Language Acquisition of Children Essay

1. 1) Chart the language development of children between the ages of 0 – 5 years old. •From Birth – 6 Months Vocalisation accompanied with intonation . Most babies are able to respond to their name as well as being able to distinguish between tones by responding accordingly. Some babies can react to human voices by turning their head and eyes without the aid of visual cues. •6 – 12 Months By now infants are using holophrastic speech ; conveying one word with meaning.

The baby is able to understand simple instructions particularly well if they are given with vocal or physical prompts. The baby is aware of the social value of speech furthermore it is practising inflection. •1 – 3 Years Has vocabulary of approximately 20 – 1000 words. In this stage the child’s vocabulary will have expanded from acquiring various words in addition the child is able to respond with prepositions, verbs and nouns. In this stage the child makes the transition from echolalia to being able to construct simple sentences.

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As a result this progress is reflected in the child’s receptive and expressive language and moving away from telegraphic speech. Moreover the child also has the ability to change their behaviour in response to comments made to them as well as being able to comprehend simple commands. 2) Read the article on Speech and Language Developments in Infants and Young Children by Caroline Bowen and answer the 10 questions. •What does “language acquisition” mean? Language acquisition is the method by which humans acquire the capability to learn and use words to understand and communicate.

Some of it is partly learned and some as witnessed in babies is inherent like babbling which although has no meaning they are able to convey thus communicating which will be followed by language. •How does language acquisition happen? Children’s learning and understanding language happens gradually by way of interacting with people and their surroundings. •What is the meaning of “innate”? What is the opposite of “innate”? Quality such as being a good listener is something that could be seen as innate, something that you are born with whereas the antonym of innate would be something that one learns or acquires.

A skill such as touch typing or a child learning to ride a bike would be perceived as learned behaviour. •Quote a definition of language from the article. “Language has been called the symbolisation of thought” (Bowen) •How can a parent help his/her child’s language development? The parent or the care giver are the significant people in the child’s life, and how they interact and engage with the child will determine how the language will develop in the initial five years. The most important thing is to enjoy interacting with the child and be at ease and be natural.

Moreover give more emphasis on eliciting and listening to sounds and responding accordingly to the child’s level of language and understanding. So s/he, knows that the adult is listening to them thus making the child feel confident in their journey of language acquisition. One thing that is very important to know for parents and caregivers, with all the best will in the world, some children learn at different paces so it is vital as parents that they do not compare their child to another child. As long as the child’s learning is consistent then there is nothing to worry. What are the two divisions in language development given in the article? As shown in the article one can see that language falls into two main divisions. Receptive language is the understanding of what is said, written or signed whereas expressive language can construed as speaking, writing or signing. •What’s the problem with Milestones chart? The problem arises when they are followed religiously. When parents see that their child has not achieved what has been outlined by the chart they will naturally feel anxiety about the child’s development.

What should be done is to have the chart as a guideline, so one can see where the child should be heading in terms of development in that age group roughly. •Name 3 pragmatic skills. 1: Following rules, this can be seen when children have conversations and storytelling and they have to take in turns in converse. 2: Changing their language accordingly to the needs of the listener or the situation. 3: Using language to communicate their needs or for different purposes. •Name 2 conditions/problems that a non-communicating child may have.

