Review of Literature
A group of college students examined the relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents. The article views on what this study contributes to stress related studies. 1In general, participants who had experienced negative life events in the 6 to 12 months prior to participating in the study had lower self-esteem than those who had similar stresses within the prior six months. However, the opposite was true for clinical suicidal ideators; those who experienced negative life stressors recently had lower self-esteem than those who experienced negative life events six months to a year in the past.
This article also focuses on high rates of adolescent suicides in the United States and how stress is related to those cases.
This article is related to the proponent’s study because it deals with stress and its effects. Also, it mentioned that stress happens to those who experienced negative life events. This emphasizes the effects of stress and its causes.
An article “Our Health at Risk” is by Sara Martin of the American Psychological Association Monitor Staff magazine. The author used a quantitative approach in writing this article. 2The article indicates that individuals with chronic illnesses are more likely to experience a higher stress level. The article also includes survey information on how stress plays a major role of the stress with caregivers. Some of the other information found through this survey included that Younger Americans are more stressed than adults. It also involved Easterners are more stressed than Westerners. This also tackled about how men cope with stress differently than women do because women will seek out medical attention when men are less likely to seek our medical help. There was a chart that labeled the causes of stress among Americans. The chart included money, work, the economy, relationships, family responsibilities and health problems. 3The highest percentage on stress was Money.
This is related to the proponents study because the article focuses on the causes of stress among Americans and it tabulated which cause is the most likely reason for stress. This article also involved how the different age, different culture and different gender can affect stress. An essay about Organizational Behavior (Work-Related Stress) was created in a website on November, 2012. It focuses on the major sources of work-related stress and the role of gender in work-related stress.4This essay aims to discuss major sources of work-related stress and provide an analysis of the reasons that cause stress among both males and females, and whether similarities exist between them. Comprehensively, stress is a typical instinctive reaction to situations that make one feel pressured or agitated in any way. Stress can help a person to remain attentive and focused during their course of work, and aid them to complete tasks or meet deadlines. In case of an emergency, stress can also help one defend or protect their life. Beyond a particular level however, stress is no longer helpful and begins to cause damage to one’s health, productivity and lifestyle. Therefore, it is important to determine when one undergoes stress, the reasons for it as well as the many ways through which, they can cope with it. All this can improve their psychological and mental well-being significantly.
This specifies the meaning of stress generally. It also identified major sources of stress in field of work. It tackled about what part gender has in stress just like what the proponents aimed to do.
An article with regards to Stress Management was made. It defined stress and how to manage stress. 5People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results.
This is related to the problem since it focuses on how people manage stress
and the real meaning of stress. Knowing how people handle stress is one of the aims of the survey research.
Rachel Goldstein created an article entitled “Indian Women Are the Most Stressed on Earth” during July, 2011.6As women around the world enjoy broader opportunities and expanding roles, they’re also experiencing one other increase in stress. This article also added what causes stress in women around the world. Reuters also finds that women around the world were largely more stressed than those of the past, but also found that women in emerging economic and social markets were more stressed than those in developed countries. India came out with 87% in the survey.
This focuses on stress on an Indian Women. The survey conducted for the study supported the claim that India contains women who are most stressed.
An article made by Veronica Uy was titled “Family, food, money cause women OFW’s stress.” 7Family expectations, money, relationship with employers, and food and religious beliefs in host country are five of the most common causes of stress among women overseas Filipino workers. Usually, women OFWs are stressed not by work but by what happens in their home countries. Money is another key stress factor, especially if money is not enough or if it is mismanaged by relatives.
This article focuses on how family, food, and money can stress out Overseas Filipino Workers. It focused on the causes of stress of women OFW’s.An article titled ress and the Filipino” was made by Michael L. Tan. 8There’s also a tendency to dismiss stress-related illnesses as “psychological,” and that these are self-limiting, easily resolved. The fact is that stress can so overwhelm people that they lapse into depression, resorting to destructive behavior, directed toward the self, or toward others.
Therapies are introduced like yoga and meditation, spas offering massage and aromatheraphy, and etc. People face stresses of family, Rural or Urban. Filipinos are family-oriented, with relatives always on hand to help out. Extended families though are quite a handful, with all its obligations.
There are power dimensions to all this, such as those found in gender. Contrary to stereotypes about women being more expressive, Filipinas are actually more prone to dealing with stressful situations through endurance and repression. Men, too, are expected to keep their feelings in check, but more out of masculine values of strength and stoicism. Men are generally not allowed to cry, much less to go into hysterics; and this probably helps to explain why more men suffer from cardiovascular disease. Many Filipinos will express their stress by complaining about recurring headaches, or abdominal pains, accompanied by dizziness, nausea, fatigue. Review of Studies
A study entitled “Stress, social support and health-related behavior: a study of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical exercise” was done in London back in August, 1996.
