Methamphetamine use in twin cities
ssA white crystalline powder, soluble in water or alcohol, that has a bitter taste, can turn one’s life around in just few hours - Methamphetamine use in twin cities introduction. Methamphetamine (Meth) is a central nervous system stimulant and has a high potential for abuse and dependency. Meth releases very high levels of dopamine in the brain. It stimulates brain cells and initially enhances mood. The user then experiences several symptoms; increased physical activities, hyperactive, decreased appetite. With higher doses or prolonged usage, the user can experience irritability, insomnia, confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia and increased aggression. In even higher doses, hypothermia and convulsions can cause death. When the body is stimulated by Methamphetamine, the drug can cause irreversible damage. The increased heart rate and blood pressure damage blood vessels in the brain which can cause strokes, or irregular heart beat, which can cause cardiovascular collapse and death. By vastly increasing the release of dopamine, Methamphetamine appears to damage brain cells, eventually actually reducing the amount of dopamine available to the brain, causing symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease and severe depression, or both.
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This research is studying Methamphetamine Use in Twin Cities, MN compare to other States and the whole USA. It also looks at different variables that show who the users are and what are their routes. The graphs that are used are Scatterplots and Bar Graphs. Almost all the graphs, have years as the Explanatory variable and quantitative Response variables. Scatterplot graphs include linear regression to determine the rate of growth (slope). None of the graphs have Normal Models.
Through this observational study, we are seeking to understand the relationship between these chosen variables that could help us to predict the future outcomes. But more importantly we are hoping to recognize the pattern and possibly manage its direction to prevent more damage to people and the environment.
According to Hazelden, in 2006 the average age of first time users who were admitted to treatment programs in Twin Cities was 21.1 years old. Men were accounted for 64.6 percent, that is the lowest percentage within any drug category (Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin). Where, there were only 35.4 percent of women of meth users, but is the highest percentage within any drug category. Most of the patients 88.5 percent were White. However, Asians accounted for 2.8 percent, and it is the highest percentage of Asians within any drug category.
When comparing United States and the Twin Cities information in the route the individuals used to get the Methamphetamine into their systems were fairly similar graft 11 and 12. Smoking the Methamphetamine had the most increase in the Twin Cities going from 13.2 percent to 66.8 percent in 2006 compared to US of 15percent in 1993 to 56 percent 2003. The slope for the Twin Cities (1997-2003) 6.84 with r value of .96 and the United States (1993-2003) 4.1 with r value of 1 because the there are only two points given. A decrease in sniffing is seen in both cases with a greater decrease seen in Twin Cities slope of -5.546 compared to the slope of United States of -2.7. Injection and oral decrease some with both United States and Twin Cites comparable.
Methamphetamine use is easily and fast spread through out the whole Minnesota. Meth can be simply made from items that anyone can get; chemical products, medicine. All those items are mixed and cooked to make this drug. The “Meth Labs”, where the cooking process occurs leaves a dark spot, not only in life of those who live there, but also to the environment. It leaves about 5 to 7 pounds of chemical waste for every pound of meth that is made. The waste doesn’t always take a solid form; it can take a liquid or gas form, and could be easily breathed, eaten, or absorbed through the skin.
If the logistics of Meth is never to be compromised, then a detailed study of the evaluation and the statistical analyses above that of the interpretation of these graphs should never be compromised. With the dangers of the drug in many parts of the world, the ethics and morals of healthcare professions should be invited to provide refuge to the consequences of the drug should never be compromised. Either, some critical school of through should pass through an objective study of the statistical results which have been compiled from the statistical data about the drug.
From the bar graph representing the patient population admitted in the Twin Cities for using methane, various statistical results can be drawn out. Suppose a histogram was to be fixed at the apexes of the bars. Firstly, from 1999, the curves would show an outward expanding character through out the years until 2005. This is an indication of a steadily increasing number of those admitted for using the same drug. However, the steady reduction of these patients population should never be taken for granted but rather statistical measures of evaluation taken to explain the context of this changing population. Consequently, should this population be attributed to certain campaigns or structural changes which have changed the people’s notion about the use of the drug? However, for a rational statistician, these results would compliment various conclusions which could only be visible via other explanatory structures.
