The pH values in station 1 and 2 shows that the H2O is somewhat acidic due to the human activities at nearby H2O organic structure. However, from station 3 until station 5 shows increasing in alkalinity due the station are located nearby the sea which caused them subjected to the influence of alkaline saltwater. The temperature shows that the increasing from station 1 until station 5. This might due to the decreasing of riparian flora along the river. The values are normal for riverine H2O system.
The dissolved O values increasing from station 1 until station 5. This might because of the H2O current and the windy conditions which are common nearby the sea. Besides that it might due of the extra respiration which caused by input of organic affair. The turbidness in station 1 is highest. This was due of the oil thenar plantation at the upstream and the waste green goods by the occupant in Lundu town and the turbidness are cut down in values the station nearby the saltwater.
The salt from station 1 until station 3 shows that the H2O organic structure is freshwater while station 4 to post 5 show that the H2O organic structures influence by the saltwater. Harmonizing to Bouchet ( 1977 ) , the country with higher salt will give impact to species diverseness and profusion. Beside that H2O with pH scope 5.0-6.5 was considered H2O consist of pH weak acid and pH scope 7.5-8.0 was considered as a strong alkalinity ( Nyabakken, 1993 ) . The differences of pH value besides influenced the species diverseness and profusion.
Molluscs community in batang kayan
The species of mollusks are different in the distribution of each single species at high to low tide zone due to the version to environmental status which is influenced by hydroperiod, handiness of organic affair and sediment feature ( Lee, 2008 ) . The mollusk community in Batang Kayan Estuary were represented by 11 households, consisting at least 10 households from Gastropoda with 20 genera and 1 household of pelecypod with 1 genera ( Table 13 ) that were recorded on October. The species are Nerita lineata, Neritina sp, Clithon faba, Clithon sp1, Littorina scabra, Littorina fasciata, Batillaria cumingi, Cerithidea rhizophararum clypeomorus sp 1, Cerithidea cingulate, Strombus sp 1, Strombus sp 2, Natica sp 1, Chicoreus capucinues, Cantharus tranquebaricus, Bullia sp. , Cassidula rugata, Ellobium aurisjuda, Ophicardelus sp1, Ophicardelus sp2 and two species are unidentified. While the pelecypod species was Saccostrea glamerata.
The dominant mollusk in Batang Kayan are Nerita lineata and Littorina fasciata. This two species can be found at line transect, along the batang kayan river every bit good at the tree short pantss. In term of single Batillaria cumingi was the most abundance comparison to all the species but this species merely be found at line transect. The least molluscs species found in Batang Kayan were Strombus 1 with 1 person ( Appendix 1: Table of drumhead mollusk ) .
The mollusk community can be influenced by several factors such as types of substrate, biological factors, home ground and handiness of nutrient beginning and food. Harmonizing to Haven, 1971 the alterations of substrate influenced the distribution of mollusk such as the Cerithidea rhizophararum normally found at the boggy substrate. The biological factosr such as moving ridge, predation and competition on nutrient influence the distribution of mollusk community in certain country ( Ahmad Affendy, 2000 ) . The predation and competition on nutrient give arise of dominant species in the country.
Besides that, the mollusk were subjected to expose under the Sun with no covered by the sea during the low tide at mangrove ecosystem. Due of this most of marine animate beings dry out and can non respire in air but certain mollusk particularly epifauna are semi-aquatica beings that have imperviable exoskeletons and shells to curtail H2O loss by heat, so that they can defy above the H2O for a longer period ( Shabdin & A ; Hidir, 2008 ) . At the high and in-between tide zone there are less figure of species found due to the country are covered by Rhizophora mangle braid and the incursion of visible radiation was less ( Figure 13 and Figure 18 ) . The light strength and dissolved air are contributed to act uponing the distribution of animate beings at mangrove country ( Barnes et al, 1982 ) .