A child who is not communicating may have hearing impairment and developmental disorders such as Autism, or Asperger’s Syndrome •By 4 years, how long a sentence, might a child be saying? One should anticipate that by 4 years the child should be saying 4/5 words in a sentence. 3) Read: The Development of Language and Communication from An Introduction to Child Development by GC Davenport and answer questions in the text. •Are the hand signs that deaf people make to each other language? Sign language is a language as people are able to converse although it is not auditory they are able to converse through sign. Is there any such thing as body language? Body language can be seen as a language as one can communicate and convey their needs or feelings. •Are the flags that ships fly signalling distress language? This can be perceived as communication, as one is requesting help by way of flying the flag to notify others they are in danger and in need of help. •Is Morse Code language? No, the Morse Code is not a language rather it is used to code languages to communicate and convey a message •Are the ways in which we talk to computers language? No, due to the fact computers have been programmed to respond to commands and relay information that we seek. Can animals such as dolphins use language? Dolphins do not use language rather they use high pitched sounds to communicate with each other. •Is it possible to say at what age babies stop babbling and start using language? Milestone charts explain at what age children start babbling and at what age they start to use language. However, due to the fact that all children are different, and they will learn at different rate one cannot specifically say when babies will start using the language; nonetheless, guidelines such as Milestone charts give’s one an indication as to what the child should be doing at an certain age group. What is language? The difference between language and communication is that communication is simply transmitting a message or something significant between two or more people or used between animals; as seen in the case of the zebras . A dazzle of zebras inferred imminent danger by seeing one of the zebras run. There are various forms of ways one can communicate; visually and orally as well as using gestures or, through sound. In contrast, language is seen as a specific form of communication; whereby many formats and symbols are used such as figures, numbers, gestures, or combination of all three can be used for clarity and specificity.

The list above is not exhaustive, simply a starting point to give one an idea how language is seen, heard and, perceived. Reciprocity: •What are Trevarthen and Richards looking for in this observational study? They wanted to see how and whether or not each baby modifies their behaviour when they are given a toy and when they are around their mothers. •What is the sample size, and what are the independent variables? There were 5 babies and the toys and the mothers talk to their child and being around them were the independent variables. What dependent variables were being measured? How the babies responded to the toys and the mothers. What they observed was that babies became excited in the presence of their mother. •What is meant by pre-speech? Pre-speech in babies is manifested through few things like when a baby changes their behaviour as well as the tone of their voice. Furthermore it has been observed that they move their lips in an attempt to ‘speak’ as well as taking turns in a ‘conversation’ The Pre-Linguistic Stage: Construct a two column table with the heading: The pre-linguistic stage.

Head one column: Up to six months, and the other one: Six months to one year. Write three of the baby’s main skills in each column. 0 – 6 Months 6 Months – 1 year Babbling increases Stringing sounds together Interactional synchrony (moving the body in response to human speech Associating making sounds to get rewarded Changing tone of voice Physically active in play Early Errors: Write a paragraph summarising the main errors that children make in their early speech. Babies, in the early stages regularly double their syllables; words such as ‘Mama’ and ‘Dada’ are a common feature amongst early babies.

Babies will opt to use words which they have mastered and avoid words which are difficult to pronounce and seek to simply a word such as ‘smack’ will be reduced to ‘mack’, and ‘spoon’ will be simplified to ‘poon’. Similarly sounds which are found be enjoyable such as b, d and g are used in places of p, t, and k for example ‘pie’ would be pronounced as ‘bie. Furthermore other mistakes babies make in regards to applying words is they overextend the meaning of some words whereby they identify everything that fits the criteria of that word.

For example a dog with four legs and tail is a dog therefore everything that fits this description must be a dog. On the flipside they also underextend some words. For instance they have learned that a dog is an animal thereby categorising all animals must have four legs and a tail and those who do not have these characteristics they cannot be animals. The First Words: Define an active vocabulary and passive vocabulary? An active vocabulary consists of words that one uses whereas pre-linguistic knowledge contributes to passive vocabulary.

Passive vocabulary is more to do with words one knows but can’t use them owing to the fact they do not know what they mean and how to use them yet. Make a list of the things children who knows some words can do which will help them to become more sociable and independent. •Make requests •State their preferences •State their dislikes •Interact with other children •Question things around them •Make statements Grammar: Spot as many of the grammatical errors as you can see in this passage from a nine year-old speaker. “One day I was playing in the grounds an’ I seen a mice.

