Question 1 With the use of appropriate examples, discuss the cross cultural issues or problems that International firms might face in their international staff assignment. Suggest strategies for international human resource managers in coping or reducing those issues or problem. (30 marks) Answer: Doing business on a global basis requires a good understanding of different cultures. What works in your country might not work well in another, and could even be interpreted as an insult!
And in your role as an international human resources professional, it’s important to raise the awareness of cultural issues within your organization to ensure effectiveness. When multinationals develop into or with other countries there may be an assumption that because everyone within the company is working for the same goals and to the same values, they will automatically communicate, think and view the world in the same way. When multiple cultures begin working together, problems or difficulties arise that many people within these companies are not skilled or adept enough to deal with effectively.
This can simply be because they’ve never had to deal with the issue before. Language is often the least difficult barrier to breach. When we know there may be language differences, we have a greater awareness of the potential for problems. However, much more often it’s a completely different way of seeing things and an inability, or unwillingness, to see what the other person is seeing that causes the difficulties. Cross National Difference In recent years, with the increase in globalization and diversity in the workplace, cross cultural management has become an important element of organizational.
Culture can be analyzed from a country, language, religion, value, ethical and/or many other areas of study as a frame of reference. The main cross national differences are- – Social & cultural Environment – Social structure of the society – Values and belief of people – Political environment – Legal system – Education system and standard – Quality of quantity knowledge work force – Level of available technology Managing Multiculturalism Cultural diversity Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole.
Human have spread throughout the world, successfully adapting to widely differing conditions and to periodic cataclysmic changes in local and global climate. The many separate societies that emerged around the globe differed markedly from each other. Cultural differences that exist between people, such as language, dress and traditions, there are also significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they interact with their environment.
Most people would agree that cultural diversity in the workplace utilizes country’s skills to its fullest, and contributes to overall growth and prosperity. Diversity at its core is about people and the behavioural characteristics that guide how we interact, i. e. “culture. ” To better understand this notion, let’s examine the impact of culture within our workplace organizations. Several aspects of culture shape today’s workplace. For example, employees’ communication style, time consciousness, and work practices all stem from their cultural programming.
The dominant cultural norm here in the United States dictates that business communication be specific and explicit. Meaning is found in the actual content of words with very little left to interpretation. However, in many ethnic and international cultures, communication is more implicit and indirect: meaning is found in and around the words themselves. By better understanding the cultural norms and values within their organization, leaders and their units benefit.
When this enhanced comprehension becomes a way to guide efforts, hiring practices, and employee relations strategies, diversity initiatives move away from lip service and become actualized. An honest cultural audit of an organization not only helps drive diverse policies and procedures, but goes far in the creation of welcoming workplace communities in which genuine cross-cultural interaction and respect for diversity are naturally occurring. And as an organization’s culture is identified and shared, diverse employees are more likely to express their cultural uniqueness within the context of stated organizational norms and values.
When organizational culture and individual human values work together, there can be synergy: the interaction or cooperation of two or more entities to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects. That is a definition of diversity in which we can all find meaning. Globalisation, the expansion of intercontinental trade, technological advances and the increase in the number of companies dealing on the international stage have brought about a dramatic change in the frequency, context and means by which people from different cultural backgrounds interact.
Cross cultural solutions to international business demands are increasingly being viewed as a valid and necessary method in enhancing communication and interaction in and between companies, between companies and customers and between colleagues. Cross cultural consultancies are involved in aiding companies to find solutions to the challenges cross cultural differences carry. International and national businesses are ultimately the result of people.
As with incompatible software, if people are running on different cultural coding, problems can occur. Cross cultural consultancies therefore concentrate their efforts on interpersonal communication. Different cultures and cultural backgrounds between a highly diverse staff base brings with it obstacles, challenges and difficulties. Cross cultural differences manifest in general areas such as in behaviour, etiquette, norms, values, expressions, group mechanics and non-verbal communication.
These cross cultural differences then follow on through to high level areas such as management styles, corporate culture, marketing, HR and PR. In order to overcome potential pitfalls, specialist attention is required in the form of a cross cultural consultant. As one would approach a doctor for a medical diagnosis or an accountant to examine finances, cross cultural consultants offer the expertise, experience and know-how to diagnose problems and provide solutions to interpersonal cultural differences.
Within companies there are many facets in which cultural differences manifest. Some key areas which cross cultural consultants deal with include, but are not exclusive to, the following: Cross Cultural HR: HR covers a wide range of business critical areas that need cross cultural analysis. Consultants may offer advice on a number of areas including recruitment, relocation, international assignments, staff retention and training programmes. Cross Cultural Team-Building: in order to have a well functioning business unit within a company, communication is critical.
Cross cultural consultants will provide tools and methods to promote staff integration, reduce cross cultural conflicts and build team spirit. This is essentially done through highlighting differences and building on strengths to ensure they are used positively. Cross Cultural Synergy: international mergers, acquisitions and joint-ventures require people from different cultural backgrounds to harmonise in order to succeed. Cross cultural consultants counsel on group mechanics, communication styles, norms, values and integration processes.
Cross Cultural Awareness Training: working with colleagues, customers or clients from different cultural backgrounds, with different religions, values and etiquettes can occasionally lead to problems. Cross cultural awareness training is usually a generic introduction into a culture, country, region or religion. The aim is to equip the trainee with the adequate knowledge to deal comfortably with people from different cultures, avoiding misunderstandings and mistakes. Cross Cultural Training for Expatriate Relocation: staff that travel overseas need to understand the cultural basics of the host country or region.
Knowledge of the country’s history, culture, laws, traditions, business practices and social etiquettes all help to minimise the impact of culture shock and hence smooth their transition overseas. Cross Cultural Negotiations: equipped with their knowledge of the two or more cultures that can be meeting around the negotiation table, a cross cultural consultant advises on areas such as negotiation strategies, styles, planning, closure and etiquette in order to increase the chance of a successful outcome, free from misunderstandings, suspicions and general cross cultural communication breakdown.
Cross Cultural PR Consultancy: brand image, public relations and advertising are all areas companies must be careful of when moving out of the national context. Tastes and values change dramatically from continent to continent. It is crucial to understand whether the brand name, image or advertising campaign is culturally applicable in the target country. Cross cultural consultants examine words, images, pictures, colours and symbols to ensure they fit well with the target culture.
Cross Cultural Language Training: Language training is an area where little investment is made by companies, but where the business advantages are great. Linguistic knowledge goes a long way in bridging cultural gaps and smoothing lines of communication. Cross cultural consultancies provide language training to business staff, moulding their learning to the business environment in which they work. In conclusion, clearly the role and expertise of cross cultural communication consultants is important for today’s international business.
The potential pitfalls cross cultural differences present to companies are extensive. In essence a cross cultural consultant’s primary objective is integration. This integration, between colleagues, clients and customers is crucial for business success. Equipped with experience, knowledge and above all objectivity, a cross cultural consultant creates bridges of understanding and opens lines of communication.