Marketing Olive Oil: A Case Study from Greece Sample

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The intent of this paper is to analyze the issues related to the production of olive oil. by the Grecian company Elais. and the selling patterns implemented by the company. Therefore. the merchandise. its mark market and competition are examined. a SWOT analysis is performed and the selling mix is presented. To derive an initial apprehension of the selling patterns employed by the company the instance survey method was applied. since its cardinal feature is the “focus on a peculiar scene or event” . The findings showed that the company has a prima place in the market because it offers high quality merchandises in good monetary values. It has modern technological equipment and an efficient distribution system. The company is on a regular basis carry oning market researches to place customers’ demands and develops new merchandises. In add-on. it has intense promotional activities. This paper can add to the present pool of cognition in olive oil sector. since it is one of the few that have provided an of import penetration in Dr. Evangelia Blery is presently occupied in selling of advanced engineerings at the NCSR Demokritos and as a professor of selling at the Technical Educational Institute ( TEI ) of Athens.

Dr. Blery has an MBA and a PhD in marketing from the University of Surrey in Guildford. UK and has ten old ages of experience in confer withing services. Her countries of specialisation include consumer behaviour. study research methodological analysiss. instance surveies and informations aggregation and amplification. Mrs. Konstantina Kapsopoulou is a graduate pupil in Marketing at TEI of Athens. Her countries of specialisation include selling direction and selling planning of consumer merchandises and services. consumer behaviour and selling researches. Address correspondence to: Dr. Evangelia K. Blery. Technology Park. NCSR ‘Demokritos’ . Patriarxou Grigoriou and Neapoleos. 15310. Athinais ( E-mail: evib @ scout. gr. [ electronic mail protected ]) . Journal of Food Products Marketing. Vol. 13 ( 4 ) 2007 Available online at hypertext transfer protocol: //jfpm. haworthpress. com O 2007 by The Haworth Press. Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10. 1300/J038v13n04_03

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the production and selling of olive oil in the Grecian market. The consequences of the survey support the findings of other surveies mentioned in the literature and they can be of definite involvement and possible value to directors in this sector. doi:10. 1300/J038v13n04_03 [ Article transcripts available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail reference: Website: O 2007 by The Haworth Press. Inc. All rights reserved. ]

KEYWORDS. Olive oil. instance survey. SWOT analysis. PEST analysis. selling mix

INTRODUCTION Olive oil is preferred by the bulk of consumers and is widely used in cooking worldwide. As Duff ( 1998 ) . references. the mystique of olive oil and the repute of ‘cold pressed excess virgin oil’ . can be translated into statements based on wellness: epidemiological surveies suggest that the replacing of saturated fats by olive oil in diets is associated with a lowering of the rate of bosom disease. Therefore. olive oil represents a nutrient. which at the same time attests to the widely distributed roof of the mouth of the individual who uses it. and to a decrease in the hazard of premature decease associated with a high ingestion of concentrated fats and oils

The aim of this survey is to analyze the issues related to the production of olive oil and the selling patterns implemented by ‘Elais S. A. ’ a market taking company in Greece bring forthing olive oil. Therefore. the olive oil merchandises of the company. its mark market and competition are analyzed. a SWOT analysis is performed and the selling mix is presented. The selling patterns implemented by the company will so be assessed on the footing of those employed by other companies in the international market. LITERATURE REVIEW The European Olive Oil Market The European olive oil market has enjoyed a growing rate of above 3 per cent from 1999 to 2004 ( FOOD. 2004 ) . The production of olive oil is considered to be an of import sector in European and particularly in Grecian agribusiness chiefly due to the climatic conditions. which are suited for this harvest. Over 350. 00. that is. tierce of the rural population are occupied with olive oil cultivation. Greece is one of the taking olive oil manufacturers in the universe ranking 3rd after Spain and Italy. Grecian olive production histories for about 22 per centum of the European and 17 per centum of the universe production. However. Greece has many rivals refering olive oil and its agricultural merchandises in general ( Sandalidou and Baourakis. 2002 ) .

