INTRODUCTION Johnson and Johnson have revolutionized the way people think about health care, and has easily become the pinnacle of success by doing so. Pioneers of the health care industry and overall human health and well being, Johnson and Johnson is guided by its “Our Credo” and founding principle that “doctors and nurses should use sterile sutures, dressings and bandages to treat peoples wounds” (Johnson and Johnson – Our History).
Most of Johnson and Johnson’s success can be attributed to its emphasis on decentralized management, which allows for greater focus as the company blankets 250 countries across the world (Johnson and Johnson – Strategic Planning). For the last 120 years, Johnson and Johnson have been on the forefront of innovation for each of its three divisions, but it must continue to develop and grow in order to maintain its position for the future. This report will investigate, assess, and put forth recommendations to ensure continued success for Johnson and Johnson.
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS 2009 Revenue In 2009, Johnson and Johnson experienced its first sales decline in over 76 years (JNJ 2009 Annual Report). The decline was due to a worldwide recession which caused 2009 sales ($61. 9B) to decrease 2. 9 percent from 2008 figures ($63. 7B). Of the three business segments which make up Johnson and Johnson, only the Medical Devices and Diagnostics segment reported an increase in sales from 2008. This segment increased its sales by 1. 9 percent from 2008’s figures to $23. 6B. The Pharmaceuticals segment reported sales of $22. 5B (down 8. percent), while the Consumer Products segment reported sales of $15. 8B (down 1. 6 percent) (JNJ 2009 Annual Report). Only the Medical Devices and Diagnostics US sales showed any increase from 2008’s sales levels. Figure 1 below represents the three business segments displaying US and International 2009 sales figures. [pic] Figure 1. 2009 Sales Figures For Business Segments (US & Int’l) 2009 Quarterly Revenue In 2009, Johnson and Johnson showed flat revenue and cost expenses growth for the first three quarters, while the fourth quarter displayed increases in revenue and costs.
Costs of Goods, Gross Profit, and Operating Expenses showed increases in the fourth quarter, while showing decreases in operating and net income (see table 1). It should be noted that for the fourth quarter increase in Operating Expense, Johnson and Johnson recorded restructuring charges, factory closings, and currency reevaluations. Table 1 Johnson and Johnson 2009 Quarterly Results [pic] Source: Johnson and Johnson, Mar 2010, Web. Balance Sheet The review of Johnson and Johnson’s balance sheet shows a strong financial position that is easily able to service debt and finance ongoing operations.
Table 2 shows a brief summary of the company’s assets. Table 2 Johnson and Johnson Assets [pic] Johnson and Johnson’s liabilities and equity section further reinforces the company’s strong position. Table 3 shows a consistent track record of long term debt and a low amount of accounts payable. Table 3 Johnson and Johnson Liabilities/Equity [pic] This gives an indication that Johnson and Johnson has been able to fund its operational activities without the need for heavy financial leverage. This is an important attribute given the current economic conditions.
These same conditions provide an excellent opportunity to borrow money at a very attractive rate. This ability to leverage debt at low rates might provide Johnson and Johnson even further opportunities to be able to expand and increase its market presence through new product developments and/or acquisitions. 2006 – 2009 Financial Review The results of the worldwide recession have lead to Johnson and Johnson exhibiting flat revenue and expenses for the past three years. The increases between 2006 and 2007 in both categories were the result of acquiring Pfizer’s Consumer Healthcare division.
Most analysts are expecting ~4. 2 percent sales growth for 2010 (Yahoo). Figure 2 below shows the past four years of revenue, expenses, and income. [pic] Figure 2. 2006-2009 Revenue, Expenses, And Income Figures For All Business Segments Ratio Analysis Financial ratios provide a means to analyze the operations of a company in comparison to its industry and its historical results. Liquidity Ratios Johnson and Johnson has a current ratio of 1. 8X which is the same as the current ratio for the industry. The quick ratio is 1. 6X compared to the industry’s 1. 4X provides further evidence of the company’s liquidity.
This will provide needed working capital necessary to develop new products and finance potential acquisitions. (Ventureline) Johnson and Johnson’s receivables turnover ratio is currently 6. 4X and mirrors the current industry average. It is also higher that it’s three major competitors: Merck & Company, Novartis AG, and Pfizer, Inc. This high ratio indicates an efficient collection of credit sales, which minimizes the wait before funds are received and available for use. Inventory turnover is currently at 3. 6X and slightly better than the industry average of 3. 5X.
It is also nearly twice as high as its three major competitors. This provides a competitive advantage since there is not a high level of inventory that could be deemed obsolete due to new drug developments or decreased potency. In addition, capital is not tied up in maintaining inventories that do not provide any return. Debt Ratios The current times interest earned ratio for Johnson and Johnson is 25. 1X compared to the industry average of 4. 2X. This is an area of concern given the current low cost of borrowed capital. Earnings might be better utilized in R or acquisitions instead of paying off debt.
This concern is reinforced by the lower than average equity multiplier. The industry ratio of 2. 3X is higher than Johnson and Johnson’s 1. 9X which indicates a low degree of leverage. The debt to equity ratio is 0. 9X versus 1. 3X for the industry. This indicates a lower use of debt to finance its operations. While this is not necessarily a cause for concern, it could indicate a loss of earnings that could be generated if the company was more leveraged. (Ventureline) Profitability Ratios The return on equity ratio for Johnson and Johnson is 24. 20 percent compared o the industry average of 18. 10 percent. This indicates a better than average return on investment for its shareholders. This reduces the concerns expressed earlier that returns could be higher through additional leverage. The company is currently exceeding the industry average without excess debt so no operational modification seems necessary at this time. The return on assets ratio of 13. 00 percent versus the industry average of 8. 00 percent further confirms the efficiency of current operations without the need for additional leveraged debt. (Ventureline) Market Value Ratios
The current price to earnings ratio of 14. 5X versus industry average of 4. 5X indicates stockholders expect a higher return on their investment. This is validated by the return on equity ratios and the company’s ability to operate effectively without excessive debt. (Ventureline) Johnson & Johnson vs. Competitors Analysis Johnson and Johnson competes in many markets against hundreds of companies. For the three business segments, Johnson and Johnson benefits from healthy market share, easily recognized brand names, and strong emphasis on research and development.
