Introduction Young people are the real asset of country, and they will be the emerging stars of future. For that they need sound education. To be successful in any field, education is as important for youth as blood for heart. According to one study, technology has basically revolutionalised the lives of all the people and accordingly, people would be so much used to the latest technology, that they would bring a dramatic change in the usage of cell phones. ”(Oksman, Turtiainen, 2004).
Therefore, it is reasonable not only for youth but as well as for the prosperity of the country to conduct research on this group to measure the impact of cellular phones on education. Among young people, the mobile is perceived and used as an always open personal link to a broad network of friends. Through this personal network, young people can easily make contact from almost any place, at almost any time and for almost any reason. Cellular phones have given the opportunity to parents to remain in contact with their children and get rid of tensions related to them.
Cell phone has opened the new ways of communication for everyone and expanded the social boundaries in the society; such as, new ways of accessing information through short message service, calls and voice messages, not only this, but the organizing academic meetings and availability of resources and they are possible with the emergence of cell phones. Though the use of cell phones has created lots of ease for society as a whole, it can not be escaped from producing negative effects on society generally and students in particular.
Thus, it can not be denied from the fact that the excessive use of everything produces the adverse effects and so does the cell phones. Some studies have shown its harmful effects on human body especially on heart which directly affected the education of students. Based on above, this created the interest to conduct research on the effects and impact of use of cell phones on the study of students on the twin cities of Pakistan that is, Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The first part of this paper introduces the subject matter.
The second part portrays the literature review – the works done so far in this area. The third part explains the methodology of this study. Results and discussions have been analyzed in fourth part and last part concludes the study. Statement of Problem The use of cellular phones, affect the studies of students of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Hypothesis Use of cell phones worsens the education of the students in twin cities. Definition of Variables Independent Variable. “Diversion of attention during studies due to cell phones. This independent variable explains at what extent the diversion of attention can reduce the study hours of the students and explains negative impact on education. Dependent Variable. “Total study hours in a day”. The variable ‘study hours’ has direct and positive impact on the results of the students and thus it shows the degree, quality and standard of education. Literature Review In their article, Adams & Paul are of the view that cell phone can be viewed as a device for saving time and space.
They argue that time management is the key motivator for creating a stimuli or sudden response to exchange the information which is the quickest form of technology. (Adams, Paul, 2005). In a work of Bolin, the importance of cell phones has been highlighted by the usage of several surveys which he conducted all over the world. Bolin is of the view that cell phones are a mark of identity for the youth of today. He exclaims that approximately 80% have all over the world cell phones and they have made a world of their own by involving themselves into different activities that are hidden from parents.
They use it for several purposes including meetings, text messages. (Bolin, 2006). According to Frandberg, the mobile phone has been the first communication device that is private and that has enabled contact between friends without the supervision of parents (Frandberg, 2005). Harvey and Greg write about their article non Mobile Phone as Media that the cellular phones have a tremendous effect upon the society and the cultures of people. They have penetrated into the lives of people as if they are a vital source for their living. (Harvey, Greg, 2005).
According to one estimate from a recent national media survey, the cell phones have negatively influenced the young people, mobile phone use has increased since 2001, still no more than 20 per cent of all young people (15–24 years old) make more than four calls per day (Kasesniemi & Rautiainen, 2002). In a work by Ling, there has been an emphasis upon the life styles and patterns of living of the young generation. The author writes that the young people continuously use their cell phones for saving time. They do so, by using text messages, short calls and electronic mails through it. (Ling, 2004).
Noah stresses upon the fact that cellular phones drag people to individualism and it facilitates a person to connect with just one person and thus creates a lack of socialization in many meetings or gatherings which are social in types. (Noah, 2005). In a periodical literature, there has been research to locate negative mobile phone stories between the years 1981 and 2000 in New York. The results showed that hand held phones and its usage has increased tremendously resulting in the possibilities for better communication but apart from that, it has disturbed the establishes patterns of social interaction to a great extent. Pain et al. , 2005. Research Methodology Sampling Technique Survey via questionnaires was conducted to examine the impact of cell phones on education in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. This study has used convenient sampling=provide any evidence for the use of convenience sampling from the literature. Because the results from this kind of sampling are not considered reliable (statistically). because there were too many universities in Rawalpindi and Islamabad solution to this problem may be a stratified sampling etc. nd therefore, access to information was not possible in terms of cost and time management The regression analysis is was be applied for the research. Note: Since, your study is based upon the twin cities, isb & pindi, so, the universities of the twin cities is your population not a sample. So, don’t write that you are using CONVENIENT SAMPLING! Population The Universities of twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad have been selected for the research. From Rawalpindi, Fatima Jinnah Women University and Arid Agriculture University has been selected how you selected these universities? there should be standard criteria, may be based upon probability sampling, for the selection of the universities) And why you are going to select these universities?. From Islamabad, Air University and Islamic International Universities were selected. Sample The sample consists of students from twin cities. The age group under consideration was of 15 to 25 years old students as respondent. Fifty this number should be proportional to the total strength of the students in the respective universities. tudents from Fatima Jinnah Women University were selected for the filling up of questionnaires whereas; fifty students from Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi were selected for the research. Moreover, fifty students from Air University Islamabad, and fifty students from Islamic International University Islamabad were taken for the questionnaire filling. That made a sample of two hundred students. Research Instrument Both primary and secondary data was collected. The primary data was collected through a comprehensive questionnaire from the students of twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.
