little improvements but after the changes were fully implemented and the group settled into a new routine improvements soared. Herzberg’s theory is in use today by managers and companies alike. Even more companies are adopting the Herzberg theory or variants of Herzberg’s theory. Some adopt the theory in earnest based on the need for change in an organization. “The Steps to Change” The path to change starts with a plan and the plan must be implemented in steps. Those steps include making a choice as to which jobs are to be changed.
Be sincere when deciding to make a change and honestly following through on the change. Come up with a list of changes and go over that list, eliminating change that will not be implemented. Also, eliminate any proposed changes that would take away from the employee’s empowerment. Set up a method for feedback of the process. These changes and more are prerequisites for the job enrichment. “Summary” The main points presented in this paper are as follows. The kick in the ass philosophy, KITA was covered first. The Herzberg theory was covered second. Motivator and hygiene were the third and fourth points covered under separate headings.
The fifth point covered in this paper was the surveys say. Job enrichment and charted information was the sixth point covered in this paper. The seventh and final point presented in this paper was the steps to change. “Conclusion” My thoughts on how the Herzberg theory could be applied in the electronic management environment. Much of what Mr. Herzberg has documented is currently taking place in my work place. However, negative KITA should make reappearance in the work place to stimulate worker pride and productivity again. Managers can learn positive motivational tools from the Herzberg theory.
Empowering employees can create a closer relationship between employees and managers in the work place. Encouraging employees to take ownership of a job or task has positive effects in most cases. Managers can get the responses they want from employees with out any incentives if the Herzberg theory is employed. Managers utilize their assets efficiently and so must these managers utilize their employee’s skills and intellect as efficiently. Lastly, managers and employee must grow together. “References” Accel-Team, (2005). 2 Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory. Retrieved March 26, 2006, from http://accel-team. om Chapman, A. (2004). Frederick Herzberg Motivational Theory. Retrieved March 26, 2006, from http://businessballs. com Gawel, J. E. (1997). Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved March 26, 2006, from http://www. newcastleweb. com/schoolhousedoor/hold_princple. htm Herzberg, F. (2003, January). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review, R0301F, 3 – 11. Retrieved March 26, 2006, from http://www. hbsp. harvard. edu NETMBA, (2005). Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory). Retrieved March 26, 2006, from http://netmba. com