From the graphs on the different patients admitted for treatment in Twin cities for treatment, the one for Meth shows a gradual positive relationship between the increasing population and the changes in time period. Though the number of these patients is seen to be lower than that of marijuana, cocaine and alcohol, it is more used than heroine. Initially, the initial level of the number of usage between Meth and heroine at the beginning (between 1995 and 1996) shows relatively the same amount of level. The use of Meth shows higher acceleration than that of heroine consequently producing a higher gradient implying that the number of people involved in its taking is considerably increasing with change in time. Here, the dependent variable is the population and time is the independent variable. Considerably therefore, the change in the population with a change in time from 1995 is increasing. If this result findings is to hold constant within the future, then the same population by he next 5 years (2010) would be approximately 3750 while 5000 in 2015. However, this is built on the results that are depicted by the former statistical data. Likewise, that of the heroine would show a considerable increasing number though lower than Meth. Substantially, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine show relative stable scales of their consumptions. The gradients of their approximated lines of fit would relatively show stabilities with zero-approximated gradients. This is to imply that, their number is seen to relatively be stable with changing time period. With this positive gradient on the liner graph for the use of Meth, what possible methods would be used to alleviate and reduce its use? Is its increasing use threat to human population? (http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Methamph/methamph2.html#scopes)
Perhaps however, the logics behind he previous increasing number in the usage of Meth can be ascribed to the reducing state in the analysis of the problem by labs in Minnesota. Throughput 2000, the use of the drug has shown an increasing state up to its climax in 2005. On a comparison of the number of labs even of the same drug in Minnesota, the same number has been decreasing considerably with the highest number, 5000, been in 2003. The same number in analysis of events has reduced consequently to 80 events in 2006.
In 2003 Minnesota got hit with 500 meth lab-related events, but that number decreased to 320 events in 2004. In 2005, there were only 128-reported meth production events in Minnesota. Eighty-five percent of these events were reported before the new legislation took effect in 2005. On July 1st, 2005 Minnesota State Law passed a law that restricted retailers across the nation to sell substances containing ephedrine and pseudoephedrine to anyone who is under 18 years of age. It is now can be only reached behind the counter and a buyer must provide identification and sign the sales list. The declining slope continued in 2006, and there were only 73 meth-related events reported to the Department of Health.
On the other hand, Methamphetamine admission to treatment facilities in the Twin Cities has been on the steady rise since 1997 to 2006. While Methamphetamine admission to treatment facilities in the United States has been on the rise since 1992 to 2004. Although the information that has been found about the United States admission was from 1992 and 2004, Minnesota’s information was from1997-2006. Using linear line formulation for the United States .583(x) + (-52.66) the percent for 1997 would be 3.89percent and Twin Cities average was 3.1 percent. By 2003 the Twin Cities (7.5 percent) was at the approximately the same percent as the United States (7.4 percent). Minnesota (10 percent) continues to rise above the United States (8 percent) in 2004. The United State’s information was from National Institute on Drug Abuse and Twin Cities was obtained information from Hazelden.
Information that was obtained from Drug and Alcohol Services Information Systems in 1993, the average United States Methamphetamine/Amphetamine admission rates per 100,000 populations aged 12 or older was 13 and Minnesota was 8 shown on graft 11. While, all of the surrounding states were below the United States average in 1993 for admission to treatment programs as well. Information showed that in 2003, Minnesota (100) passes the United States average (56) number of admissions by 44, which puts Minnesota at 1.79 times the national average. When comparing the admission rate of Twin Cities and Minnesota to the United State average, the Twin Cities was at United States average for 2003. This reflection of Minnesota admissions would suggest that the Methamphetamine use was in the increased rural areas. All of the surrounding states, except for Wisconsin and North Dakota, were above the national average in 2003. With Iowa extremely higher 3.8 times the United States average. Possible explanation for being above the average could be Methamphetamine can be made from fertilizer, and the states have strong agricultural background. This would explain the increase of Methamphetamine use in the rural areas of Minnesota. A rational statistician can either draw a coherent set of conclusion from this phenomena. Firstly, there is an indirectly relationship between the number of events in the number for Meth analysis and the number of patients taking it. Consequently, with a high number of events (500 in 2003) the number of population is 1400. However, the same number increases in 2450 in 2005 when the number of events are 120. Perhaps, the reduced number of population to 1600 in 2006 is a simple indicator that any further reduction in event would lead to less reduction in the patient population. Using the same data, perhaps the future of Meth taken would be adverse in the future if the same trend in its taking perceives the kind of reduced state as it is depicted by the statistical results. Throughout since 2002, the number of lab events about the drug shows a reduced volume until 2005. Likewise, the populations of the patients admitted in Twin hospitals is revealed to be considerably increasing. Therefore, there is a positive relationship between the decreasing number of population and the increasing number of the patient population.
