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Geography – Waterfall + Mezzogiorno

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    The river erosion processes involved in the formation of waterfalls are hydraulic action, abrasion and solution. Hydraulic action is the force of moving water on the land. Fast flowing water forces out looses rock and soil from the river bed and bank. Soft rock is eroded faster than hard rock (differential erosion) and overtime the bank will collapse. Abrasion is the wearing away of the river bed by its load. Stones carried by the river smooth the river channel deepening & widening it. Solution occurs when the river dissolves the soft rock over which it flows.

    The erosion processes mentioned above to form waterfalls in the youthful stage of a river course. Waterfalls occur where a band of hard rock e. g. granite lies across a river bed, soft rock is eroded faster and GRADUALLY a fall forms in the river bed. Hydraulic action and abrasion combine to deepen the fall and a plunge pool forms at the base of the waterfall. Water splashes against the back wall and erodes it by the process of solution. This splash back soon creates a cave or a hollow behind the waterfall. The overhanging piece of hard rock will eventually collapse and slowly the waterfall retreats up stream (head ward erosion).

    Sometimes a steep sided gorge is formed if head ward erosion is very fast. The gorge in Niagara Falls is 11km long and up to 91m deep Description- What is it your trying to explain. Example- An example of a waterfall or whatever. Explanation- How they form and everything about them. Processes- Processes that form them= Hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition etc. Diagram- Diagrams explaining the whole process. Waterfall proper 30/30 Sample Answer The Irish landform that I have studied is the waterfall. Waterfalls can be found in Killarney such as the Torc Waterfall and in Wicklow, the Powers court falls.

    Waterfalls are a feature of river erosion which is commonly found in the youthful stage of a rivers course. In the formation of waterfalls processes such as hydraulic action, abrasion, eddying and solution are present. Waterfalls occur when a band of hard rock lies on a river bed, where the river bed is usually soft rock. Rapids form where the hard rock dips downstream/ upstream. As the river passes down over the hard rock hydraulic action is present. Hydraulic action, where force of moving water increases the erosive power and thus vertically erodes the soft rock.

    Differential erosion is where the river erodes the softer rock at a faster rate than the hard rock. Abrasion, where the river uses it’s broken off material to deepen and widen the vertical fall that formed, is present here. As the fall has been deepened, when the water comes down the speed will have increased which will strengthen the hydraulic action and abrasion. This in turn steepens the fall. Most erosion takes place at the base of the waterfall thus forming a plunge pool. Eddying is now present, where the swirling motion of the water and turbulence uses the load to widen the plunge pool.

    Eventually the waterfall will be undercut and will collapse as the back of the waterfall is eroded by spray. The waterfall has now increased in height. The collapsed rock is broken down by attrition and is transported downstream by solution, suspension, saltation and traction. Eventually the waterfall will retreat backwards by headword erosion and end its days as a Gorge. Waterfalls are usually formed on the upper stage of a rivers level. Sometimes waterfalls can be formed on the lower stage as a result of river rejuvenation due to a drop in river base level. Faulting can also lead to the formation of waterfalls.

    At a normal fault the land slips downwards, and if a river was flowing down this it will now have been changed. Waterfalls can also be found in Glaciated regions where hanging valleys occur. The world’s most famous waterfalls are Niagara Falls and Vitoria falls. The Mezzogiorno Physical environment: The Apennines are a mountain range that runs through the centre of this region, and it is sometimes referred to as “the backbone of Italy”. Generally, soils are poor. The region has a Mediterranean climate.

    Primary economic activities: The Mezzogiorno is a peripheral or problem region. Students should de able to ive some reasons for poor agricultural development here (94 per cent of farms are considered small). The reasons include poor soil quality, low rainfall and the fact that 80 per cent of the land is either hilly or mountainous. Secondary economic activities: Manufacturing is poorly developed overall in the Mezzogiorno. Reasons for this include poor energy supplies, poor communications and poor markets. Attempts have been made by the government since the early 1960s to solve these problems. The work of the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (a development fund in operation up until the 1980s) is important here.

    Tertiary economic activities: The Mediterranean climate is an excellent tourist attraction. The region needs, however, to develop the transport infrastructure and tourist facilities in order to reap the benefits of the tourist industry. Attractions in the region include Sicily, Mount Vesuvius and Pompeii. The region i have studied is the Mezzogoirno. This region is the seven most southerly staes in the south of Italy, and neighbouring island Sardinia. These are peripheral regions. Primary ectivites include fishing, energy and farming. While physical processes include relief, climate, soils and drainage.

