JAIN SCHOOL OF PAINTING We find Jain style in the four paintings of Jins (Jain Gods) in the Sittanvasala caves in 700A. D. The oldest examples of this school are the paintings of parshwa-Nath, Nemi-Nath and Rish-Nath etc, 20 Tirthankars in “KalKacharya Katha” and “Kalpa Sutra”. Most of the Jain paintings were done Black & white 10th&15th century. These paintings have been mostly executed on Tala-Patra. There was an article “Jain on Dwara Pallavit Chitrakala” in the “Vishal Bharat” written by Muni Kanti sagar in which he has mentioned these paintings to have been painted on Tala-Patra, paper and cloth.
In the Frayer atr gallery of Washington a manuscript o cloth named “Vasant vilas” was found which has been quoted as belonging to the Jain style by some art critics. The book has 50 Shalokas in it. Paintings of eyes have been a specialty of this school. Gold color also has been used. These Jain paintings are done on Tala-Patra by Red & Yellow colors. Because of the lack of space the lines have been very carefully drawn. After the advent of Mugals, Jain style suffered a set back but there was mention that Jain artists also were there in the court of Jahangir.
Muni Kanti Sagar has referred to some manuscripts which had Jain style paintings. Among them some are “Shri Kalpa Sutra”, Jain “Chitra Kalpa Lata”, “Sachitra Kalpa Sutra” the examples of Jain school are found in Calcutta, Baroda, Surat, Khambat, Bombay, Poona and Bikaner. Female figure were rare in Jain school. However some were found there but they were of worshipped Goddesses of the TirthanKaras which were painted in Chitra-Kalpa drum. Dhoti has been made especially beautiful.
The garments of saints have been shown white like pearls or golden garlands and Mukut have been specially designed and nicely painted. The paintings of ek Chasma (side profile), Ded Chasma(one and half eye face) and front pose have been done in this school. As we come to Rajput and Mugal school, we find specially developed form of this school. RAJASTHANI SCHOOL Rajasthani School consists of Mewar School, Kishan Garh School, Bikaner school, Bundi School and Jaipur School. In 15th century, it is supooesd to e the time of revival of Hindu literature of painting, music, art, architecture. All these saw a new dawn in this period. Paintings of Krishna religion, ragmala and ritikala poetry etc. were done in this period. This was not the traditional apabhransha style of painting. But in very divine and purify form of the same which originated in Gujrat and Mewar as a new school. This was called as Rajasthani or rajput or Hindu school. In the beginning the paintings were confined to different kings for their amusement, gradually it all came to the common man.
Several precious paintings were destroyed by the Mugal in 16th to 17th century. In the beginning, the style was inspired by religion as the followers of ramanuja like Surdas, Tulsidas, Meera Vallabha Charya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had taken the expansion and publicity of Hindu Vaishnava religion to climax. In later stage, paintings were done on romance and general folk theme. The whole Rajasthan was affected by the invasion of Mugals but Mewar did not come under this control up to last.
This was the reason that first of all Rajasthani School developed in Mewar in the present form. | PATNA SCHOOL OR COMPANY SCHOOL OF PAINTING After the downfall of Mugal’s emperor artist tried to settle themselves I different parts of the country some artist took refugee under the Nawab of Murshidabad as the conditions were better there. Paintings were on for three years but the cause of the quarrels of East India Company and the Nawabs and the attacks of Afgane and Maratha the painters settled at Patna during 1750-1776.
Paintings went on in Patna for two Centuries 18th-20th. It was a big business centre and the main commercial centre of British. That’s why the Britishers got mainly painting done by these artists and sent them to England depicting the social life, birds and animals. Two main artist of the school Lal Chand and his nephew Gopal Chand deciple of artist Dallu Lal of varansi lived with Maharaj Eshwari Narayan Singh of varanasi painted hundred of paintings from 1835 to 1888. This School started at the inspiration of the Britishers as they taught new echnique of water color to these artists and got the paintings done in the same style. But as these artists were of Mugal school. We find a mixture of Mugal and western art in Patna School which were of middle standard. Color and shading was of Europeon style and were considered of lower standard by the Britishers by their false propagainda. Artist started learning their wash technique of water color. The artist who copied Britishers art was rewarded accordingly. This way the Patna School got started.
The artist who properly copied the Britisher’s style was given the title of Company’s painter and was encouraged. According to Raja Rajeshwar Prasad Singh, Patna school was born in 19th century. The paintings,that the King and rich people of Patna got painted by the artist in there shelter were actually the work of Patna school. It does not look proper to call those paintings were done under the Britishers as belonging to Patna school. The name of Sewak Ram is important among the painters of that age along with Shiv Lal, Hulas Lal, Thumak Lal, Fakir Chand Lal and Jai Ram Das (1830-50).
Shri Ram Krishan Das is of the opinion that the name, Patna School is in appropriate as the painting were popular in the whole country mainly in Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, west and the Nepal, Britishers called it Patna School simple because some prominent artists were of Patna. The main center of the company school were Patna, Lahore, Delhi, Lucknows. Varanasi, Murshidabad, Nepal, Pune and Tanjore. dil Shahi, Nizam Shahi and Qutub Shahi rulers were the patrons in the development of Deccani School of painting.
A lot of artists flourished during the rule of Ibrahim Adil Shah (II) (1580-1627), who was a great lover of painting. It is evident from the availability of numerous portraits of Ibrahim Adil Shah in different museums of the world. One of the finest portraits of him can be found in the Lalgarh Palace at Bikaner. The British Museum has another portrait of him, which was reproduced by Douglas Barrett and Basil Gray in `Painting of India`. These two portraits represent the typical characteristics of Deccani School of painting, like the `richness and mellowed grandeur`, which were set in a mysterious background.