I frightened of mices so I run to find Michael. He’s older n’ me an’ he catched the mice … the mouse. My dog would eat them if I fetched her but she had to go away for a blind dog. She’d eat. ” “One day I was playing in the grounds and I saw a mouse. I was frightened of the mouse. So I ran off to find Michael. He is older than me, and he caught the mouse. My dog, she’d eat them if I fetched her, but she has had to go away as she is blind. Cross-cultural studies: Define a mean and a median? Arithmetically speaking the median is finding the middle number/value in a number of sequences.

Whereas mean, is to find the average value amongst a sequence of numbers. How was the sample drawn, and what were the dangers in using this method? The samples were drawn from 3 different countries; from adverts placed in national newspapers asking mothers to fill in questionnaires. This made the data drawn from the study limited in terms of what could be derived from it. For example as the advert was placed in a newspaper this meant that people who read the newspaper would be exposed to it. Therefore the findings of the study do not reflect the actual demographic capability in terms of language acquisition.

Which society has children who are quickest to start learning language? The children from first society were seen to be the quickest in learning language. What is a cross-cultural study? Cross-cultural studies use field data collated from many societies to examine and understand the extent of human behaviour and test theories about human behaviour and culture. As a result, the study’s findings can be applied to all other members of the investigated group. What are the major drawbacks of cross-cultural research?

One disadvantage is the way different cultures define and view what constitutes as abnormal or, normal behaviour. Therefore, the conclusions drawn from such studies may be misleading in the sense that it may not be true of all children in that society. Moreover as the data is interpreted by observers it can fall foul to being misinterpreted due to the bias of three types such as construct, method, and item bias which are existent in cross-cultural research. Write one or two sentences about whether you think the results obtained from this survey would support the original hypothesis, giving your reasons.

I believe that the results obtained in the survey do not support the hypothesis as the information that were collected from people was very limited due to the fact, that it specifically targeted certain members of society. Furthermore the research was to find how children compare to European children in terms of language acquisition thereby making the European children forerunners in language acquisition which cannot be seen as fair or correct. Telegraphic Speech: The third sentence is rather more difficult for a child to understand than the first two. Can you see why?

The third sentence, as it’s spoken in the ‘third’ might be hard for a child to understand. As opposed to the first two, which, as can be seen is easier for a child to comprehend as it has less functor words thereby making the sentences more manageable to learn. According to the author, Brown (1994, p. 243) states: “Functor words may not always add much to the basic meaning of a sentence, but are used to make the sentence grammatically correct”. Sentence Child’s age in months 25. 5 30 35. 5 1. “I showed you the book” I show book Show you the book Correct 2. “I will read the book”

Read book I read the book Correct 3. “Do I like to read books? ” To read book? I read books Correct Children’s intellect can grow very quickly. Can you think of an example of such study? American researcher, Roger Brown, conducted a longitudinal, naturalistic observation study over a period of 10 years. He concentrated on the speech development of children. He saw that a child of 27 months old is able to put two words together and understand grammar thereby showing understanding of semantics. For an average of one hour per week, the child was recorded conversing with his mother.

The conversation highlighted that children repeat shortened version of what they hear, and through the re-enforcement the child is encouraged to interact through critical thinking as he/she acquires language through imitation and minimising, and imitation with expansion. Brown’s, study suggests that children learn language, which develops in 5 stages: •Pre-linguistic – babbling, cooing. •Single word – holophrastic speech; single word conveys an entire thought. •Early sentence – telegraphic speech; two key words to complete the thought. •Short sentence – using basic grammar: “Who is that”. Complete sentence – form complicated sentence: “I fell off the swing and hurt my knee”. Write these sentences in telegraphic speech: “I’ve fallen off the swing and hurt my knee” Hurt knee “Shall we go for a walk? ” Go walk “Let Daddy sit there” Daddy sit “How long is the train? ” Long train “Didn’t you have some milk yesterday? ” Have milk How would you describe the main difference between these sentences spoken by Eve? At 18 months one can see that the language is telegraphic. Two words are used together to form rudimentary sentences. The sentences at 18 months are without linking verbs or other connecting words.