As with any developing, or mature market, the increasing threats of global competition forces companies to become innovative with product development, marketing tactics, and synergizing divisions to become highly successful. Johnson and Johnson have many competitors, but with an overall company comparison only three companies will be compared to Johnson and Johnson in this report; Merck & Company (MRK), Novartis AG (NVS), and Pfizer, Inc. (PFE). Of the three companies listed, only Merck exhibited outstanding income returns during the 2009 fiscal year.
Figure 3 shows fiscal 2009 year comparisons. [pic] Figure 3. 2009 Revenue, Expenses, and Income For JNJ Vs. Various Competitors 2006 – 2009 Geographic Sales In 2009, International sales exceeded US based sales figures for the first time in the company’s history. International sales for 2009 were slightly over $31B, while US sales came in at slightly under $31B. US sales for the past three years have been decreasing, while sales in the Asian-Pacific/Africa region has be responsible for the increase in International sales. The European market has mirrored the US for the past four years in sales.
South American sales have basically been flat for the past three years. One area for continuing growth is the Asian-Pacific region. There is a global strategy that is well under way within Johnson and Johnson to increase market share in all three business segments. Figure 4 below shows the past four years of sales by geographical regions. [pic] Figure 4. 2006 – 2009 Sales By Geographical Region CORPORATE STRUCTURE Johnson and Johnson is divided into three business segments: [pic] Figure 5: Business Segment Diagram of Johnson and Johnson
Based upon a July 2009 Fortune article, Johnson and Johnson is the world’s largest pharmaceutical company (Fortune, Appendix A). Johnson and Johnson is also the world’s largest medical devices and diagnostics company (JNJ) and a worldwide leader in consumer health products. Johnson and Johnson employ approximately 115,500 people in over 250 companies located in 57 countries. Johnson and Johnson’s worldwide headquarters is located in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Strategic Principles Johnson and Johnson operates and conducts business to “Our Credo” and four basic strategic principles (JNJ): . Broadly Based in Human Health 2. Decentralized Management Approach 3. Managed for the Long Term 4. People and Values “Our Credo” was written by Robert Johnson, former CEO of the company in 1943. It is the basic decision making guideline for the company’s leaders and employees. In this document are philosophical guides that stress the needs and well-being of people come first. A copy of this can be found in Appendix B. Johnson and Johnson’s four basis strategic principles are Broadly Based in Human Health, Decentralized Management Approach, Managed for the Long Term, People and Values.
Being broadly base allows Johnson and Johnson to share its resources and technologies quicker between the business segments, and bring those products to market quicker. Johnson and Johnson utilizes a decentralized management approach throughout the entire organization. The management team formulates the yearly business strategy plans and leaves it up to each individual unit to implement those plans. This gives Johnson and Johnson the advantage of specific regional adaption and quick market placement within that region.
Johnson and Johnson also has a “Long Term” approach to strategy implementation and employee development. Johnson and Johnson’s long term approach focuses on shareholder value, environmental concerns, employee development, and product safety. With the long term investment of its people, this leads into the fourth principle of People and Values. Johnson and Johnson considers its people and core values as its greatest asset. Corporate SWOT Analysis The following table lists the overall company SWOT characteristics of Johnson and Johnson. Table 4: Johnson and Johnson Corporate SWOT Analysis Strengths |Weaknesses | |Established Brand Name |Flat Domestic Sales Growth | |Diverse Product Offering |Patent Expiration | |Global Presence |Generics Surging | |Strong Financial Position |Marketplace Ignorance | |Strong Environmental Record | | |Opportunities |Threats | |Healthcare Reform |FDA Guideline Changes | |Social Networking |Copyright Infringement | |Emerging Markets |Economic Recession | |Diabetes Market Share |Healthcare Reform | |Future Acquisitions |Global Competition | | |Generic Drug | Strengths
Johnson and Johnson is a well established company rich in history, product development, and innovation. Since its founding in 1886 it has grown by focusing on its inner strengths. One of these strengths is established brand names. Band-Aid®, Listerine®, and Motrin® are just a few examples of the established brand name product offerings through Johnson and Johnson. An additional strength is its global presence. It operates in over 57 countries through 250 companies. Johnson and Johnson’s global presence enables the company several growth and acquisition opportunities, while supplying its products to broad range of customers. It also reduces the financial threat of operating in a specific area of the world.
Another strength example is its strong financial position. It currently has $15. 8 billion in cash on hand and reported worldwide sales of $61. 9 billion for 2009 (JNJ 2009 Annual Report). Johnson and Johnson has also received numerous awards for its environmental position. It has focused on how its products are packaged (recycled material), method of shipping (increased efficiency to reduce greenhouse gases), and local community input when dealing with the environment. Weaknesses Johnson and Johnson over the past few years has seen a shift from International Sales outperforming its Domestic Sales growth. For the past four years Johnson and Johnson has experienced flat domestic sales growth.
This could be attributed to a mature, saturated domestic market or a customer financial shift to generic consumption. Johnson and Johnson’s patent expirations are another weakness. Johnson and Johnson for 2009 lost an estimate $3 billion in sales from just two patent expirations; RISPERDAL® and TOPAMAX® (JNJ 2009 Annual Report). Over the past several years have seen the surging supply of generic consumable products (i. e. retail brands) and prescription drugs. Compounding this increase in generic consumption is the current economic conditions and purposed healthcare plan for all Americans. Taking these conditions into consideration, Johnson and Johnson must not assume that everyone knows about its products.
As it expands into different countries around the world, it must be conscious of local cultures/customs and how to market its products to suit those situations. Opportunities The worldwide demand for medical supplies, devices, and drugs provides Johnson and Johnson with unlimited sales and growth potential. Johnson and Johnson has the opportunity of increasing its domestic sales with the passage of the Healthcare Reform Act. With this passage, Johnson and Johnson has the opportunity of reaching over 30 million potential customers who were previously uninsured. To help take advantage of this opportunity Johnson and Johnson must increase its media awareness.
Social networking on Facebook and Twitter are just a couple of examples of how Johnson and Johnson could reach a larger, more diverse community all around the world. The more consumers see and hear about Johnson and Johnson the more likely they are to purchase Johnson and Johnson products; therefore, it must have its names continuously in the media. Finally, it must always be on the lookout for future acquisitions. These acquisitions provide the company with increase sales and revenue dollars to fuel the research and development of other products. The potential future sales for the diabetes market has unlimited opportunities. Threats The global economic crisis has had an unfavorable affect on Johnson and Johnson.