Gastropod communities in batang kayan
Largely in this survey, Gastropoda is the dominated category. From the consequences, show that the univalve belongs to 10 households with 22 species where 2 of the species unidentified ( Table 13 ) . The univalve is abundance at the lower zone which is at low tide zone. This low tide zone country frequently inundations by saline H2O when comparison with in-between and high tide zone. One of the factorS that contribute to the copiousness of univalve at lower zone is due to the dirt deposit which largely silt and clay at mangrove country. This Rhizophora mangle was exposed with several of environment parametric quantities such as temperature, deposit and tidal current ( Shanmugan & A ; Vairamani, 1994 ) . Thus the mollusk have the ability to defy the alteration of the H2O parametric quantities everyday in their day-to-day. Besides that, another factor is the influenced by a assortment mill such as visible radiation that act as a chief factor to find the algal growing and the influencing humidness ( Nagelkerken et al. , 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Wan Zaidi ( 2010 ) , the tidal exposure, salt and substrate type can act upon the distribution of mollusk. While some of the mollusk can be found on dirt surface or wet dirt on the pneumatophores of Rhizophora mangle s tree such as Avicennia spp.and Sonnerita spp.
Bivalve communities in batang kayan
In this survey, the category of pelecypod is the less category we found which merely one species belongs to the household Osteridae ( Table 13 ) . The species largely found attached at the root of the Rhizophora mangle trees such as Avicennia spp.and Sonnerita spp. The ground of this less category we found might be due to the pelecypod species are buried in the deposit. They can bury in the deposit due to the its feature which have a significant capacity for anaerobiotic respiration where it has a bacterial symbiont in its gill tissue that utilizing nitrate alternatively of O as a terminal negatron acceptor. This bing of this characteristic helps the pelecypod species to last impermanent entombment on beaches and in estuaries ( Hentschel & A ; Felbeck, 1995 ) . The pelecypod buried them self in the deposit due to avoid low salts status and besides predation. Harmonizing to Newell ( 1979 ) stated that the pelecypod tunneling deeper into the dirt to avoid from the dehydration and thermic emphasis. Besdies that, in this survey merely concentrate on the epifauna mollusk which are on the surface of the deposit. There are no activities of delving inside quadrate at line transect which give strong grounds there are no pelecypod species was found at the line transect. Most of pelecypod can be found inside the deposit ( Wan Zabidi, 2010 ) . Besides that, harmonizing to Shabdin ( 1998 ) the handiness of category pelecypod might due to the extra development for commercial by the local people in the country.
From the consequences of correlativity ( Table 14 ) , there are differences between chlorophyll a in line transect 1 and 2. In line transect 2 there are strong correlativity with the species diverseness, profusion and evenness while in transect 1 the correlativity were weak particularly for species diverseness. This differences might be due to the types of deposit at each line transect where in this survey the sand fraction ( % ) was non analyzed. From the observation during the fieldwork at line transect 1 there deposit or dirt substrate was boggy commixture with sand. These give the construction more compact and easy to walk particularly at high tide zone ( Quadrate 1 ) . While in Line transect 2 the deposit or dirt substrate more to muddy. Thus the boggy substrate contain more algae in the deposit which contribute to stronger correlativity in line transect 2. Mangrove deposits which are more to silt or clay suited and can heighten the growing of benthal microalgae and macroalgae. Harmonizing to Mohd Nasaruddin ( 2006 ) , algae community can be found different from high to low tide zone in term of distribution. These algae provide nutrient for certain univalve which univalves are herbivorous that provender on little algae ( Wan Zabidi, 2010 ) . As for the correlativity with Total organic affair are weak and negative correlativity might due to the rapid motion of H2O during the tide which causes the organic affair can non settle down at the deposit ( Ettin, S.S, 2007 ) . Therefore at batang kayan the correlativity between chlorophyll a and Total organic affair with the species composing and distribution did non give much impact where as the types of deposit or dirt substrate may give more impact due from the differences of deposit between the transect. Accorfing to Nyabbaken ( 1993 ) , the profusion of species was influenced by the substrate whereas the muddy substrate has lower value for species richness comparison to substrate with sand. This was proven ( Table 8 and Table 11 ) the highest value of species profusion was in the line transect 1 ( 1.8205 ) comparison to line transect 2 ( 1.2511 ) .
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