IMPORTANCE OF GERUND The Gerund: Gerunds are funny — they look like verbs, they sound like verbs, but they’re not verbs — they’re nouns! SpSpecificallyecifically, gerunds are action-oriented verbs that function as nouns. This always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used: As the subject of the sentence: Eating people is wrong. After prepositions: Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? She is good at painting After certain verbs, e.
g. like, hate, admit, imagine In compound nouns, e. g. a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spotting
What’s the difference between a Gerund and a Participle? A Gerund is a verb form used as a noun whilst a Participle is a verb form used as an adjective. Gerund : A verbal noun in Latin that expresses generalized or uncompleted action : Any of several linguistic forms analogous to the Latin gerund in languages other than Latin; especially : the English verbal noun in -ing that has the function of a substantive and at the same time shows the verbal features of tense, voice, and capacity to take adverbial qualifiers and to govern objects : A Gerund is a verb and noun combined.
g: “I think of retiring soon from business. ” Retiring is a verb, being part of the verb retire. It is also a noun, because it is object to the preposition ‘of. Participle a word having the characteristics of both verb and adjective; especially : an English verbal form that has the function of an adjective and at the same time shows such verbal features as tense and voice and capacity to take an object : A Participle is a verb and adjective combined. eg: “A retired officer lives next door. ” or “She was killed by a falling tile. Retired is a verb, being part of the verb to retire. It is also an adjective, because it qualifies the noun ‘officer’. Falling is a verb, since it is part of the verb to fall, but it is also an adjective in that it qualifies the noun ’tile’. Hence a participle may be called a verbal adjective. Usage of Gerund in English Language This looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it is now common to call both forms ‘the -ing form’. However it is useful to understand the difference between the two.
The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb),also known as ‘verbal noun’ so it can be used: a. As the subject of the sentence: Eating people is wrong. Hunting tigers is dangerous. Flying makes me nervous. b. As the complement of the verb ‘to be’: One of his duties is attending meetings. The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund. One of life’s pleasures is having breakfast in bed. c. After prepositions.
The gerund must be used when a verb comes after a preposition: Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? She is good at painting. They’re keen on windsurfing. She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road. We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary. This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e. g. in spite of, there’s no point in.. : There’s no point in waiting. In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time. d. After a number of ‘phrasal verbs’ which are composed of a verb + preposition/adverb Example: o look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, to keep on: I look forward to hearing from you soon. (at the end of a letter) When are you going to give up smoking? She always puts off going to the dentist. He kept on asking for money. There are some phrasal verbs and other expressions that include the word ‘to’ as a preposition, not as part of a to-infinitive: – to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to be used to. It is important to recognise that ‘to’ is a preposition in these cases, as it must be followed by a gerund: We are looking forward to seeing you.
I am used to waiting for buses. She didn’t really take to studying English. It is possible to check whether ‘to’ is a preposition or part of a to-infinitive: if you can put a noun or the pronoun ‘it’ after it, then it is a preposition and must be followed by a gerund: I am accustomed to it (the cold). I am accustomed to being cold. e. In compound nouns Example: a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spotting It is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb. Example: the pool is not swimming, it is a pool for swimming in. . After the expressions: can’t help, can’t stand, it’s no use/good, and the adjective worth: She couldn’t help falling in love with him. I can’t stand being stuck in traffic jams. It’s no use/good trying to escape. It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train. VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND The gerund is used after certain verbs. Example miss: I miss living in England. The most important of these verbs are shown below. Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clause Example:VERB GERUND She admitted… breaking the window
THAT-CLAUSE She admitted… that she had broken the window. Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when the gerund does not refer to the subject. Compare : I appreciate having some time off work. (I’m having the time… ) I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (You’re giving me the time… ) Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for + object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessive adjective + gerund (more formal and less likely to be said): Excuse me interrupting.
Excuse me for interrupting. Excuse my interrupting. Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is important not to confuse these patterns: suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund: He suggests going to Glastonbury He suggested going to Glastonbury He suggested/suggests my going to Glastonbury suggest/suggested + that-clause (where both that and should may be omitted): He suggests that I should go to New York He suggested that I should go to New York He suggested/suggests I should go to New York He suggested/suggests I go to New York
He suggested I went to New York. suggest/suggested + question word + infinitive: He suggested where to go. Propose is followed by the gerund when it means ‘suggest’: John proposed going to the debate but by the infinitive when it means ‘intend’: The Government proposes bringing in new laws.. Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change of meaning – see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section. Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with ‘think’, in the expression ‘I dread to think’: I dread to think what she’ll do next. Prevent is followed
EITHER by a possessive adjective + gerund: You can’t prevent my leaving. OR by an object + from + gerund: You can’t prevent me from leaving. Examples Most people don’t like receiving bad news. We can’t risk getting wet – we haven’t got any dry clothes. If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night. I can’t imagine living in that big house. If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way to Lahore. She couldn’t resist eating the plum she found in the fridge. They decided to postpone painting the house until the weather improved.
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