Whereas at 27 month the language has evolved; the telegraphic speech has developed to speech which incorporates verbs and nouns and also what is apparent is that the use of pronouns shows a significant amount of understanding and confidence about the language development thereby enabling her to express her wishes. At 18 months: At 27 months: More grapefruit I got a pencil ‘n’ write Mommy soup Don’t stand on my ice cubes No mommy read I put them in the refrigerator to freeze Write a paper An’ I want to take my hat off Brown’s Study: Describe the method that Roger Brown used to study his sample of children.

What is the main advantage of this method in studying children’s language development? Brown, used naturalistic observation techniques, which involves observing subjects in their natural environment. This type of research benefits from subjects being in studied at home where natural behaviour is most likely to be encountered as opposed be coming into a laboratory which could lead to unrealistic behaviour. Divide this sentence into telegraphic speech and functor words: “David will be going to London on Thursday. ” Telegraphic speech: Functor words: David go [London] Will, be, ing, to, on

Does the telegraphic sentence make sense? Do the functor words make sense? The telegraphic sentence makes sense as one can denote that David is going somewhere. The functor words are things left out of the complete sentence as they offer no additional meaning to that of the noun and verb. What response is a child expecting when asking the following questions? “Adam and Eve and pinch me went down to the river to bathe, Adam and Eve were drowned, who was the only one saved? ” Respond by commenting on the question thereby reinforcing learning by way of correcting the utterance. A Child’s Communication:

Daughter:Mother: Me do mummy Me do Me want fill Do you want to fill a pie? Don’t drop any off the spoon will you? 15 seconds pause Be careful, you’re tipping the spoon Some of the apple filling must have fallen on the floor Sounding a bit annoyed Look what you’ve done I’ll do it. You’ve dropped the apple all over the floor. Fetch me the cloth, oh never mind, I’ll do it . Sounding unhappy I clean. I clean Mummy. The apple don’t mind Give an example of telegraphic speech from the conversation. “I clean” Name some of functor words, which are used by the mother but not by the child.

You, want, drop, any, off, the, spoon, careful, tipping, fetch, cloth, and never. What is animism? Give an example of it from the mother and daughter conversation. Animism is the belief that everything is a living entity. For instance, a child who has bumped into the door will be under the belief the door is at fault and discipline the door. An example of animism from the conversation between the mother and daughter can be seen here when the daughter says: “The apple don’t mind”. The Theories of Language Acquisition: Give brief description (with examples) of each argument on: The origins of language, from a nativist and nuturist view.

The Origins of Language Nativist View: Nuturist View: Language is innate: Nativists maintain that children are born with an inherited ability to learn any human language. They claim that some linguistic structures which children implement with such accuracy surely must be already programmed in their mind. The mechanism, which provides children with the innate cognitive ability, is known as: “language acquisition device” or LAD. LAD contains certain information about the structure of language which is progressively used as the child matures. Language is learned through reinforcement:

Nuturist’s theorise that children acquire spoken language, from external factors such as human’s and the environment. They opine that role models and positive reinforcements encourage and increase learning in a child. Contingent responding and social referencing have an important part to play in a child’s learning. Responding appropriately to a child will develop into a genuine interaction thereby providing a child with a platform to prosper linguistically. Piaget used the clinical interview as one of his major methods for investigating children’s thinking.

In view of what he says about the relationship between language and cognition can you suggest a problem he will have? He suggests that language development is a contributing factor to cognition. The problem here arises due to the fact Piaget’s clinical interview compromised of small research samples came from well-educated and financially well-off backgrounds. Because of this limited sample, the findings cannot be applicable to others. Furthermore new research has disputed Piaget’s argument that all children know when to move to the next stage of development as they mature.