9The effects of academic examination stress on health behavior was assessed in university students. It was hypothesized that the anticipation of examinations would lead to increases in cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and to decreases in physical activity, and that effects would be particularly salient in students with low social supports. This were assessed by questionnaire and interview. The exam-stress group reported significant increases in perceived stress and emotional distress between baseline and exam sessions, but responses were not affected by social support availability. The controls showed no systematic changes in health behaviors. In the exam-stress group, smoking increased by an average of 54.7% between sessions in women with few social supports, but remained stable in men. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of naturally occurring episodic stress on health behaviors, and the role of social support in moderating responses.
This is related to the study of the proponents because it focused on stress on health behavior of university students. It perceived stress and emotional well-being. It relates stress to health of university students.
A study about “Stress, coping, and psychological health of vocational high school nursing students associated with a competitive entrance exam” was conducted during June, 2005. 10An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam.
Coping with stress was tackled in this study and perception and sources of the stress was also identified during the conduct of the study.
A study of “The Effect of Work Related Stress and Its Impact on the Productivity of Both the Organization and the Employee” was conducted on March, 2012.
11This study explored the effect of work related stress on the individual. The results of work stress then affecting the organization financially and the individual personally. Work related stress id fast becoming the norm in many organizations. Workplace stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources or needs of the worker. This is often caused by poor work conditions, poor communication between colleagues, harassment, unreasonable work expectations, impossible deadlines, lack of autonomy and management bullying to name a few. The workplace has changed significantly in the recent decade and technology has allowed for new means of communication.
This study focuses on the effect or work related stress to the minority and majority. This is just like what the study of the proponents aims when it comes to knowing the effect.
A study entitled “Study on Stress: Sources, Effect and Resolution Strategies with Reference to Marketing Employees”. 12The job of marketing executive become more stressful because of Changing technology, Globalization, Deregulation, Privatization, Customer empowerment, Customization, Cut –throat competition, Industry convergence, Retail transformation, and Disintermediation. Globalization has added pressure to “go lean”. The World Health Organization says stress is a worldwide epidemic.
The survey research also has the same level of concerns which is about the sources or causes, effects and resolution on social stress. The only difference with this study would be of the respondents. The study focused on Marketing employees while the proponent’s considered ESEP curriculum students.
A research was conducted entitled “Perceived Stress Factors” in January, 2011. 13As cited in the Philippine Daily Inquirer (2007), a survey across seven countries in Asia showed that Filipinos are in fact the most stressed-out people in the region. It was found out that the perceived stress of the college students had a significant impact on their academic performance. About 40% of the students perceived that not getting enough sleep primarily contributed to their lower grade point average.
The study focused on aspects with regards to stress. This emphasizes that Filipinos are indeed stressed out and these affect their performance. This shows the cause and result of any kind of stress to Filipinos working or not. This focuses on the idea of stress factors and how it is related to a certain issue today.
A study was conducted which is all about “Filipinos Getting More Stressed at Work” which is proposed by Raasee S. Sausa.
14Regus cited that a number of factors such as traffic congestion and impact of the recent natural disasters as well as continuing instability in the
world economy are thought to have fueled this growing pressure. The respondents also confirmed that most stress triggers are of a professional rather than personal nature, with their job, management and personal finances topping the list of causes. The research also focused on possible solutions over reducing stress and found that well over half (69 percent) of Filipino respondents identify flexible working as a solution.
Stress affects the society in an economical aspect since it lets workers to be burnout. This study focused more on causes of stress among working people.
Jorgia Briones Connor created a study about “Occupational Stress and Adaptation Experiences of Foreign Educated Nurses from the Philippines”. 15Immigrant nurses face multiple challenges that create vulnerability to occupational stress which may affect quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explore occupational stress and coping among Filipina nurses within the context of immigration and adaptation. The findings revealed that FENS faced resettlement demands because of unexpected social and environmental challenges. Experiences with communication problems, discrimination and alienation interact with and intensify work- related stressors. The data also revealed three phases within which occupational and adaptation process occurs: 1) surviving 2) achieving, and 3) self-determining and that certain stressors predominate during each phase.
This study provides initial groundwork for a program of research to create culturally relevant interventions to improve understanding and working conditions within a diverse workforce, and assist immigrants adapt and cope with stress. This focused more on what work-related stress can do.
Cite this Occupational Health Psychology and Work Related Stress
Occupational Health Psychology and Work Related Stress. (2016, Nov 16). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/occupational-health-psychology-and-work-related-stress/