For the past 3 years, yearly sales figures have basically remained flat and during this time Johnson and Johnson had to restructure itself which resulted in the loss of several thousand, experienced workers. With the passage of the Healthcare Reform Act, Johnson and Johnson has announced that “government rebates under the health care overhaul would reduce its 2010 revenue up to $500 million and its profit by about $300 million, or 10 cents per share” (Yahoo). Johnson and Johnson is facing intense competition from many competitors, both domestic and international. Along with this intense competition is the increasing supply and demand for generic prescription drugs. As the demand for prescription drugs increases, so does the infringement of patent exclusivity in undeveloped countries.
To a company the size of Johnson and Johnson this could result in billions of lost sales revenue. Management Team and Employees As with any successful company, long-term employee development is very critical in today’s economic times. The management team members at Johnson and Johnson, on average, have over 20+ years experience with the company. A comprehensive team list can be found in Appendix C. Johnson and Johnson currently has approximately 115,500 employees in 57 countries through 250 companies. The company has received numerous awards recognizing it for its diversity, talent retention, strategy implementation and workplace conditions (JNJ – Programs and Activities).
Company sponsored programs include affinity groups, mentoring programs, and Diversity University. The affinity groups and mentoring programs promote community involvement and encourage employee development by matching new employees with experienced co-workers further promoting overall workforce development. Diversity University is an online resource that Johnson and Johnson provides to encourage its employees to embrace the vast cultural makeup of its workforce and to encourage openness to new ideas through education. Acceptance of a diverse workforce is essential to a company that operates in 57 countries. This diversity also fits in well with the decentralized management style.
The company as well as its employees strives to be good citizens in the communities and countries they live in. Charitable and ecological programs help to promote good corporate citizenship and has been responsible for the company winning many awards. Consumer Health Care Business Segment The Consumer Health Care business segment is led by Ms. Colleen A. Goggins. Ms. Goggins has held the title of Worldwide Chairman, Consumer Group since June 2001, and has been employed by Johnson and Johnson since 1981. The Consumer Health Care business segment focuses on providing products to the consumer. Its vision is “BRINGING SCIENCE TO THE ART OF HEALTHY LIVING™ (JNJ). The Consumer Health Care business segment is organized into seven major business units. These units can be seen in the figure 6 below. [pic] Figure 6: Consumer Health Care Business Segment Units McNeil, Neutrogena, Colbar, Cilag are major sub company’s under the Johnson and Johnson umbrella of consumer health products. A product listing can be found in Appendix D. Key Competitors Johnson and Johnson has several competitors in the consumer healthcare market. Here is a partial list of these competitors: • Merck • Bayer • Kimberly-Clark • Wal-Mart • Any Retail Drug Store Financials Shown below in Table 5 are the past four years of sales figures for the Consumer Health Care business segment.
Table 5: 2006-2009 Yearly Sales Figures For The Consumer Health Care Business Segment (JNJ 2009 Annual Report) [pic] Shown below in Table 6 are the past two years first quarter results of sales figures for the Consumer Health Care business segment. Table 6: 2009 & 2010 1st Quarter Sales Figures For The Consumer Health Care Business Segment (SEC) [pic] Current Events In 2009, Johnson and Johnson reported the Consumer Health Care business segment sales were $15. 8 billion, a decrease of 1. 6 percent from 2008. This was mainly due to the worldwide economic recession. For the previous quarter, Johnson and Johnson reported a 1. 50 percent increase in sales of $3. 8 billion. This increase was driven by stronger international performance.
Sales increased in all the business units except for the OTC/Nutritionals unit. In 2009, Johnson and Johnson introduce Listerine® Total Care in the U. S. and Aveeno® Nourish worldwide. Johnson and Johnson also increased its consumer product offerings by acquiring Dabao® brand in China, Vania Expansion SNC and Le Petit Marseillais® in Europe. In December 2009, Johnson and Johnson announced a recall of all Tylenol® Arthritis Pain 100 following consumer reports of unusual smells. Johnson and Johnson has stated this recall has had a minimal impact on sales. In January 2010, Johnson and Johnson expanded its voluntary recall of all Tylenol® and specific OTC products.
Medical Devices & Diagnostics Business Segment The Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment is led by Mr. Alex Gorsky. Mr. Gorsky has held the title of Worldwide Chairman, Medical Devices and Diagnostics Group since September 2009, and has been employed by Johnson and Johnson since 1988. The Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment focuses on providing products to hospitals, research labs, and out-patient medical clinics. The Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment is organized basically into ten major business units. These units can be seen in the figure 7 below. [pic] Figure 7: Medical Devices & Diagnostics Business Segment Units
The following list is a summary for the companies that make up the Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment (JNJ): • Advanced Sterilization Products o Sterilization, Disinfection And Hand Hygiene Products • Animas Corporation o Diabetes Management And Education Programs • Cordis Corporation o Interventional Vascular Technology Development And Manufacturing • DePuy, Inc. o Designer, Manufacturer And Distributor Of Orthopedic Devices, Trauma Products, Implants • Ethicon, Inc. o Aesthetic Medicine, Biosurgicals, Hernia Solutions, Infection Control, Pelvic Health, And Wound Closure • Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. o Develops And Markets Medical Devices Invasive And Open Surgical Procedures • Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc. World’s Leading Manufacturer Of Disposable Contact Lenses • Lifescan, Inc. o Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems (Onetouch®) • Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Inc. o Advanced Testing For Detection Or Diagnosis Of Disease • Virco Bvba o Diagnosis And Management Of Infectious Diseases Since these companies operate as their own entity, all have made company acquisitions of other companies within the past several years. This has allowed these companies to expand their range of services, while expanding the Johnson and Johnson portfolio offerings. Key Competitors Johnson and Johnson has several competitors in the medical devices market. Here is a partial list of these competitors: • Siemens • Phillips • GE • Medtronic Boston Scientific, In Financials Shown below in Table 7 is the past four years of sales figures for the Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment. Table 7: 2006-2009 Yearly Sales Figures For The Medical Devices & Diagnostics Business Segment (JNJ 2009 Annual Report) [pic] Shown below in Table 8 are the past two years first quarter results of sales figures for the Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment. Table 8: 2009 & 2010 1st Quarter Sales Figures For The Medical Devices & Diagnostics Business Segment (SEC) [pic] Current Events In 2009, Johnson and Johnson reported the Medical Devices & Diagnostics business segment sales were $23. billion, an increase of 1. 