Some new research has suggested that external factors may have an impact in the development of formal operations. Piaget underestimated children’s abilities; most researchers agree that children acquire certain abilities earlier then what Piaget proposed. Recent research on theory of mind found that children of 4/5 years old have a rather comprehensive understanding how other people think and relate to things, therefore, showing that children are far less egocentric then Piaget believed. Washoe the Chimp: What increase had taken place in Washoe’s vocabulary between 10 and 60 months?

Between 10 and 60 months Washoe, had used 160 signs. What is the name of the method used in this study? Allen and Beatrix Gardner used American Sign Language (ASL) to teach the chimpanzee to communicate. Name two limitations of this method as used by psychologists. ASL does not have a sign for linking words such as: “is”, “will”, and “am. ” Also language acquisition is linked to cognitive ability; Washoe’s, language never progressed beyond a human toddlers language. Why didn’t the Gardners let Washoe hear them talk? In an effort not to confuse the chimpanzee, the Gardners refrained from using speech around her.

Methods of Studying Chimps’ Communication: Outline the methods which have been used to teach animals to communicate. •Operant Conditioning – Ann and David Premack taught Sarah, the six year old chimp about shapes and colours and how they could be signify particular things. Over a period of 30 months Sarah, learned hundreds of words and their meaning. •Lexigrams – Duane Rumbaugh taught two year old chimp Lana to press various symbols on the computer. She managed to construct sentences in word order through positive reinforcements. •American Sign Language – Allen and Beatrix Gardner taught Washoe ASL.

The Gardners avoided speaking around the chimpanzee as not to confuse her. Furthermore they reinforced learning through rewards. •Raised as a human child – Winthrop N. Kellogg and Luella A. Kellogg were scientist who bought up Gua, a chimpanzee alongside their baby son Donald. They taught Gua everything that they taught their own son. Towards the end of the ‘project’, Gua knew the meaning of 95 words, but he could not speak any of them. Teaching Animals to Use Language: Why didn’t these researchers try to teach the animals to speak? Studies have shown that animals can communicate to a certain extent but not use language.

Some researchers are of the view that only humans can use and understand language. Whereas others opine that primates have the ability, although few possess the intelligence or learning capacity to actually speak. What are the main criticisms of the claims that animals can be taught to use language? Some psychologists, namely Herbert Terrace believe that animals do not use language in the way human use it rather, their use can be likened to simple operant condition whereby, the animal makes signs not in an inventive or original way. The sign the animals make is operantly learned response from their ‘tutor’ in return for a reward. . 1) How can parents/care-giver meet the needs and requirements of young children with respect to developing language and communication skills? •Talking to children about what they did and what they saw – Humans are social creatures, so talking is an intrinsic part of the human psyche. Therefore showing a genuine interest in the conversation will help the child to think about things analytically as well as helping the child to gain confidence thus promoting their language development. Giving children adequate time and attention are building blocks for developing expressive language and communication skills. Reading books to children. Talking about what’s happening in the pictures – This enables the child to develop their expressive language as well as developing listening skills thus increasing the child’s attention span, and developing the ability to concentrate at lengths. Furthermore reading out loud will help children discern grammar and phrasing. •Making opportunities for out-door activities – Providing children with such activities allows them to explore and discover their surroundings whilst learning new words in the process.

Moreover, engaging children in such activities will stimulate the child wanting to learn more and promote better communication as they familiarise themselves with the outdoor. •Providing materials such as painting and drawing – This activity will help bring out the creative side of the child. As the child talks about their work, through positive reinforcement’s, language will develop through communication. •Praising and encouraging children when they are mindful of other people’s feelings and needs – This positive reinforcement will help develop maturation in their comprehension skills and how they interact and perceive other people. Reinforce learning by maintaining eye contact – This helps the child to learn that it is appropriate to look at people during communication. Moreover they can learn a lot about people through facial expressions and acquire articulation skills by watching the movement of the mouth. 3. 1) How can a childcare worker promote language skills with reference to involvement from other professionals? •Listening – There are various ways that a childcare worker can help a child develop their listening skills. The childcare worker can incorporate the whole class in this activity.