Selling Practices in the Olive Oil Industry As it was mentioned. olive oil is widely promoted for the proficient grounds. which declare it to be good to wellness since saturated fats have carried most of the incrimination in epidemiological surveies for bosom disease ( Duff. 1998 ) . For illustration. in Britain the COMA Report on diet and wellness recommended that ingestion of both saturated and polyunsaturated fats should be reduced and olive oil. with its high monounsaturates content. was progressively recognized as portion of a healthy diet. Therefore. the ingestion of olive oil in he UK grew quickly and this was frequently attributed to healthy feeding and turning away of concentrated fats. However. harmonizing to Thompson. Haziris and Alekos ( 1994 ) . this does non look to be the chief determiner of use. The consequences of their research showed that the properties most strongly correlated with the purpose to utilize olive oil were those sing betterment to the gustatory sensation of both salads and cooked repasts. Health properties were besides found to be an of import. but lesser. forecaster of use.

Monetary value considerations and particular juncture use were found non to be of import. Social factors were non found to be a good index of olive oil use. In Australia. unsaturated oils showed an addition from the early 1970s and butter showed a steady diminution from 1960 to 1990. Margarine made from works instead than carnal beginnings was so promoted. nevertheless. legislative alteration was required to allow its merchandising because until 1972 the Australian butter industry was protected by quotas imposed on unsaturated oleos ( Lester. 1994 ) . As a consequence. there was a pronounced addition in margarine ingestion between 1972 and 1980 following the legislative alterations. The displacement from butter to edible oils should non be described merely as rational computation by persons of the likeliness of bosom disease. but the interaction of industrial schemes. comparative costs of butter and oleo. wellness publicity messages. advertisement of oleos based on wellness claims. multiculturalism etc. ( Duff. 1998 ) .


It should be mentioned that a major consideration of the ingestion of olive oil is its cost. Consumers pay a high market monetary value. which depends on where the oil comes from. and whether it is ‘extra virgin cold pressed’ with its characteristic green touch recognized by cognoscentes. The pick of olive oil over oleo is governed non merely by cognition of its wellness benefits. but besides by cost and by the potency for olive oil to be used in a show of ‘distinction’ ( Bourdieu. 1984 ) . The market leader for the distribution of olive oil in Europe and Worldwide is Unilever. which launched in France a new. premium quality olive oil ‘Puget’ in what consumers might comprehend to be an reliable traditional container. Based on an extended consumer research survey. Puget decided to emphasize the genuineness and pure nature of Puget Heritage. therefore tapping into current consumers concerns of wellness and quality of life. Tinplate containers were traditionally the preferable packaging medium for olive oil together with glass bottles. and for this ground a classical steel container was chosen for Puget Heritage. In add-on to its reliable entreaty. the packaging features a pouring mechanism and screw cap.

An extra advantage of the steel container is the fact that the tin plate can protect the olive oil from visible radiation. which is imperative in keeping the high quality of the merchandise. The packaging is besides unbreakable and safe for kids. Another cardinal factor behind the determination to utilize steel was shelf impact. Virtually all olive oil in France is packed in glass bottles. and Puget Heritage steel tins therefore clearly differentiate the merchandise from the competition ( FOOD. 2004 ) . This is reinforced by the research of Sandalidou and Baourakis ( 2002 ) in organic olive oil. which showed that the stuff. the capacity and the opposition are the chief competitory advantages of its boxing The research of Crescimanno. Di Marco and Guccione ( 2002 ) . refering organic olive oil in Sicily. revealed that the selling run consisted of publicity and advertisement.

Bilingual catalogues of all the manufacturers were issued and publicities in eating houses took topographic point. every bit good as engagement in trade carnivals in Italy and abroad and the companies were directed towards specific distribution mercantile establishments. The packaging was given particular attending so as to make visually a esteemed market image. Labeling. the pick of trade name names and the form of the bottle have all received careful attending. The EU ordinances introduced some good alterations refering the categorization of oils and the finding of beginning. which can be an of import stimulation to better. innovate. make new value added and more of import relationships with the market ( Crescimanno. Di Marco and Guccione. 2002 ) .

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Case Study Approach The instance survey method is employed. since its cardinal feature is the “focus on a peculiar scene or event” ( Stake. 1995 ) . Sampling Method Purposeful sampling is the most appropriate for the instance survey attack. because ‘information-rich’ instances can be selected so as to acquire more information ( Patton. 1990 ) . Two types of purposeful sampling were used in combination: “snowball sampling” and “maximum fluctuation sampling” ( Minichiello et al. . 1990 ) . Snowball trying relies on people placing others to look into. The maximal fluctuation sampling was needed because it allows to pick instances purposefully and exemplify a broad scope of fluctuation on dimensions of involvement. Therefore. the interviewees came from different sections of the company. The General Manager was approached and he was asked to propose five more people in the company from different sections.