9 percent from 2008. Johnson and Johnson viewed this small increase as a win considering the worldwide economic recession. For the previous quarter, Johnson and Johnson reported a 12. 5 percent increase in sales of $6. 2 billion. This increase was driven by stronger international performance and favorable currency impacts. Sales increased significantly in all the business units except for the Cordis unit. In 2009, Johnson and Johnson introduced several new products and made several acquisitions. Some of the new products introduced to the medical devices industry and acquisitions were: • CARTO® 3, from Biosense Webster, Inc. – this gives doctors a 3D image of the heart to treat cardiac arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation • SURGIFLO® Hemostatic Matrix Kit, from Omrix Biopharmaceuticals – advanced flowable hemostat used in surgical procedures • ACUVUE® TruEye™, the world’s first daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lens • SEDASYS® System, the first computer assisted sedation system • PINNACLE® CoMplete™ Acetabular Hip System, the first ceramic-on-metal hip replacement • Acclarent, Inc. • Finsbury Orthopaedics, Ltd. • Gloster Europe • Omrix Biopharmaceuticals In the first quarter of 2010, Johnson and Johnson filed for the CE Mark used throughout Europe for its NEVO® stent, which is offered through its Cordis Corporation. Johnson and Johnson is focused on the drug-eluting stent market, even though it has seen flat to decreasing year-over-year sales. Pharmaceuticals Business Segment
The Pharmaceuticals business segment is led by Ms. Sherilyn S. McCoy. Ms. McCoy has held the title of Worldwide Chairman, Pharmaceuticals Group since January 2009, and has been employed by Johnson and Johnson since 1982. The Pharmaceuticals business segment targets five therapeutic areas and is organized into three global business units. The five therapeutic areas are neuroscience, cardiovascular disease and metabolism, immunology, infectious disease, and oncology. In 2009, Johnson and Johnson invested over $4. 6B in research and development for the Pharmaceuticals business segment. These global business units can be seen in the figure below.
A pharmaceutical product list can be found in Appendix E. [pic] Figure 8: Pharmaceuticals Business Segment Units Key Competitors Johnson and Johnson has several competitors in the pharmaceuticals market. Here is a partial list of these competitors: • Merck • GlaxoSmithKline • Novartis • Roche • Sanofi-Aventis • AstraZeneca • Bristol-Myers Squibb Financials Shown below in Table 9 is the past three years of sales figures for the Pharmaceuticals business segment. Table 9: 2007-2009 Yearly Sales Figures For The Pharmaceuticals Business Segment (JNJ 2009 Annual Report) [pic] Shown below in Table 10 are the past two years first quarter results of sales figures for the Pharmaceuticals business segment.
Table 10: 2009 & 2010 1st Quarter Sales Figures For The Pharmaceuticals Business Segment (SEC) [pic] Current Events In 2009, Johnson and Johnson reported the Pharmaceuticals business segment sales were $22. 5 billion, a decrease of 8. 3 percent from 2008. Johnson and Johnson reported a loss of nearly $3 billion in sales due to patent expirations of Risperdal® and Topamax®. For the previous quarter, Johnson and Johnson reported a 2. 5 percent decrease in sales of $5. 6 billion dollars. This decrease was driven by a 12. 7 percent decrease in domestic sales. Johnson and Johnson showed an increase in strong international performance (+15. 5 percent) and favorable currency impacts.
In 2009, Johnson and Johnson introduced several new products. Some of the new products introduced to the pharmaceuticals industry were: • SIMPONI™ (golimumab) • STELARA™ (ustekinumab) • NUCYNTA® (tapentadol) Immediate Release Tablets • INVEGA® SUSTENNA™ (paliperidone palmitate) • PRILIGY™ (dapoxetine) In addition to these new product offerings, REMICADE® was approved by the FDA for fifteen additional immune system disorders. Johnson and Johnson also co-developed Rivaroxaban with Bayer HealthCare AG which prevents thrombotic conditions. Finally, Johnson and Johnson had several drugs in Phase III clinical trials, which involves the treatment of diabetes, prostate cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
In 2010, Johnson and Johnson announced that the FDA had approved Pancreaze™ for the treatment of the digestive system to absorb food due to a lack of enzymes produced by the pancreas. EXTERNAL FACTORS Johnson and Johnson’s external environment offers several threats to the company’s continued high performance and success; but it also offers some valuable opportunities. The external environment includes competition and market conditions. Competition Currently, Johnson and Johnson is staying ahead of the competition; although, it is already losing revenues due to generic competition. “Since min-2008, sales of four of its leading drugs have been hurt by new generic competition” (Cohen, 206). This dimension of the external factors is one that Johnson and Johnson faced constantly. According to IMS Health Inc. a market research and consulting firm specializing in the pharmaceutical industry, the global pharmaceutical industry faces a cumulative loss of $137 billion in sales in the years 2009 through 2013, as generics encroach on a slew of patent-expired branded blockbuster drugs (Standard and Poor’s Industry Survey, 1). Generic competition is a leading cause in loss of revenue for Johnson and Johnson and will continue to be so in the coming years, which means Johnson and Johnson must be prepared for this fierce competition. In addition, some of Johnson and Johnson’s competitors are merging to acquire strength and improve growth abilities for the years to come. In mid-October 2009, Pfizer acquired rival drug maker Wyeth for some $68 billion in cash and stock” (Standard and Poor’s Industry Surveys, 2). Pfizer is a potent rival for Johnson and Johnson. Also, “In early November 2009, Merck completed the acquisition of Schering-Plough in a $41 billion cash and stock transaction” (Standard and Poor’s Industry Survey, 2). These competitors are building their arsenals so they can continue to thrive and grow and Johnson and Johnson must be prepared to protect its market share. In addition to companies merging to acquire product diversification and innovation, companies are also forming research and development partnerships.