Perhaps, the future of the Twin Cities population in use of Meth is fearfully great. From the statistical results of its patient admitted for treatment and the US, both of them are showing a positively relationship of the number (of patients) with the changing time. The dependent variable is taken to be the population while the independent variable is the time period. Though the relationship between the US and the Twin Cities is positive, the relationship found between Twin Cities is however highly radical than that of the US. Before the intersection point (7.5) in 2004, the population in US is greater than that of Twin Cities. However, the contrast occurs, after 2004 when the Twin Cities depicts a considerably increasing state of population than that of US. Therefore, the US patient population is increasing though at a relatively lower state (gradient) than that of the Twin Cities. The greater slope for the population of the Twin Cities than that of the US implies an increasing scale in the population of the patients over the years. Through the same relationship, the future of the Twin Cities would still imply a higher population if the same state of accelerated population is to be provided. The same relationship with other states such as Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Iowa showed that the population per 100,000 people aged 12 years and older was still larger for Twin Cities. (http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/methTX/methTX.pdf )
Patient admission in Twin Cities through smoking has showed an increasing trend since 1997. Though in 1997 was relatively lower than 20%, climax has been seen in 2005 when the population became great. This implies that, Meth taking over the year shows an acceleration through smoking than drinking. This would imply that the future of the next 5 to 10 years would show an increased number of Meth taking through smoking than in any other form. Additionally, smoking shows a positively linear relationship since 1995 compared to a negative slope of sniffing. Other methods such as injection and oral are relatively stable though used by a very small population. This is to imply that smoking will increase Meth patients in the future at the expense of sniffing which is perhaps to provide only a small population. Other methods though used by a small population percentage show a relatively stable state.
From the statistical data found from these results, the future of Meth patients is seen to be high if the Twin population is to assume the same path in the use of the drug. Either, smoking is seen to field the high number of persons addicted of then drug. From the results, various methods of sublime adequacy should be ventured into providing a discreet method of solving the problem.
Hazelden. (2007). Monitoring drug abuse trends – Nationally and in Minnesota. Butler Center for Research – Drug Abuse Trends. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.hazelden.org/web/public/drugabusetrends.page#
Minnesota Department of Corrections. (2006). Fiscal Year 2006 Report. Minnesota Prison Population Projections. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.corr.state.mn.us/documents/ProjectionsReport-FY06.pdf
Minnesota Department of Health. (2007). Methamphetamine and Meth Labs. Environmental Health – Touching Everyone’s Llife Every Day. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/meth/
Minnesota Department of Human Services. (2006). Minnesota Methamphetamine Resource Center. Disabilities. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=id_058351
Minnesota Public Radio. (2004). The Costly addiction. Meth in Minnesota. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/projects/2004/06/meth/
Research Report Series (2006) Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction. Retrieved on 17th November 2007 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Methamph/methamph2.html#scopes
The DASIS Report (2006) Trends in Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Admissions to Treatment: 1993-2003. Retrieved on 17th November 2007 from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/methTX/methTX.pdf
Glossary of Terms
Causal effect: shows that you have a causal relationship you have to show that you have some type of relationship.
Correlation: mutual relation of two or more things, parts, etc. Correlation requires that both variables be quantitative.
Death: the act of dying; the end of life; the total and permanent cessation of all the vital functions of an organism.
Emergency room: the section of a health care facility for providing rapid treatment to victims of sudden illness or trauma.
Ephedrine: a white, crystalline alkaloid, C10H15N, obtained from a species of Ephedra or synthesized: used in medicine chiefly for the treatment of asthma, hay fever, and colds.
Histogram: a bar graph of a frequency distribution in which the widths of the bars are proportional to the classes into which the variable has been divided and the heights of the bars are proportional to the class frequencies.
Increase: growth or augmentation in numbers, size, strength or quality.
Methamphetamine: a central nervous system stimulant, C10H15N, used clinically in the treatment of narcolepsy, hyperkinesia, and for blood pressure maintenance in hypotensive states: also widely used as an illicit drug.
Negative: measured or proceeding in the direction opposite to that which is considered as positive.
Positive: directed or moving toward a source of stimulation.
Pseudoephedrine: a dextrorotatory, isomeric compound, C10H15NO, used as a nasal decongestant.
Relationship: a connection, association, or involvement.
Scatterplot: a two-dimensional graph of two or more variables with them plotted on the Y-axis or the X-axis to show their relationship(s).
Skewed: not symmetrical about the mean. Used of distributions.
Statistics: the science that deals with the collection, classification, analysis, and interpretation of numerical facts or data, and that, by use of mathematical theories of probability, imposes order and regularity on aggregates of more or less disparate elements.
Strong: powerful, effectiveness, potency, or cogency; compelling.
Variable: a quantity or function that may assume any given value or set of values.
Weak: lacking potency, strength or intensity.