In peculiar. six in-depth interviews were conducted with the General Manager and the directors and top executives of the sections: Commercial. Customer service and Public Relations. Data Collection Methods Apart from the six in-depth interviews secondary informations refering general information about the company were gathered through imperativeness articles. the company’s cusps and its Web page. In-depth interviews are considered to be the most valuable informations aggregation method ( Lincoln and Guba. 1985 ) . The in-depth interviews were based on a questionnaire presented in Appendix 1. The inquiries were wide. to let respondents as much freedom in their replies as possible. The summing up of the responses was based on the content analysis method ( Stake 1995 ) . Qualitative content analysis was applied and the stuff from the interviews was divided into content analytical units. Therefore. the consequences were carefully put into classs harmonizing to the points of involvement of this survey and the strong points were presented.

THE FINDINGS General Information Elais was established in 1920 and since 1996 it is a member of the Unilever group. It is the biggest company in the sector of oil and tomato merchandises in Greece and it has a strong presence in the Grecian nutrient market. Apart from olive oil. the company has a presence in other markets including: the seed oil market with the Sun oil ‘SOL’ . the maize oil ‘Flora’ and the seed oil ‘Becel’ . rich in fats O-3 and O-6 ; the oleos market with the well-known ‘Vitam’ ; the cold sauces market with ‘Hellmann’s ; the cookery regular hexahedron. spices. sauces and soups market with ‘Knorr’ ; the transcribed tomatoes market with ‘Pummaro’ ; ‘the frozen-battered fish and poulet market with ‘Iglo’ ; the pick caramel. jelly. marmalades. sirups market with ‘Alsa’ . In add-on. Elais has ‘Quaker’ cereals. and the low Calories merchandises ‘Linea’ . It is besides activated in the meat market with Zwan ( authoritative. visible radiation and with herbs ) . Furthermore. it has the taking place in the market of cooking fats with the really celebrated in Greece ‘New Fitini’ . which has become synonymous with the merchandise class.

Elais. as a member of UNILEVER. is administering the merchandises of the other members of the Group to the remainder of Europe. It distributes JOHN WEST fish merchandises. LIPTON tea. ZWAN meat. the low Calories merchandises IINEAand others. The Unilever Group is doubtless one of the biggest manufacturers of standardised merchandises in the universe. with mills in 100 states and about 234. 000 employees. The Group has the following nutrient merchandises: Vitam. Altis. Becel. Hellmann’s. Lipton. Pummaro. Captain Iglo. Algida. Carte vitamin D Or ; the domestic attention merchandises: Klinex. Omo. Skip. Jif. Cajoline and the organic structure attention merchandises: Dove. Lux. Axe. Rexona. Timotei. Ultrex and Aim. Elais in 1999 bough the company ‘PUMMARO–PELARGOS’ . in 2000 established a coaction with the tomato bring forthing company ‘STELLA’ and in 2001 a coaction with “KNORR BESTFOODS HELLAS ABEE” . and undertook the distribution of its merchandises. Elais is besides exporting merchandises such as oil. oleo etc. Olive oil is particularly exported in Canada and Australia where it has established its place in the market among other similar merchandises of the international rivals.

The company is taking at: “ development. profitableness and changeless betterment of efficiency” . The vision of the company is: “To be the best company in Europe in nutrition products” . nevertheless the company should ever esteem its values: Passion: Exceed rivals and ever be the market leader. Dare: Set hard marks and work every bit hard as possible. Integrity: Trust employees and give them duties and freedom to move. The company is advancing teamwork and ideas’ sharing. The Market Greeks prefer olive oil and as a consequence the market of showed an addition in the last three old ages. nevertheless the market is influenced by the production of olive oil. In the olive oil market Elais has assorted rivals. However. its long-run presence in this market. its experience and its good trade name name. gave the company a prima place.