This is the latest concept because the companies work together on a project for a particular drug and do not actually purchase the information or company from the other. Merck and AstraZeneca combined two of their leading pipeline products to develop an innovative cancer therapy, GlaxoSMithKline and Concert Pharmaceuticals pooled pipeline assets in part to distribute risk and Pfizer and GSK combined their HIV pipelines and marketed products into a joint venture to increase their chances of success (Henske and van Biesen, 1). These companies have discovered the competitive advantage of working as a team for a short term period to lower costs and reduce risk while gaining innovation. The R collaboration model, represents new, promising ways for the industry to make its innovation machine run more efficiently” says Henske and van Biesen (Henske and van Biesen, 1). This increases the power and abilities of Johnson and Johnson’s competition. “This approach does not reduce the competitiveness of the industry, but rather refocuses it on those areas where its true strengths lie- global footprint, access to emerging markets, and relationships with increasingly demanding regulators and reimbursement authorities” (Henske and van Biesen, 2). Johnson and Johnson must be aware of these collaborations and their potential to capture market share with highly innovative products. Market Conditions
The global economic recession is causing companies in all areas of business to lose sales and revenues, but the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices & Diagnostics segments have seen increased sales. “Many companies that reside in the Medical Supplies Industry have fared well of late” (Maharaj, 168). This industry has not been hit as hard by the recession because people must have certain surgical or medical devices requirements. “Thus, whether economic times are challenging or not, people more often than not need the products or services that these companies provide” (Maharaj, 168). Johnson and Johnson, along with its competitors, provide products that are required o save or sustain a person’s life. There are some impending threats in the marketplace that have the potential to harm Johnson and Johnson’s profitability. “A tighter regulatory approval process by the FDA will have consequences for many of the companies…new guidelines seek to streamline clearance for products that are not yet available on the market. ” (Maharaj, 168). These new guidelines could mean increased costs for companies given that policies and procedures would have to be revamped to meet these new guidelines. In addition, the new healthcare reform bill in the United States could greatly affect the entire industry and its ability to generate revenues and profits.
The threat of great government involvement in the pharmaceutical business also looms in the guise of healthcare reform, which envisions the implementation of greater price discounts on drugs purchased under the Medicare and Medicaid programs, as well as the possible enactment of a new “public option” (Standard and Poor’s Industry Survey, 2). The new healthcare legislation may be beneficial to Johnson and Johnson, but the results are still uncertain. According to Rockoff, “The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufactures of America has estimated the net impact of an overhaul on the industry’s U. S. revenue would range from a gain of 1 percent to a loss of 2 percent” (Johnson, 2).
The company may see a gain from the legislation in revenue but this could be offset by losses the bill will cause as well. This bill allows for some positive changes in the industry such as more insured people who will be able to purchase pharmaceuticals to negative aspects such as a tax on drug sales (Johnson, 2). The discounts will be an issue but “drug makers also won 12 years of protection against generic-like competition for biotech drugs, an increasingly important and lucrative business” (Johnson, 2). The actual costs of this healthcare legislation will not be seen or measured immediately; it will take the passage of time to measure and weigh the actual results. Johnson and Johnson must stay up to date on the legislation and monitor its effects closely hile making strategic decisions to ensure continued success. On the global scale, the market conditions are promising for Johnson and Johnson. According to IMS, “Drug sales in emerging markets, led by China and Brazil, are expected to grow at a 14 to 17 percent pace through 2014, compared with a 3 to 6 percent growth rate seen for developed markets” (Berkrot, 1). This will amount to hundreds of billions of dollars in potential sales for Johnson and Johnson in the coming years. “Total sales in emerging markets through 2014 are expected to be about $120 billion to $140 billion, compared with sales of $69 billion over the past years” (Berkrot, 1).
Emerging markets are growing and this is an area where Johnson and Johnson can gain market share and increase profits because it already has a strong global presence. ALTERNATIVES Johnson and Johnson is the world’s premier consumer health company, demonstrating strong financial position, excellent R focus, and diverse business offering. However, the generic drug threat and the anticipation of governmental push toward nationalized healthcare pose major threats on Johnson and Johnson’s pharmaceutical sector. After a thorough review of Johnson and Johnson’s financial and SWOT analysis, alternatives have been developed to improve the company’s future performance and counteract its potential threats. Reduce Operating Expenses
Johnson and Johnson illustrates superb financial standing, apart from the company’s high operating expenses. Johnson and Johnson has done an exceptional job improving margins even as the volatile economic climate has forced shifts in consumer and patient behaviors. It positively demonstrated a significant 27. 4 percent increase in operating income from 2007 to 2008 with a small decline of 6. 9 percent in 2009. However, its operating expenses endured an immense 26. 9 percent increase in 2007 from its prior 2006 status. In 2008 and 2009, Johnson and Johnson slowly attempted to decrease this expense, by 5. 8 percent and 2. 2 percent decreases respectively.
An increased focus on the further reduction of operating expenses will help ensure Johnson and Johnson’s status as one of the world’s most respected companies. Advantages Implementing environmental conservation will allow Johnson and Johnson to increase efficiency while lowering operating expenses in the long run. Johnson and Johnson has already established a Climate Friendly Energy Policy and remains a forerunner to environmentally friendly companies. However, more than just emission reduction goals and portraying a positive carbon footprint is required. Johnson and Johnson already operates the largest solar power generator in Pennsylvania (JNJ- environmental performance).
By increasing the number of solar power generators, obtaining energy from renewable sources, and turning waste into raw materials, Johnson and Johnson will significantly lower its operating expenses. The expansion of its environmental efforts will not just reduce operating costs but will also greatly benefit Johnson and Johnson by increasing positive consumer outlook on the company’s sustainability and corporate social responsibilities. The overall reduction of operating expenses will allow Johnson and Johnson the flexibility to save or invest its additional revenue. As quoted in “Our Credo”, “we must constantly strive to reduce our costs in order to maintain reasonable prices. ” Disadvantages Improving Johnson and Johnson’s carbon footprint will require adequate time, effort and money to implement.
There will be a high initial cost for solar power generators and other conservation improvements. Also time and research must be done to establish the top method for sustainability improvements. Johnson and Johnson must research the best locations for solar power generators and then pay the high initial costs for installation. Create Model Villages Johnson and Johnson has an established global presence and a deep desire to care for people. This is the basis of the organization and the root of “Our Credo” which is Johnson and Johnson’s philosophical guide for the entire company. With this guide in mind, Johnson and Johnson should partner with specific organizations to create special villages around the world.