The childcare worker should pick a topic or theme and children should base their talk on that and in the end there should be a questions and answers session. This will encourage children to listen and stay attentive throughout the discussion and help them to communicate successfully with others whilst increasing participation from the group. If a childcare worker suspects a problem a child may have in regards to their listening and concentration, they can refer the child to local Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) for advice and guidance. Speaking – The childcare worker can help develop speaking skills by creating activities for children to do. An activity such as spontaneous story making would involve pairing up two children. One child would open up the story with an opening line for example: Child A: “Once upon a time there was a girl. ” Child B: “She had lovely long golden hair and a very fast bike. ” Child A: “The bike had wings made out of feather and glitter. And so after a few exchanges not only will a story have materialised, but the children have also learned how to interact with each other by responding in a natural but creative manner thus enabling children to express themselves clearly and in a confident manner. The childcare worker can use effective techniques such as encouraging discourse whilst engaging children in activities. This will allow children to make mistakes but have no fear of reprisals, rather get indirect feedback on their linguistic output as the childcare worker provides scaffolding for them to acquire and learn more whilst communicating successfully.

Should the childcare worker have any worries in regards to the child’s speaking ability they should seek help and from Speech and Language therapist. Speech and Language Therapists will work with the child, and help them develop their cognitive and language skills. •Reading – Introducing reading as an enjoyable activity will make it interesting and enjoyable. An activity such as reading a book out aloud will not only help with articulation, but also the benefits can be many such as asking questions at regular intervals and probing the child for answers and their replies can be very creative such as getting to act out one of the stories event.

This form of questioning will promote analytical thinking and develop listening, reading skills thereby promoting listening and reading comprehension. Furthermore, one of the benefits in asking questions is that children will focus on the content of the story as well as motivating and encouraging them to look for answers in the book thus increasing the reading and understanding comprehension which is one of the many building blocks for language acquisition. Unfortunately some children may not be able to read or comprehend what has een read to them, in such cases the childcare worker may need to talk to the local Social Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO) for advice and guidance on how best to help the child. •Writing – Writing is one of the tools that allow us to express ourselves and develop and explore language. The childcare worker can get children into the habit of writing and make it interesting for them also. The children should be made aware that not only writing and spelling is fun, but also something they should be proud of as their hard work as they are learning constantly how to use expressive language and using them for fun and creativity.

A simple activity such as getting children to keep a basic weekend journal will keep encourage them to write and get them thinking about how they spent their time during the weekends, furthermore as a further motivation the childcare worker can get children reassure children that mistakes are fine as we get to learn from them. So a spelling log book can accompany the weekend journal and the spelling log book can incorporate how children will devise strategies to learn the correct spelling. Thus enabling children to express feelings their and thoughts through writing will benefit their linguistic output and their self-confidence.

Not all children will attain the ability to write proficiently due to many reasons, but if the childcare worker suspects it might be something serious then professional help and guidance should be sought. Talking with the SENCO and maybe seeking advice from an Educational psychologist can guide you how to help the child and get to the root cause of the problem. 4. 1) Write reasons for language delay, making reference to special needs. Write reasons for language delay, making reference to special needs. Watching television – Language delay is when children do not speak at their scheduled age time.

One of the many reasons attributed to language delay is television viewing. Research on early brain development showed that babies and young children have a significant need for one-to-one interactions with their parents, or care givers to develop and have a healthy brain growth and the development of appropriate social, emotional, and cognitive skills. [3] Children who watched television on their own were more likely to encounter language delays than those who were accompanied by the caregivers whom interacted with the child thus keeping them out of a ‘catatonic state’ which can be bought on by children who are so immersed in their viewing.