Rivals are seeking to increase their market portions. nevertheless. of import alterations were non made in the last old ages. Its chief rival is the olive oil bring forthing company ‘Minerva S. A. ’ . However. the deficiency of history is negatively act uponing competitors’ place in the market. They are seeking to offer olive oil of high quality to fulfill consumers. but Elais exceeds them in quality. PEST Analysis PEST is an analysis of the external macro-environment that affects all companies. P. E. S. T. is an acronym for the Political. Economic. Social. and Technological factors of the external macro-environment of a company. Such external factors normally are beyond the firm’s control and sometimes present themselves as menaces. nevertheless. some other times can make new chances. PEST analysis is indispensable for the development of selling and strategic programs for all companies in all concern environments. As Kotler ( 1998 ) . argues. PEST analysis is a utile strategic tool for understanding market growing or diminution. concern place. possible and way for operations. The headers of PEST are a model for reexamining a state of affairs and the analysis can be done together with SWOT. Elais. despite the hard economic state of affairs in Greece. has managed to keep the prima place in the Grecian market without high additions in monetary values. Therefore. it remains first in consumers’ penchants by offering high quality in good monetary values.

Elais is influenced by the societal tendencies and its merchandises are suited for the Meditterannean nutrition. which is preferred by the bulk of Greeks. The company is following the technological development. In 1991 Elais synchronized its mill and made serious investings in technological substructure. in information sciences and installed a Entire Quality Management system. In 1992 large investings were made for a new unit of oils polish. which is the first in Greece and among the first three of the Unilever’s units worldwide. The company won the 2nd topographic point for the old ages 2004 and 2005. in the competition of “The Best Workplaces” . where employees choose the best on the job topographic points. In 2004. the company introduced new engineering for the production of ‘light’ oleos. and in analogue upgraded its equipment so as to fulfill the increasing demand for safety and high quality of nutrition merchandises. At the same clip packaging was besides improved and the dependability of the concluding merchandise has increased. This was achieved with the application of SAP one of the most synchronal ERP ( Enterprise Recourse Management ) systems in production planning.

Finally in 2005. it was decided to automatize the production of ‘Knorr ‘dressings ( mustard. mayonnaise. catsup. etc ) . SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a tool for scrutinizing an organisation and its environment that helps sellers to concentrate on cardinal issues. SWOT stands for strengths. failings. chances. and menaces and requires naming and analysing these four issues ( Doyle 1994 ) . Therefore. a SWOT analysis is performed to place the company’s strengths and failings every bit good as its concern chances and possible menaces: Strengths The company’s principals and values reassure a productive hereafter. All its activities are focused on customers’ demands for a balanced nutrition. hygiene and safety. The deep consciousness of the connexion between nutrition and the quality of life has been for the company an inducement to go on a new line of merchandises suited for all families. The company has an first-class distribution system which has helped to command deficits and at the same clip to automatize the supply procedure for all clients.

In add-on. the company cares to develop the abilities and accomplishments of its employees so as to go every bit productive as possible. Therefore. it offers them developing classs based on their demands. Furthermore. Elais is rationally pull offing natural resources and energy. lending in this manner to the protection of the environment. Weaknesses Elais does non hold strong failings because it has a prima place in the market and has up-to-date technological equipment. However. the demands of consumers are invariably increasing and are going more specialised. therefore there is a demand to continuously behavior selling researches so as to place clients demands and fulfill them. Opportunities The sector where Elais is activated is wide and ever offers chances for the development of new olive oil merchandises.

Elais is willing to fulfill all customers’ demands in coaction with them. The company has all the agencies needed to accomplish this. Threats External factors can act upon the company’s gross revenues such as the hard economic state of affairs in Greece and consumers anxiety refering nutrition. which has resulted in a reserved purchasing behavior in the recent old ages. The company controls its production so as non to confront any jobs in the hereafter. In the olive oil market a large job is the illegal trading of unpackaged olive oil and the improper competition. which standardized olive oil faces. In order to decide this job the authorities should purely use the bing statute law and inform consumers about the dangers engendered in the ingestion of unpackaged olive oil. In Figure 1. SWOT analysis is presented. The Marketing Mix The selling mix is besides known as the ‘four Ps’ . The selling mix elements are merchandise. monetary value. topographic point and publicity. A 5th ‘p’ was besides added to the selling mix elements. people ( Kotler 1994 ) .