These villages would care for people in specific countries and allow Johnson and Johnson to do market research within these villages. Advantages Johnson and Johnson would be able to help people worldwide and foster international goodwill. It would increase the company’s corporate responsibility efforts and add to the positive image of Johnson and Johnson. It would increase consumer knowledge and thus brand awareness. It could lead to increased innovation because other ideas may spring from these villages and the activities performed in them. Disadvantages The research, design, and implementation processes would be rather expensive. It would require time and money to decide exactly where to put these villages and who would be allowed to live in them.
The cost of maintaining these villages may be high and Johnson and Johnson would have to pick its partners very carefully. Purchase PositiveId Corporation The diabetes care segment of Johnson and Johnson generates approximately $2. 5 billion in sales per year. It is a vital part of Johnson and Johnson and thus it is critical to stay alert for the latest technology in blood sugar testing and glucose management. PositiveID Corporation manufactures a microchip that could help diabetic patients measure and maintain their blood sugar levels more easily and with less pain. The iGlucose system is the latest technology in diabetes care. “A University of Chicago study estimates hat American with diabetes will increase from 24 million people to about 44 million people by 2034, with direct health care costs increase from $116 billion a year to $336 billion a year” (Kramer, 1). This is an area that could possibly augment profits for Johnson and Johnson. Advantages Johnson and Johnson would be the sole manufacturer of this product, which could radically change the way diabetics manage their blood sugar levels. The acquisition of PositiveID would mean Johnson and Johnson has the technology before another competitor could obtain it, and PositiveID’s iGlucose system is considered to be the next major development in glucose monitoring. In addition, this could lead to increases in innovation and revenues advantage for Johnson and Johnson.
With the purchase of PositiveID, Johnson and Johnson have the opportunity to solidify its position in the diabetes-care segment. Disadvantages This company may not fit well into Johnson and Johnson corporate structure and market segments, regardless of its size and infrastructure. Also, Johnson and Johnson has to be certain that the costs it will incur by this purchase will pay off in the future. Counterfeiting is also always a major concern, especially in the diabetes-care segment of Johnson and Johnson. With such sought after technology, systems such as the iGlucose is another part of Johnson and Johnson where it will need to be aware of counterfeiting risks. Advertisements for Medical Devices and Diagnostics Segment
Johnson and Johnson could create television and internet advertisements for the Medical Devices and Diagnostics segment. These advertisements would introduce all consumers to what Johnson and Johnson is doing behind the scenes of the Medical and Healthcare industry. These could be along the lines of the current Johnson and Johnson advertisements that focus on Nursing. Advantages It would increase consumer knowledge and thus awareness of Johnson and Johnson’s Medical Devices and Diagnostics segment and the company as a whole. It would put the company name at the front of consumer’s minds and thus increase market share in the Consumer Products segment as well. Disadvantages The initial expense of creating and broadcasting the advertisements could be high.
It would take time and effort to design and develop these commercials. It is not the general policy of Johnson and Johnson to create advertising outside of the Consumer Products segment. Create and Market a Pet Care Line of Consumer Products Johnson and Johnson has a strong and highly recognizable brand name in the Consumer Products segment. It could leverage this brand name to create a line of products for animals, specifically dogs and cats. The products would aid in expanding Johnson and Johnson’s Consumer Products segment and allow it to penetrate a new section of that market. According to the APPA, 45. 6 million households in America own a dog and 38. million household own a cat (American Pet Products Association, 1). This is a large number of potential consumers for Johnson and Johnson. Pet owner’s desire trusted quality items for their animals just as they do for the rest of their family. It could create shampoos, conditioners, body wipes, and deodorizers for dogs and cats. It could place advertisements on Facebook and YouTube for these new products. Advantages Johnson and Johnson is already a household brand name. It could gain potential market share among consumers who own pets. It would add products to the Consumer Product segment and give Johnson and Johnson a fresh advertising platform while increasing brand awareness. Disadvantages
The economy is still sluggish and people have abandoned many pets due to lost jobs. It is a new market that is rather unknown to Johnson and Johnson. This market has been penetrated by other companies. It would require increased costs for researching, designing and creating advertisement campaigns for these new products. Aging Population Focus The future aging population concern has become more focused in recent years throughout the world. “China’s workforce will peak within the next ten years and then shrink, accompanied by an explosive growth in the country’s over-65s” (Maidment, 1). This is an area where Johnson and Johnson could expand its market share in Asia as well as in Geriatric Healthcare. By 2050, China’s seniors alone will likely constitute a larger nation than all Americans today” (Maidment, 1). It could implement this focus for all three segments of Johnson and Jonson and gain market share worldwide. Advantages This would be a substantial market for Johnson and Johnson and it will continue to increase over the next few decades worldwide. The elderly receive aid for pharmaceuticals and medical devices from the government. Being a first mover could lead to greater market share and profits now as well as in the future. It would create more brand awareness and increased market share for Johnson and Johnson in all segments. Disadvantages It is a new focus and rather unknown territory for the company.
Marketing consumer products or pharmaceuticals to the elderly would be more difficult due to their lack of Internet usage and limited fixed income. It would require research and design expenses, and a large amount of time. RECOMMENDATIONS Johnson and Johnson is a strong, well managed company, and a leader in its industry. It has realized the power and effectiveness of decentralized management to create a robust corporation. It knows the importance of developing and manufacturing the latest most innovative products for the healthcare industry. Purchase PositiveID Corporation Currently, Johnson and Johnson proudly places its name behind LifeScan, Inc. , its most successful company focused on diabetes and blood glucose monitoring.
With the introduction of OneTouch® Technology, LifeScan prides itself on eliminating wiping and timing procedures. Providing the customer with everything needed for the test; blood glucose meters, test strips, lancing devices, and diabetes management software, it has undoubtedly made checking blood glucose levels easier (LifeScan, Company History). However, there is no substitution for PositiveID’s new technology. This process essentially prevents the need for diabetics to have to draw blood themselves at all. With this in mind, Johnson and Johnson should extend an offer to purchase PositiveID Corporation. It has technology and products that would improve and extend Johnson and Johnson’s line of diabetes care products.