The Deccani school of Painting got inspiration from the Mughal School and evolved its own unique and very characteristic style. In the Prince of Wales Museum of Mumbai, the painting gallery has some typical examples of Deccani paintings, which have pale green, mineral-coloured backgrounds with figures placed squarely in the foreground. There are few other collections of Deccani paintings from Bundi, of the 18th century available here in this gallery, which deals with the theme of love. Another painting of the gallery depicts a lady looking in a Mirror (Bundi, 18th century).
In this one, the artist has created a courtyard with a lush garden in the background and a pond of lotuses in the foreground that blossom in reflection of the glory of the young girl, or lover. One more painting of Bundi in 17th century depicts a `Nayika` in agony painting in another mood. The young lady is in agony, suffering the torment of separation from her lover. Ibrahim Adil Shah was shown as a musician in few other paintings available in the Naprstck Museum, Prague, and the Goenka Collection, Calcutta.
Although the Mughal School of painting and the Deccani School of painting developed the naturalism due to European influence, yet there was a difference between the two. The Mughal school paintings were more dazzling in technique whereas the Bijapur or the Deccani School of painting represented more naturalism due to imaginative composition and poetic content. Some other Deccani paintings of that period include the paintings of an “Elephant”, “Ayogjni”, “Saints”, “Elephant fights”, “Sparrows”, “Falcons” etc. These paintings have a distinct quality of their own in the very unconventional composition.
The rich landscape mysterious atmosphere, gem-like colouring, lavish use of gold, exquisite finish, profusion of large plants, flowering shrubs, and typical Dakhni castles in the background and above all, the sweeping decorative rhythm that is of Bijapur origin are quite visible in them. But in many cases, the names of those creative painters were not known. There great works and reference of them are collected from the following sources: Bengal School Of Paintings Being one of the earliest art movements, Bengal school of art is sometimes lso known as Renaissance School as it arose against the academic art which was promoted by British during their rule in India. Towards the end of 19th century when the Indian painting started losing its glory due to historical and social reasons, British Raj promoted the academic art through British art schools and Raja Ravi Verma, one of the greatest painters of India was the foremost exponent of academic art as he incorporated the techniques of academic art in his paintings. Bengal school of art was mainly associaiated with nationalism but was encouraged by few British administrators as well. E. B.
Havel who was at that time the Principal of the Government School of Art, Calcutta encouraged students to imitate Mughal miniatures which invited lot of opposition from students as well as nationalists. But Abanindranath Tagore who was Rabindranath Tagore’s nephew supported Havel and started painting in Mughal style. Bharat Mata, one of the famous paintings by Abanindranath Tagore depicts a young woman with four arms. His other famous painting are “Passing of Shah Jahan”, “Buddha and Sujata”, “Krishna Lila” series, “Banished Yaksha”, “Summer”, “Moonlight Music Party” , “The Call of the Flute” and many more.
Havel and Abanindranath Tagore worked together to revolutionize the art. Following the footsteps of Abanindranath Tagore, many other painters started painting influenced by Mughal style, thus leading to a new school of art called Bengal School of art. However, with the spread of modernist ideas in 1920s Bengal school of art started declining. Gharwal School Of Paintings Lush Green forests, snow covered mountains and the unparalleled beauty of Uttaranchal makes it a popular holiday destination among tourists.
Among the hosts of activities that one can do in this tranquil state of India are enjoy the tourist spots, indulge in adventurous sports, meditate, rejuvenate or simply relax. Through ages, the mesmerizing beauty of Uttaranchal has been a source of inspiration to number of writers, poets, painters and many other artists making it literarily rich. One such treasure called Gharwal School of painting that originated in this state has immensely contributed towards the rich heritage of Indian painting. In the middle of 17th century AD, Suleman Shikoh took refuge in Gharwal.
Accompanying him was his court painter Shyamdas and the painter’s son Kehardas. After 19 months, Suleman Shikoh left Gharwal but Shymdas was so fascinated by the beauty of Gharwal that he stayed back. Though Shyamdas was well versed in Mughal style of painting, Pahari style of painting fascinated him. Eventually, King of Srinagar appointed him in his own court on a respectable post. Shyamdas son was Kheradas. Kherdas son was Hiralal and Hiralal’s son was Mangat Ram. Shyamdas’s successors, all of whom were masters in their own art, developed their own original style which came to be known as Gharwal School of painting.
It was Mangat Ram’s son Mola Ram who carved a niche for himself and took Gharwal School of painting to great heights. Mola Ram who was born in 1743 was a philosopher, poet and statesman and a great painter. Beautiful women with thin waist line, fully developed bosoms, soft oval shaped face, high arched delicate eye brows, thin nose with defined nose bridge are the special features of the Garhwal School of Painting thus making it a perfect blend of beauty, romance, passion, poetry and sometimes religion.
The paintings of Mola Ram are preserved at various places like HNB Garhwal Univeristy Museum, Srinagar, Boston Museum of art in the USA , Bharat Kala Bhawan, Banaras and Kastur Bhai Lal Bhai Sagrahaalaya, Ahmedabad. Book called ‘Garhwal Paintings’ by Mukandi Lal, a barrister by profession, revived this school of painting in 1968. Some of the most famous paintings of Gharwal school of painting are Illustrations of Ramayana (1780 AD), Celebrations of Balarama’s Birthday (1780 AD), Illustrations of Geet Govinda, Shiva and Parvati, Krishna Painting the feet of Radha, Radha looking into a mirror, and Varsha Vihar.