The company in order to accomplish its aims follows a predefined scheme and used specialised tools so as to organize the selling mix suitably. Product The olive oils are ‘Altis’ and ‘Elanthi’ . Altis can be found in the undermentioned types” Classic. Soft. Traditional. ‘Green’ and Biological. Altis has high quality and during the last old ages gross revenues are invariably increasing and it has the first topographic point in the market. In 2004. the production of olive oil was the lowest of the last decennary. therefore. monetary values increased. However. the Union of Standardized oil Industries in coaction with the Greek Ministry of Development and the European Commission conducted a run to inform consumers and contributed in this manner to a 14 % addition of the standardised oil market in 2004.

Elais is using a Entire Quality Guarantee System in all the phases of the production of olive oil. The company examines about the 70 % of the Grecian production and selects merely the 4 % for Altis. It conducts more than 30. 000 reviews each twelvemonth to reassure that it offers the best quality of olive oil to its clients. The company elaborates and sends the olive oil to shops within one hebdomad at the upper limit so as to reassure the best quality of the merchandise. Elais is ever seeking to maintain high quality and the same gustatory sensation. The providers of olive oil are chiefly Greek. The company since it is a member of the Unilever Group. uses the ‘Unilever Raw Material BV’ . which is the Groups’ provision web. In this manner the company can accomplish economic systems of graduated table and better conditions in the supply of natural stuffs. Elais establishes durable relationships with its supplies and in this manner a better service degree is achieved and both sides have benefits. Price Refering its pricing policy. the company can non do large alterations in short-terms. Monetary values can non diminish. because so consumers will go leery of the quality of the merchandise. In add-on. a sudden addition in monetary values would ensue in a loss of market portion.

Pricing is based on production cost plus net income. taking ever into history the economic abilities of consumers. since the company’s merchandises are first demand merchandises and they should be in every family. Therefore. Elais does non hold many possible picks every bit far as its pricing policy is concerned. Promotion For the publicity of its merchandises Elais uses many promotional tools. Except form Television and wireless advertisement. the company organizes competitions. distributes samples every bit good as vouchers through magazines and organizes free tests in stores. The promotional run is conducted by specialised companies. such as McCann Erickson. which is responsible for the publicity of ‘Altis’ . The sum to be allocated for publicity is defined in the beginning of each twelvemonth as a per centum of the entire budget. However. sometimes. extra sums from the company’s net incomes are given for the promotional runs. The societal work of Elais has an of import function in the company’s publicity. The company feels duty towards the people who trust it for old ages and contributes to the societal demands refering instruction. civilisation. wellness etc.

Elais has established coaction with the Economic University of Athens for the last 30 old ages. taking at helping the professional orientation of immature people. The company in order to educate immature kids in issues refering nutrition. has created. together with the Children’s Museum’ . an educational plan for immature kids titled the ‘Nutrition Exhibition’ . This is a plan aiming at assisting kids to follow the right nutritionary wonts from their childhood. In add-on. more than 2000 pupils visit the company’s mills each twelvemonth and can derive an penetration in the production procedure of olive oil. The company helps schools and fundss activities of the Local Authorities on issue refering instruction and civilisation Furthermore. Elais because of its profound cognition on issues refering olive oil. organized seminars refering ‘the sense of taste’ of olive oil. Many specializers were present every bit good as journalists and they were informed about the quality. the choice and the ‘the sense of taste’ of olive oil. Olive oil ‘Altis’ was a patron in ‘Cooks Golden Caps’ which is the most of import event honoring the best eating houses and the best chefs in Greece each twelvemonth.

Elais uses its web site for advertisement and for pass oning with consumers. Through the web-site consumers can larn about the company’s merchandises. inquire inquiries and give new formulas. During the Olympic cordial reception plan. Elais. together with other companies of the Unilever Group. offered cordial reception to some celebrated individuals who visited Greece. In this manner the company helped the country’s image abroad. Elais is sing charity organisations and orphan-houses and offers fiscal support and nutrient. It besides assists the charity activities of churches and organizes bazars. The company has the Elais Charity Organization. established by the married womans of the employees of the Unilever Group. which collects money to assist the hapless. Furthermore. Elais supports the ‘Food Bank’ to contend hungriness and control waste in hapless states such as Serbia. Elais on the ‘International Heart Day’ . organized together with two well-known Grecian Clinics. an eight yearss jaunt in some distant islands in Greece and informed more than 2500 people. on issues refering nutrition and heart’s wellness. It besides offered free of charge EKGs and instant scrutinies of cholesterin and saccharose.