It has been recommended that children under the age of two do not watch television and after the age of two should be allowed to view quality programmes, which will aid their development. Autism – Which is one of the mental developmental disorders is related to language delay in children. Speech, language, and communication are all affected. One of the signs of Autism is it that affects how a child communicates with others, and relates to other people. It also affects how they make understand and perceive the world around them. The particulars of Autism can be linked to: •difficulty with social communication difficulty with social interaction •difficulty with social imagination. Some autistic children may not speak, or have somewhat limited speech. They sometimes understand what other people say to them. Although many have good language skills sometimes it can be hard to understand the flow and structure of conversations. As they tend to repeat what the other person has just said or just preferring to talk about their interests. Maturation Delay – This is also known as developmental language delay, it is caused due to a part of the brain which is responsible for generating speech, just being slower to mature.

This condition is prominent in boys or people whose family that have a history of late talkers. Children who have this condition are often referred to as ‘late talkers. ” This indicates that children will eventually talk through intervention and therapy. Hearing Impairment – Children who are hard of hearing, either from birth or acquired during early years of childhood, generally have a serious delay in spoken language, due to the inability for auditory processing which is the effect of hearing loss.

This culminates in causing the delaying of receptive and expressive communication skills development of the child. Environmental Causes – Common causes of language delay may include personal circumstances of a child which results in their experiencing language delay. One reason may be of neglect or child abuse. The child may not have anyone interacting with them or resulting in inadequate linguistic stimulation. This will have an impact on the child’s self-esteem making the child less likely to talk and acquire language. 5. ) Using 3 mini case-studies discuss the importance of respecting and acknowledging a child’s background, culture and religion with consideration of the needs of children who use more than one language. Case 1 – The mothers at Nahugo’s school feel offended that her mother does not reciprocate their smiles of greeting. Unfortunately what they were not aware of was the customs of Japanese people; who do not greet each other unless it is initiated with a verbal greeting. Due to someone explaining Japanese customs to Williams’s mother she was inclined to act upon the advice.

Here we can see that lack of communication can lead to misunderstanding when something may be totally innocent as one’s cultural practice. So communication is a vital tool to dispel preconceived notions that people may hold. Case 2 – Judith, whose parents practised Reformed Judaism strictly abstain from consuming pork. At school she was given pork though her key worker replaced with something else, the attitude of the dinner lady was appalling. It is absolutely paramount that parents can feel that they can trust the school to apply the dietary stipulations and not breach their trust, or compromise their beliefs.

When we are entrusted with children and they are under our care we have a moral obligation to enact the wishes of their parents by facilitating that in the school at all time. Case 3 – Three year old Sadiq was referred to as a ‘Paki’ by another child. The teacher immediately addressed the situation and the outcome of her intervention was positive. It is important to know that where ever differences arise that it is tackled head-on. The way the teacher approached the situation is admirable. She broke down the process so the little girl could understand and digest properly what was being said to her.

Here we can see that the teacher took in consideration that Sadiq was the victim equally she saw the little girl, a victim of lack of awareness. Therefore it is paramount that when one is faced with differences to realise how different people can bring different talent and skills to help each other and overcome whatever issues they may have. 6. 1) Identify some links between language and communication skills and development of reading and writing. Communication skills are important for the development of social, emotional, and educational needs.

Also listening is very important as this gives the person the opportunity to express themselves freely and develop their confidence as this is a platform from where one can flourish and feel motivated to learn. Developing reading skills will encourage children to read at an early age, thus motivating them to read actively as they acquire skills to retain information, which will aid them in communicating successfully with others. Listening is the basis whereby aspects of language and cognitive development play an integral part of communication and learning.

Having a rich language source and extensive vocabulary will manifest itself in ones writing moreover, providing the speaker with articulation skills whereby, one is able to use expressive language to communicate proficiently. Reading, writing, listening and speaking are all significant factors that enable one to converse and articulate their desires and thoughts. Expressive language depend all these factors and if one is lacking, for example, if one is not able to read this will significantly reduce their capability to acquire expressive language as limited amount of words means they are not able to express themselves clearly.

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