This company is close to having the prototype of a microchip than can be implant inside a person with minimally invasive surgery and read the person’s blood sugar level. “PositiveID Corporation is an information and disease management company that is currently developing an implantable RFID microchip that detects glucose levels in the blood and transmits the glucose reading to external scanner” (Kramer, 2). This has not been done before. “Such a device would revolutionize not only convenience, speed and accuracy of glucose monitoring, but also the cost of health care providers and patients” (Kramer, 2). This is the next step in diabetes care and that is why Johnson and Johnson should purchase this company, so that it maintains a leadership position in providing care and products for diabetic patients.
The current stock price as of April 23 for one share of PositiveID is $1. 29 and it has a market capitalization of $29. 71 million (Yahoo Finance). There are only seven employees and Johnson and Johnson’s management policy of decentralization would streamline incorporating this company into Johnson and Johnson. It should offer PositiveID Corporation $2. 00 to $3. 00 per share. Johnson and Johnson should retain the current employees and allow the current CEO, Scott R. Silverman, to continue operating the company. This company has much to offer Johnson and Johnson. It is highly innovative and is involved in a number of partnerships with other companies to improve its current and future products.
Johnson and Johnson should make this offer in the near future because the stock is rising rather quickly. PositiveID Corporation’s 52-Week change is 279. 49 percent (Yahoo Finance). This company would strengthen Johnson and Johnson and improve its revenues and profits especially in the diabetes care division of medical devices and diagnostics. Currently, Johnson and Johnson has lost sales in this segment in the amount of 3. 5 percent from 2008 to 2009 (Johnson and Johnson Reports 2009). Purchasing PositiveID Corporation would be an expense at first but would increase sales in the diabetes care division by more that 3. 5 percent in the years to come. Post-Purchase Initiatives
With expectations to complete the prototype during the second half of 2010, this microchip could help diabetic patients measure and maintain their blood sugar levels more easily and with less pain. “The iGlucose system is the latest technology in diabetes care. “A University of Chicago study estimates that American with diabetes will increase from 24 million people to about 44 million people by 2034, with direct health care costs increase from $116 billion a year to $336 billion a year” (Kramer, 1). This is an area that could possibly augment profits for Johnson and Johnson. Considering this, Johnson and Johnson needs to move rather quickly to secure the acquisition in time for the prototype development.
Considering the 3-4 month acquisition period recommended, this will provide a sufficient time period to allow successful completion of the prototype and launch a marketing campaign across the country. The acquisition and prototype should be completed by Fall 2010. Thus, it is important to consider choosing World Diabetes Day (November 14) as a platform to introduce and communicate the breakthrough of this technology. Diabetes Education and Prevention is the World Diabetes Day theme for the period 2009-2010. So, using Johnson and Johnson’s good name, PositiveID’s new industry breaking iGlucose technology would be on the forefront of this celebration.
In 2009, Johnson and Johnson donated a light show to turn the San Fransisco Ferry Building blue, but other than that were not highly involved in any sponsorship efforts. There is tremendous potential for Johnson and Johnson to become an official partner of IDF (International Diabetes Federation) who put on World Diabetes Day (WDD) celebrations across the globe. Johnson and Johnson would focus on WDD because it will be about the time that PositiveID iGlucose will be hitting the market. It is recommended that Johnson and Johnson fund $1. 5-3 million (average funding) directly to the campaign to complete its status a corporate partner and to help spearhead the global fight against diabetes.
In return, Johnson and Johnson will be recognized not only on World Diabetes Day, but also throughout all International Diabetes Federation events stretching all across the globe since 1950 (News & Events, IDF). In conjunction with becoming a corporate sponsor for WDD and the overall advancement of technology with the purchase of PositiveID, it will also help eliminate future costs of possible counterfeiting. As of early April 2010, federal prosecutors in Florida are investigating a man accused of selling counterfeit and potentially deadly versions of its diabetes-care products, namely OneTouch® glucose monitors (U. S Probes…, Wall Street Journal).
Johnson and Johnson has waged an aggressive battle to bust a counterfeiting ring stretching from China, Pakistan, to the US, following the discoveries of fake OneTouch® diabetes test strips on the US market in 2006. If prosecuted, this will mark the first US criminal case arising from Johnson and Johnson’s four-year global manhunt, according to the Wall Street Journal. This type of crisis definitely even furthers the push to purchase PositiveID, signally that the technology of iGlucose is virtually untouchable (for now) from counterfeiting. There is no way to actively track the affect of counterfeiting on any business, and Johnson and Johnson is no exception. It becomes unmistakably clear, however, that the more complex the technology, the harder it is to duplicate. Create and Market a Pet Care Line of Consumer Products
Johnson and Johnson should create and market a pet care line of consumer products. Johnson and Johnson can use the line to capitalize on its name brand because consumers associate Johnson and Johnson with high quality trusted products. These are the types of products people want for their pets. Dr. Merry Crimi, AAHA President, says “Pets become as endearing as a child or a close friend to many pet owners” (American Animal Hospital Association, 2). Pets are very important to their owners and owners want to take special care of them. According to AAHA, 55 percent of pet owners consider themselves as mom or dad to their pets (American Animal Hospital Association, 1).
Consumers have trusted Johnson and Johnson’s children’s products for decades so they would trust a line of pet care products as well. In addition, pet owners spend large amounts of money on their pets each year. According to APPA, $45. 5 billion was spent by pet owners on their animals in 2009 alone (American Pet Products Association, 1). Even though there has been an economic recession, pet owners still spend money on their pets, specifically dogs and cats. The APPA statistics show that in the United States alone people own 93. 6 million cats and 77. 5 million dogs in 2009-2010 (American Pet Products Association, 1). These are the potential customers Johnson and Johnson can gain from creating a product line for dogs and cats.
This trend is an upward trend as well. The APPA states that the estimated amount that will be spent in America in 2010 on pets is $47. 7 billion (American Pet Products Association, 2). People are going to continue spending for their pets. Pets are popular on a global scale as well so these products should be sold internationally beginning in Europe and then China. According to Pet Food Manufacturers Association, there are 27 million pets in the United Kingdom with dogs and cats being the animal of choice… (K9 Magazine, 2). Pet ownership has been rising in the United Kingdom and it is also rising in China where pets are becoming a status symbol.