    There are many physical factoers that lead to agriculture being so unproductive including the mountanoius relief, infertile soils and mediterreanian climate which frequently causes drought. Fishing in Mezzogiorno is poor, the enclosed Mediterreanian sea contains relatively high levels of pollution. Also, salinity which limits the variety of fish species in the waters surrounding the Mezzogiorno such as Agriatic sea and tyrrhenian sea. The dominant fishing parts are found in Salerno and Nicastro. Physical processes such as relief, climate and drainage has made the fishing industry the way itis by;

    Pollution from relief running into the surrounding seas polluting it. The warm climate warms the waters making them less livable for fish as they prefer cold waters – more food available. An introduction of the EU quotas means only small amount of fishing can be praticed. Only for individuals consumption not for a spin off industry. Farming in the Mezzogiorno has traditionally been unproductive. There are many physical factors that lead to agriculture being so unproductive, including the mountainous relief, infertile soils and the mediterranean climate which frequently causes drought. The climtae negatively influences agriculture.

    During summer the north east trade winds blow over the region. They leave drought from the warm and dry winds. This drought is worsened by the sirocco winds from the sahara desert. The average temp. for summer is 30 degrees and in winter at 16 degrees. Preception averages 900mm per year, this this is beneficial to agriculture if it was spread evenly throughout the year. However, it tends to fall within a period of 2/3 months. 80% of the land is upland relief, where merchanisation of agriculture is difficult. The appennines dominate the region. They are vast rugged mountains formed during the Alpine fold movement 60 million years ago.

    Soils in Mezzogiorno are extreamly infertile and unsuitable to farm on. The drought conditions loosen the soils leaving them vunerable to erosion by winds. Outline how physical processes have shaped primary economic activities in a non-irish region you have studied. A non-irish region i have studied is the Mezzogiorno in the south of Italy. It is a poorly developed pheripheral region with poor drainage due to the limestone and mountainous areas such as the Appenine mountains. The primary economic activities are farming, fishing, mining and energy. Farming in the Mezzogiorno had a few negitivies as well as possitives. 5% of the region is the Appenine mountain range with high erosion. Due to the type of rock, limestone makes it very hard to grow crops as it soaks up all the nurishments from the soil so they are heavily denuded. It also has drought due to the limestone and rarely flash floooding from the rise in rainfall at certain times of the year. If any crops are grown its expensive to transport them to local markets as many of them are in the northern parts of Italy. Even through the bad drainage the few crops grown are wheat to make pasta and bread which are found in irrigated coastal lowlands.

    Also citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons an tomatoes which are only found on flat lowlands coastal plains such as the plain of Catonia. But the two most profitable sources are grapes and olives, which are found in Sicily and Calabria that are mainly lowlands and foothills of mountains. The olives are grown to make olive oil for cooking and the grapes are grown to produce wines. Although the soils are bad there is some pasterol farming as in 1950’s when 70% of the population was latifundia farms, which is estates owned by landlords.

    Pastoral farming is not profitable as irrigation is too expensive, but there is an exception Buffalo farming whoes milk makes the famous mozzarella cheese. Another primary activity is fishing. Although its an important industry for many western europe regoins the enclosed mediterranean sea contains relatively high levels of pollution which limits the variety of fish in the surrounding waters of the Mezzogiorno such as the Adriatic sea. Which is where the plankton growth is slower then in the open waters of the Atlantic ocean. Dominant fishing parts in the region are Salerno and Nicastro in the south.

    Some factors that have assisted the development of fishing is the saldom severe weather which means the fish can be carried around all year round. Also the coastlines possess many natural harbours, particulary along the west. Mining and energy are also primary economic activites in the Mezzogiorno as they are one of the main parts in the physical processes. It is very limited for Hydro Electric Power (HEP) due to the permibility of the limestone rock and sometimes in the summer even the rivers go dry. Natural gas is imported under the earth through pipelines from Algeria via Saedinia.

    As concluded in the above paragraphs the Mezzogiorno is isolated from the main marketing places and as its an ebclosed sea the fish industry is poor as not much plankton is being produced. Due to the poor land (Appenine mountains) and limestonesoil farming is not a success either apart from citrus fruits and most profitable olives and grapes. Although animal grazing is difficult, buffalo’s are still kept which milk makes mozzorella cheese. But overall economically it is disadvantaged. Examine the manufacturing activities in a non-Irish region you have studied.

    The ragion i have studied is the Mezzogiorno. It is a peripheral socio economic region just like the west of Ireland. “Land of the midday sun”. It consists of the seven most Southerly states of Italy, including Sicily and Sardina. It has 40% of the total population of Italy. As late as 1965 only 22% of Italy’s manufacturing was in the Mezzogiorno, with the majority found in the north of the country. Like most peripheral areas manufacturing is not well developed. The permeable limestone makes the productopn of hydro electric power difficult.

