Case Study 1:
It is hypothesized that depletion of monoamines transmitters cause emotions such as sadness and guilt and can lead to psychiatric disorders such as depression. Thus, it is probably that due to a depletion of monoamines and other biologic functions within the brain, Mrs. B is feeling sad and lonely two of her loved ones have left her. These outside events have somehow triggered neurotransmitters in her body to make her experience such feelings as sadness and loneliness.
The humanistic perspective is based on free will and that people are in control of their own behavior and feelings. Thus, Mrs. B is consciously always thinking about the departure of her two loves ones and because of this constant focus on such unpleasant memories, she is feeling sad and lonely all the time. She desires for them to be with her but her wishes are not fulfilled, also making her feel sad and lonely. However, if she were to focus less on these unpleasant memories and more on other things, such as her students, she would feel happier and more uplifted.
Mrs. B may have experienced the departure of people that she was close to before in her childhood, such as close friends or relatives. Thus, when two more of her loved ones leave her she feels sad and lonely as before. The reason she felt so lonely after he child and father left her was because she was very close to them and all of a sudden, that close connection was broken when they left. So when she avoids creating more interactive and fun lessons for her students, she may actually be unconsciously avoiding developing closer relationships with her students so she does not feel hurt as she does now when they leave her and a new batch of students takes their place.
It is obvious that Mrs. B is feeling sad because the recent events of her child leaving for college and her father’s death. But when she sees her students in the classroom, her students’ faces may serve as a stimulus rousing memories of her own child that recently left her. This stimulus would then make her feel sad, just as when she felt sad when her child left for college, and prevent her from focusing on making lessons that are more creative and fun since she is wallowing in her own sadness while seeing their faces.
Mrs. B may interpret the departure of her of two loved one as something that was her fault. She may reason that she somehow pushed her father and child away, perhaps through lack of nurture and not spending enough time with them, and thus, they left her. This blame she has put on herself make her feel guilty, lonely and sad. Also, this interpretation of these recent events has also transferred to the classroom where she reasons that she might be to blamed for not caring enough for her students and thus feels less motivated to create fun and creative lesson plans.
Case Study 2:
The neurotransmitters in Barry’s mind are sending signals to his brain to make him feel guilty and ashamed for forgetting his date. Thus the guiltiness overwhelms Barry’s mind all the time and causes him to be distracted and this distraction made him miss the important project date.
Barry allows the memories of forgetting his date cloud his mind. He consciously refuses to get over his shame and guilt to make up with his date and apologize. Additionally, since he is so focused on such unpleasant memories, he becomes distracted and cannot focus on his work, making him miss the project date. He needs to realize that everyone makes mistake and should forgive himself so he can get over his guilt and make amends with his date.
Barry, being 45 and still living with his mother, probably experiences rejection from plenty of other women before. He now, probably, has a fear of rejection. Therefore, he may have, unconsciously, forgotten his date in order to avoid rejection from his date when they met and she may have not liked him. Yet he still feels guilty for standing her up and wants to make amends but the unconscious fear of rejection once again holds him back from doi
ng so. Behavioral-
Barry still lives with his mother, even at the age of 45, and spends many of his evenings with her and participates in chat rooms rather than actual interaction with real people. From this behavior, it can be concluded that Barry is not the most charismatic or independent man and is lacking in self-confidence. If Barry’s behavior in the past were to be observed, it can also be inferred that because of this lack of self-confidence he has a hard time interacting with girls and has thus faced many rejections. So when Barry was told he was set up on a blind date, this may have served as a stimulus which caused Barry to become incredibly nervous at the prospect of having to interact with somebody of the opposite sex outside the workplace. This nervousness overwhelmed his mind that it distracted him and made him late for his date. Additionally, whenever he wants to call her and apologize, the phone serves as a stimulus and reminds him of the unpleasant memories thus makes him to embarrassed to call and apologize.
Barry may have interpreted the scene as though she had left because she did not want to see or date him rather than thinking she had been stood up. Due to this reasoning, whenever he wants to call and apologize he still think that she does not like him, even though she never met him, and does not want to handle that rejection so he does not call her. Part 2
From a socio-cultural perspective, corporal punishment of children can be seen differently from people of different cultures due to their own beliefs and customs. In many Asian societies and cultures, it is thought that children need strict discipline and punishment to ensure good behavior. This culture or traditions has been passed down from generation to generation so anyone living in such Asian societies or being part of an Asian family shares the same view. Thus they would believe corporal punishment is fine since they believe children need strict punishment to behave. However, many western societies condemn such a practice because they believe children need nurturing and love to behave and grow up as a good person. Once again, this culture has been passed down so anyone of family from western society or who lives in western societies would believe corporal punishment should not be allowed since kids would only become bitter and would behave worse is they had to endure such a strict punishment.
From an evolutionary perspective, view of the use of corporal punishment or lack thereof would be based on which way would have best-served individuals to adapt to society better and outcompete others so that more people of their behavior would survive and thus more offspring of these individuals would be produced and carry these same trait. Those that had experienced corporal punishment as a child probably became tougher and resilient against hardships in contrast to those that did not experience it, who would have been less resilient again hardships. Thus, those that had experienced would have been “naturally selected” in that they were able to overcome such hardships and survive through them while the others were not able to survive them. Then the population of people that had experienced corporal punishment would grow larger than the population of people who did not. Thus the population of people who did experienced corporal punishment would produce more offspring that the other population. Eventually, after many generations, this trait of using corporal punishment would be most prominent in humans than the trait of not using corporal punishment after outcompeting the other population so a majority of individuals would be fine with corporal punishment.