Dempster states, “Pet-owning, once banned by the Communist Party, is becoming much more popular among the country’s affluent middle to upper classes” (Dempster, 1). As the country becomes wealthier the amount of pets is also increasing. The pet of choice is the dog but overall the purchasing of pets has increased by 8 percent every year according to Mary Peng, Co-Founder of International Center for Veterinary Services (Dempter, 1). Johnson and Johnson has the opportunity to increase its market share on a global scale with this pet care product line. “Grooming salons, pets shops and veterinary clinics have sprung up around Beijing with people spending significant amounts on the purchase and upkeep of an animal that is a symbol of affluence, as well as a pet says Peng” (Dempster, 1).
Creating a quality pet care product for these countries would increase Johnson and Johnson’s revenues and thus profits because consumers want quality products for their beloved animals and Johnson and Johnson has the global presence and research and development capabilities to offer these products to consumers. Johnson and Johnson is a company whose products are based on maintaining the health and well being of humans. This is another reason why it should offer a pet care line because pets help maintain the health of their owners according to several different research groups. The health benefits of pet ownership are many. Please see Health Benefits by the APPA in Appendix F. Johnson and Johnson would need to spend $7 million for research and development of a pet care product line. The products would include shampoo, conditioner, body/paw wipes and deodorizer/cologne for both dogs and cats.
It should be marketed similar to the baby care products with Johnson and Johnson on the labeling. For example, Johnson’s Soothing Puppy Shampoo/Conditioner is one potential product name. An expense of $5 million for an advertising campaign on television targeting the Discovery Channel, Animal Planet, and National stations would be necessary to get these new product to the public and thus to new consumers. All of the advertisements would incorporate the health benefits of pet ownership to explain why Johnson and Johnson is entering this market. This would be accomplished with adults and children playing actively with dogs and cats as well as babies sleeping with a puppy beside them or larger breed dog such as a Golden Retriever.
Also, the advertisements should include the elderly and single adults calmly petting their dog or cat in a soothing and relaxing environment. Free advertisement placement should be placed on YouTube and Facebook. The cost would be in the employees needed to start the accounts and maintain them which should require only one to two employees. These products should be made available in Petsmart, Petco, Wal-Mart, and Grocery Store chains as well as high quality pet shops and grooming salons. To reach to the heart of consumers and send a message of caring, Johnson and Johnson should offer to donate a 5 percents of profits of these products to the Humane Society to support abandoned pets and the importance of adopting rescued animals.
This would send a good message to consumer and give them another incentive to purchase Johnson and Johnson’s pet products. Also, this gives Johnson and Johnson another avenue to display corporate social responsibility efforts and increases the amount of information to be used in advertisements. Create Model Villages Johnson and Johnson has always been on the forefront of corporate giving and caring globally. It have always understood its corporate responsibilities and helped thousands of people around world to stay healthy and fit. This is why Johnson and Johnson should work with nongovernmental organizations and charities to create special villages in specific areas of the world.
Johnson and Johnson should concentrate on Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) for this recommended project. These four countries account for almost half of the population of entire world and also have very diverse age distributions. Also, BRIC countries have large amount of uneducated orphans and deprived elders. Johnson and Johnson should execute this project by collaborating with local Non Government Organizations (NGO) and charitable institutions, although it is very capable of executing this project itself. While these countries possess considerable internal capacity, they also face enormous development challenges, including widespread poverty, environmental degradation, lack of government transparency, HIV/AIDS epidemics, etc.
These problems, if left unchecked, could undermine the tremendous economic progress that these countries have made in the last decade (Schmida, 1). Johnson and Johnson should establish “Model Villages” with its “social welfare” partners in BRIC countries. The model villages would cost one percent of Johnson and Johnson’s annual revenue and would be implemented during a three year period. The model village will have an orphanage, an old age home and a state of the art hospital. Johnson and Johnson’s social welfare partners will be responsible for selecting orphans and elders to live in these facilities, and for maintaining the residential facilities.
Johnson and Johnson will provide its full line of consumer products and some of the pharmaceutical products for free to these model villages to keep the residents healthy and keep the residential facilities in the superior sanitary condition. While Johnson and Johnson’s social welfare partners will take care of smooth operations of orphanage and old age homes, it will take care of the well being of the residents by establishing a state of the art hospital equipped with the latest medical devices from Johnson and Johnson and its subsidiaries. The hospital will be managed by the individual selected from the local country that will participate and graduate from the European Health Leadership Program with a full scholarship from Johnson and Johnson.
The caregivers and doctors will be selected locally and would serve the hospital a few hours every week on a yearly basis without any monetary gain. In exchange of their service they would have the opportunity to use and test the latest medical devices and drugs produced by Johnson and Johnson. As mentioned earlier, these model villages would serve the intention of giving back to the community and could also potentially serve as a platform for market research for Johnson and Johnson’s new consumer and pharmaceutical products. Johnson and Johnson must consult local law firms before using these villages to perform market research for new pharmaceutical products. This entire project will bring plenty of good publicity for Johnson and Johnson and provide free marketing for the company.
These villages will help improve and maintain economic growth in these countries which will benefit Johnson and Johnson in years to come because as these countries grow they will already be familiar with the brand name Johnson and Johnson and they will know what this company has done to help their country thrive. This will help create brand loyalty and thus increased market share and profits for Johnson and Johnson as time passes. This project would spread the clear message that it is not all about making a profit but also about caring for the well being of humankind. CONCLUSION In conclusion, Johnson & Johnson is currently at risk of reduced revenues due to the prevalence of generic drugs and a potentially unfavorable health care initiative. The addition of PositiveID Corporation will provide a new product offering to supplement its Medical Devices segment and ensure its continued technological superiority.
The creation of a line of pet products will all Johnson and Johnson to create an avenue into a new customer market. The established brand name should overcome any obstacles caused by its late entry to the market. Model Villages will provide not only provide an opportunity to expand brand name recognition but will also build international goodwill and attract new customers. [pic][pic][pic] ———————– Johnson & Johnson Consumer Health Care Medical Devices & Diagnostics Pharmaceuticals Nutritionals OTC Medicines Women’s Health Oral Health Care Topical Health Care Skin & Health Care Baby Care Consumer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Central Nervous System & Internal Medicine B. I. O. (Biotechnology, Immunology & Oncology) Virology