    The poor transport infrastructure in the region increases transport costs for industries. Also, as the population of the region is small when compared to the core region in the north so industries have smaller and less skilled workforce to draw upon. The smaller population also means that there is a smaller domestic market in the region. People are isolated from the markets. The Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, A state agency was set up in the 1950s to try and develop the Mezzogiorno. Their four aims were:

    1. To improve the infrastructure of the Mezzogiorno region, telecommunications, motorways etc.
    2. The Autostrada was the motorway they built, which linked places together.
    3. To develop growth centres eg. Naples, Bari, Brindisi, Taranto.
    4. All state companies must put 40% of all new investment in the Mezzogiorno eg. FIAT factory in Naples.

    To make the Mezzogiorno a heavy industry centre ( steel, ship building, oil refining, car manufacturing) eg. Taranto port. The Cassa per il Mezzogiorno did not succeed. It was terminated in 1984. They spent 12billion between 1950 and 1984 in trying to improve the Mezzogiorno. The unemployment rate in North Italy was 4. %, and a shocking 15% in the Mezzogiorno. The infrastructual improvements did help, but much of the investment was localised to the growth centres and money did not trickle down to the rest of the region. There was lack of skilled workforce and Universities. The “Automated factories” had limited need for workers. Also most of the profits would return to companies based else where in Italy with little benifit to the local economy. In my opinion the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno was a good idea but needs to be modernised. One of the least developed regions in Europe is suffering and needs help, maybe by the EU?

    Examine manufacturing activities in a non-irish region you have studied. As a non-irish region i have studied the Mezzogiorno which is the 7 most sothernly states of Italy including the islands of Sardina and Sicily. It is a poorly developed peripheral region which has a row of Appenine mountains going through the south of italy. Most peripheral regions like the Mezzogiorno are at objective one status as the manufacturing industry is not well devloped as its a peripheral region from the main infrastructure and soils have little investment for roads.

    The low population and amount of cities means there’s a lack of skilled workforce for the manufacturing industries. Also there’s few natural resources like HEP as there’s no capital for it and the energy resources are from foreign regions such as Sardinia. During the 1950’s the government set up the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno to try and develop the region. A few of the aims were to improve the infrastructure such as the telecommunications and roads for example the Auto Strada. Develop growth centres like Naples, Bari, Brindisi and Taranto.

    All state compounds such as Fiat must put 40% of new investments into factory in Naples in the Mezzogiorno. Last of the aims were to make it a heavy industrial centre for steal, ship building, oil refining and car making, all transported from Taranto port. Between 1950 when it was set up and 1984 when it finally sunk it cost over 12 billion. The unemployment rate and money being earnt between north and south of Italy was still a major issue. North Italy was earning around $22,500 per year 4. 2% of unemployment where as the south was earning $13,028 an was 15% unemployed, so the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno was not a benefit at all but a hinder.

    The reasons why it didn’t work was because even though infrastructure might have improved the investment went to the localised centres and the trickle down effect that was hoped for didn’t happen. Lack of universities ment lack of skilled workforce for the job, plus as most of the factories are automated not as many jobs that was needed were provided. The profits that were made returned back to the bases in northen Italy with little benefit to south economy and any where on the comuter distance. In my conclusion the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno is a good idea but needs to be modified and up to date to fit in with the modernised world.

    The least developed regions in europe that are also on objective one status need to be helped aswell. Also I think the E. U. could sometimes help more then they are and be more involved ans see things through. Examine the factors that influence the development of one economic activity in a European region you have studied. In this essay I will examine the factors that influence the development of transport and tourism in the Mezzogiorno. The mezzogiorno consists of the 7 most southerly states of Italy, including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia.

    It is a poor, peripheral region with an ageing population. Employment in the area relies heavily on Primary activities. Tourism: Tourism has long been seen as a key part of economic development in the mezzogiorno. The region has a rich and varied culture as it was occupied by many civilisations including the Romans, Greeks and Arabs. Numerous historic cities are found in the region such as Herculaneum and Pompeii. Pompeii was a city in which mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD. A pyroclastic flow and ash preserved the city as it was and is now an extremely popular tourist attraction.

    As well as cultural attractions the mezzogiorno has a favourable physical environment for tourism. There are numerous scenic coastlines including the Sorrento coast which contains many sandy beaches. Over 17 million people visit the area per year. The mediteranean attracts many tourists with summer temperatures averaging 30 degrees celcius, with little rainfall. Food and wine also attract tourists due to their lower costs than North Italy and also Sorrenti vineyard holidays. The good aspects of tourism to the area are the capital coming into the area, higher employment rates and many people working part time.