Topographic point The distribution web of Elais covers all the state and even the most distant islands. either through direct bringing or through local representatives or confederates of the company. Elais has coaction with MAVE Limited. a company specialized in storage. and through its distribution centres. supplies all the local representatives. They so supply the retail merchants of their countries. Big shop ironss are supplied straight by the company through particular ordination and distribution plans which are developed on the footing of the demands of each shop. Peoples Elais is puting in its employees and conducts preparation classs for them every twelvemonth so that they will develop their abilities and accomplishments and they will go every bit productive as possible. Therefore. the company has established a annual program for employees developing on the footing of their demands.


Elais has managed to keep the prima place in the Grecian market by offering consumers’ high quality merchandises in good monetary values. All its activities are focused on customers’ demands for a balanced nutrition. hygiene and safety. The company conducts marketing researches on a regular basis to place customers’ demands and fulfill them. Elais has a really good working environment and up-to-date technological equipment. The company’s distribution system has helped to command deficits and automatize the supply procedure for all clients. Elais offers preparation classs to its employees to develop their abilities and accomplishments so as to go every bit productive as possible. There is a strong competition in the Grecian olive oil market. nevertheless the company can support its rivals because of the high quality of its merchandises and its long history in the market. The ingestion of olive oil in Europe and in Australia showed an addition in the recent old ages. As it was mentioned in the literature reappraisal. the ground consumers prefer olive oil is non merely because it is good to wellness ( Duff. 1998 ) . There are besides other grounds. such as the betterment of foods’ gustatory sensation ( Thompson. Haziris & A ; Alekos 1994 ) .

However. harmonizing to Bourdieu. 1984 and Duff. 1998. cost is a major consideration for the ingestion of olive oil. Therefore. Elais did non do high additions in its monetary values. As in all markets. publicity and advertisement are of import in the olive oil market ( Duff. 1998 ; Crescimanno. Di Marco and Guccione. 2002 ) . For illustration. Unilever through advertisement stressed the genuineness and pure nature of its new olive oil ‘Puget Heritage’ and tapped into consumers concerns of wellness and quality of life ( FOOD. 2004 ) . Therefore. Elais should go on its intense promotional activities. For the publicity of its merchandises Elais uses many tools such as Television and wireless advertisement. distribution of samples. vouchers and free tests in stores. In add-on. it offers fiscal support to schools. charity organisations and orphan-houses. Furthermore. it participates in competitions such ‘Cooks Golden Caps’ and in events such as the ‘International Heart Day’ . As it was mentioned. packaging can distinguish olive oil and make a good market image.

The stuff. the capacity and the opposition are the chief competitory advantages of packaging ( Sandalidou and Baourakis 2002 ) . In add-on. labeling. and the form of the bottle should have careful attending ( Crescimanno. Di Marco and Guccione. 2002 ) . Therefore. Elais should pay particular attending to packaging. bottles. labels etc. and seek to distinguish from its rivals. If the degree of production of olive oil is low. monetary values addition. For illustration in Greece in 2004 when the production of olive oil was the lowest of the last decennary. monetary values increased. Therefore. governments’ support and policies are needed to increase the degree of production of olive oil and accomplish lower monetary values ( Sandalidou and Baourakis. 2002 ) . ( Sandalidou and Baourakis. 2002 ) .

In the olive oil market a large job is the improper competition from the illegal trading of unpackaged olive oil. Therefore. the authorities should purely use the bing statute law and inform consumers about the dangers engendered in the ingestion of unpackaged olive oil. In add-on. to decide these jobs. as Crescimanno. Di Marco and Guccione ( 2002 ) besides mentioned. olive oil manufacturers should join forces with each other. with Associations. the industry and distributers and make clear regulations respected by everyone. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THIS STUDY This survey contributes to the olive oil sector since it is one of the few so far that have provided an penetration in the production and selling of olive oil and has gathered cognition refering the Grecian market where really limited research has taken topographic point in this sector. The consequences of the survey support the findings of other surveies mentioned in the literature and they can be of definite involvement and possible value to directors in this sector. Academically. further research based on these findings can add to the present pool of cognition by farther analyzing the selling patterns employed by other companies in this sector in Greece and worldwide.


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