The secondary data was collected from different sources including books, journals, periodicals and the internet respectively. Results Simple regression has been run applied to test the relationship. The results show that no strong relationship exists between ‘study hours’ and ‘diversion of attention due to cell phones’. The value of t-statistic is 1. 39 with a ‘p’ value 0. 17. The null hypothesis of no impact of diversion of attention due to cell phone use on study hours of students is not rejected on the calculated values of t-statistic and p-value.
This shows that there is no relationship between the use of cell phone and the study hours. The coefficient of variation R2 is 0. 01, which indicates the weak relationship between ‘study hours’ and ‘diversion of attention due to cell phones’. 10% only one percent not ten percnetof the variation of dependent variable is explained by independent variable. The descriptive analysis of the study does not support the hypothesis that the use of cell phones worsens the education of students in twin cities.
This can be proven from the responses from the questionnaire distributed you already have proven it. If it can be proven through descriptive statistics only then there is no need to apply a regression analysis. Upon asking the question that whether the cell phones have ruined the education of students, the data showed that at least 49% respondent did not agree with the statement that cell phone ruined the studies of the students this question so straight forward that no one will answer correctly, indicating a problem with the design of your questionaire.
Only 27% did agree with this statement while 14% were having the view that cell phone can affect the studies to some extent and 9% were those who had no opinion about this relationship. The next question was asking about the usage of cell phones and its effect on the results in the university. The responses showed that 60% respondent were of the view that results of the examinations at universities were good your audience is students, you are asking them about their results in connection with cell phone usage. Obviously, they will not accept it. Again design of questionnaire is in question here. fter using the cell phones and about 33% were of the view that the results were excellent after the use of Cell phone. In the response of another question about cell phone usage and help in academic information, 63% respondents said “yes” and were strongly agreed, 20% were tended to agree and only 6% disagreed with the statement while 10% were with no opinion. About 74% of the respondents were of the view that cell phones help in communicating with family, friends and relatives and it makes life easy and convenient in order to concentrate on studies.
Conclusion The general perception about the use of cell phones leaving negative impact on study hours of the students has been rejected from the results of the study. The results of the study show some positive outcomes from the use of cell phones on the study of students and their results. Use of cell phones help improving the relationship among students, decrease the communication gaps, produce a friendly atmosphere and helps accessing the academic information. References I think, this is not a standard way to present references. Adams, Paul. 2005) “The Boundless Self: Communication in Physical and Virtual Spaces, New York: Syracuse University Press. Bolin, G. (2006). Makten over tekniken eller teknikens makt? Monster i obilanvandningen 2005’. “The Power over Technology or the Power of Technology? Patterns in Mobile Phone Usage 2005), in Soren Holmberg and Lennart Weibull (eds), Du stora nya varld (Grand New World), pp. 403–11. Goteborg: SOM Institute. Frandberg, Lotta, Thulin, Eve and vilhelmson, B. (2005). Rorligbetens omvandling, Om resor ocb virtuell kommunikation – utveckling, drivkrafter,granser ( The transformation of mobility.
On Travel and virtual communication – Development, Driving forces, Limits. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Harvey, M. and Greg, H. (2005). The Mobile Phone as Media, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 8(2): 195-211. Kasesniemi, E. L. and Rautiainen, P. (2002), The Text Messaging Culture of Finnish Teenagers, in J. Katz and M. Aakhus (eds) Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, pp. 170–92. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oksman, Virpi and Turtiainen, J. (2004). Mobile Communication as a Social
Stage: “Meanings Of Mobile Communication In Everyday Life Among Teenagers In Finland”, New media and society 6(3):319-39 Ling, R. (2004). ‘The Mobile Connection. ‘The Cell Phone’s Impact on Society’, San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Noah, A. (2005). The World is Phone Booth: The American Response to Mobile Phones, 11(23). Pain, Rachel, Grundy, Sue, Gill, Sally,Towner, Elizabeth, Sparks, Geoff and Hughes, K. (2005). Mobile phones, Urban Life and Geographies of Young People’s Safety, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(4): 814–30.