    The bad aspects are that building e. g. hotels can be an eyesore, the local water supplies can’t keep up with the demand and the increase in traffic congestion and pollution. The Cassa per il Mezzogiorno invested heavily in tourism. The autostrade motorway system was built to attract tourists from northern Italy and 3,000 hotels were either built or refurbished. Transport: Peripheral regions are characterised by poor transport links which affect the tertiary sectors ability to attract investment. Part of the cassa per il mezzogiorno was to spend approximately 12 billion euro on regeneration.

    Twenty percent of this was spent on transport infrastructure such as the Autostrade motorway. The mezzogiorno has traditionally been isolated from the lucrative north Italian market due to the poor transport links and mountaineous relief. The distance from the markets is a major issue for perishable goods. There has been a trend of out migration from the mezzogiorno to cities such as Milan and Turin. This meant there was no young workforce. The cassa created 30,000km of autostrada, even through the Appenine mountains, and also an electrified rail system. Airports and ports were developed in the regon e. g.

    Taranto port and Naples airport. But the Cassa did not work and was terminated in 1984. Infrastructure was improved but much investment was localised to growth centres and money didnt trickle down to the rest of the Mezzogiorno. In my opinopn the Cassa was a good idea but it needs to be modernised. The area is still one of the least developed regions in Europe (objective 1 status) and needs to be helped. Tertiary economic activities: The Mediterranean climate is an excellent tourist attraction. The region needs, however, to develop the transport infrastructure and tourist facilities in order to reap the benefits of the tourist industry.

    Attractions in the region include Sicily, Mount Vesuvius and Pompeii. Igneous rocks are usually divided into two groups-intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) rocks. Granite is the most common of the intrusive rocks and it underlies most of the continents. Basalt is the most common of the extrusive rocks and it underlies most of the oceans. Granite was formed when magma intruded into the earth’s crust. This cooled slowly over a long period of time and formed a coarse grained rock that is very resistant to erosion. You need to know about the colour, the constituent minerals and the uses of granite.

    Major locations in Ireland include the Mournes and the Dublin-Wicklow mountains. Basalt was formed when lava was exposed at the surface and cooled quickly. It is a fine-grained, dull coloured rock and it is noted for its resistance (hardness). Sometimes, if it cools rapidly, it can split into hexagonal columns. The Giant’s Causeway is a good example of this. Basalt often results in the formation of a plateau—good examples are the Antrim-Derry Plateau and the Deccan of India Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form when molten rock (Magma if it is below the surface or lava if it has erupted from a volcano) solidifies.

    These rocks can be identified by the following tell-tale clues: Igneous rocks contain a minerals randomly arranged in crystals. If the rock has small crystals this means that it had rapidly cooled, possibly because it was erupted into the ocean. We call it an EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS rock. If the rock has large crystals it means that it slowly cooled, the molten rock solidifies deep down within the crust without ever reaching the surface via an eruption. We call it an INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS rock. The rocks are usually tough and hard (With the most famous exception being pumice stone).

    This is the most common form igneous rock which makes up most of the ocean floors. It is smooth and velvety-black in appearance and very hard. Basalt is formed when magma is erupted onto the sea-bed, as soon as it hits the cold sea water it cools quickly – it’s got tiny crystals. Pumice This rock floats on water. Carbon dioxide and water dissolved in the molten rock is released with the decrease in pressure as it reaches the surface. Lava cools quite quickly in the air so the bubbles of gas get trapped. Granite If molten rock doesn’t reach the surface via a volcano and cools underground instead, it solidifies very slowly.

    This is because overlying layers of rock insulate the magma keeping it warm, this only allows gradual cooling. Some crystals grow to a much bigger size giving granite a speckled appearance. Igneous rock- rock formed molten material or magma (extrusive cools on surface- obsidian, intrusive cools on inside-granite), Sedimentary rock- formed by chemical precipitation, lithification, formed in layers (clastic means rock is sediment, non clastic minerals/remains are), Metamorphic rock- changed by heat and pressure- marble, Magma-under earths surface, Lava- on the surface. ^^^Composite volcano- violent, subduction zone, Shield- hot spot, honey like lava, Cinder Cone- smaller than comp, violent, built up of ash and volcanic rock, Caldera- formed when a large volcanoe collapses, Dike- vertical intrusion down, Sill- opposite of dike, Laccolith- mushroom shaped intrusion off the batholith, Batholith- main intrusion

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