Organisation and Behaviour

Introduction:

The natures of Organizational Behavior is field of knowledge, which examines the degree of influence exercised by individuals, group structure on behavior within organizations for the purpose of using this knowledge to improve organizational effectiveness. Organizational Behavior is a scientific field that deals with the design, prediction and control of human behavior and the factors that influence the behavior of people as members. Organizations are social systems, combining human and material resources. Behavior of individuals and groups of people who run these organizations or work in them is largely difficult to predict and may not be placed in a prepared framework. Every individual has different abilities, needs and interests. At the same time, this behavior can and should be studied and controlled, because work occupies the most important place in human life and the effective management of that work will depend on the effectiveness of the organization. As the science of the study of human behavior Organizational Behavior is associated with other sciences such as psychology, sociology and even anthropology. In my demure 12 years of experience, the backbone of the organizations is based on: the right use of the culture and structure, main leadership styles and approaches, the right usage of the motivation theories and the best understanding of the mechanism for developing effective teamwork in the organizations.

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Task 1: Understand the relationship between organizational structure and culture. 1.1: Compare and contrast different organisational structure and culture.

Organizational structure:
The structure is the framework of management and employee relationships which operate at different levels within the business organizations. The structure determines how responsibilities are allocated, how decisions are made and how processes are coordinated and linked. It delegates and deploys power, shares expertise and wisdom to establish better proactive structure. The arrangement of the structure in the organizations is mostly hierarchical.

They are highly independent with their environment and in different situations require different structures which must be identified by their variables that affect their business so the managers can make the design appropriately. Typically there are four main organizational structures: Tall; Flat; Hierarchical and Decentralized (Centralized). The Tall Organizational Structure called also “vertical”, labels organizational structures with several hierarchical sheets. A wide employee base is at the bottom of such structures. A middle management layer is above workers, each manager supervising some number of employees. An upper management layer exists to supervise the middle. And at the top of the management layers sits the leader, perhaps a CEO, owner or president. The triangle form shows the power chart narrowing layers of increasing power that centralizes power towards the top.

This kind of structure could be observed in “British Airways”; “British Gas” and many others. They could offer control, low-cost, specialization and effectiveness. Advantages of Tall Structures:
The duplication of the driven tasks cannot be repeated
The specific functions are concentrated in each department
The experts knowledge and skills in specific field can be easily shared among the colleagues working together Disadvantages of Tall Structures
Moving between the departments is very hard which limits the career path The different departments cannot have a good overview of the whole company activities Once the company grows the communication between the layers becomes unreliable and very slow The Flat Organizational Structure has limited covers or even just one level of management. This means that the Chain of Command from the very top to the bottom is short which endorses rapid response and good communication; while the Span of Control is wide, which can add to the general difficulties in supervision and control.

The diagram above demonstrates a small business where the holder is the Managing Director and cares of the business. An office manager is hired to look after the day-to-day running of the business and agree to the owner to concentrate on the core function of the firm. En example for that kind of structure is “Primark”, “GAP”, “Domino`s Pizza” Advantages of Flat Structures

More communication between management and workers, with better team spirit.
Less bureaucracy and so faster and easier decision making.

Fewer levels of management which will include benefits such as lower costs, as managers are generally paid more than workers. Disadvantages of Flat Structures
Workers may have more than one manager or boss.
System may limit the growth of the organisation.

Function of each person could be blurred and merge into the job roles of others. The Hierarchical Organizational Structure is a model of an organisational structure and is the most communal, although new models have appeared. The hierarchy method is still widely used for large multi-site operations such as Supermarket Chains; there may be variances in the aspect but the diagram below shows a representative structure for a large trading business. The below picture shows the chart of hierarchical organisation. This structure plainly defines each employee’s part within the organisation and describes the nature of their affinity with other workers. In most circumstances hierarchies are centralised with the most significant decisions being taken by senior management, as the chain of command comes from the top downwards.

Advantages of Hierarchical Organisations
Authority and accountability are plainly defined and there is a clearly demarcated promotion route. The system makes use of expert managers and the hierarchical atmosphere encourages the actual use of these specialist managers. Workforces can develop faithfulness to their department within the organisation. Disadvantages of Hierarchical Organisations

The high grade of bureaucracy means there is a slow answer to changing customer necessities and the market within which the organisation operates. Announcements across various sections can be unfortunate especially horizontal communication among subdivisions. Units can make judgments which benefit them rather than the industry as a whole, especially if there is any inter-departmental competition

In a Centralised Organizational Structure business organisations are high-ranking management and will retain the major responsibilities and controls to run the business. Conversely Decentralised Organizational Structure will spread accountability for exact decisions across various outlets and lower level managers, including branches or units located away from Head Office. An example of a decentralised structure is the supermarket chain Billa. Each store of Billa has a store leader who can make decisions to a certain level about their specific store before reporting directly to their regional manager.

Organisational culture
When we walk into an organisation we frequently get a ‘feeling’ about it; whether it feels fast moving and reactive, or old and backward looking, this ‘feeling’ is raised to as the ‘organisational culture’. Culture is about how a company organises itself: procedures, rules, and beliefs structure the culture of a company. Power Culture (PC)

Control is the key element for PC. The decisions are made by one or a small amount of people. PC is usually found within small businesses or a department belonging to a large organisation. This is a small number of people are allowed to make decisions. In a power culture firm, decisions can be made quickly as there is little talk. However lack of discussion could mean that a firm is not able to take benefit of the skills and experience of its staff; it could even lead to employees feeling demotivated and high staff gross revenue. Eventually the success of a power culture firm will be influenced by the strength of the decisions made by its founders Role Culture

In a Role Culture organisation, persons are allocated for a specific role or job. They may have a job description records for the tasks they are accountable. Role culture allows large organisations to spread responsibilities among their employees and ensure key tasks are enclosed without unnecessary repetition. Task Culture

Task culture states to the use of performers to complete tasks particularly if the task objective has a number of steps to be followed. The establishment of project teams for the conclusion of exact plan is an sample of task culture. A task culture has a number of benefits: staff feel
inspired because they are authorized to make decisions they may feel respected because they have selected for the team and their is a intelligence of achievement when the team complete the task successfully. It may also let players to be more original when problem solving. Person Culture

Person culture organisations focus on the persons working within the organisation. As they trust on the professional knowledge of the workforce. Person cultures are created in organisations where there is an chance for employees to develop their careers. Examples include universities where staff can continue their schooling throughout their engagement.

1.2 Explain how an organisation structure and culture can impact on the performance of busyness. Every business needs specific organisational structure and culture which corresponds on its needs. If a specific busyness is not using the right organisational structure or culture this could lead to incorrigible circumstances. Also the organizational structure reflects on the style of the management and the leaders in addition to the surroundings where that business operates. The organisation should have a structure and culture that displays how facts and how communication are accepted within the hierarchy in the business. Also the general faith and culture of business organisation is very significant, because it displays how organisation prices its clienteles. Agreeing to Robbins organizational culture completes five meanings. summaries the limits of the business

gives participants of the intelligence of identity
Ease and inspire the immersion of persons with more than their own comforts improves the steadiness of the social structure
gives sense to the possessions and approaches that shape and behaviour – culture describes “the game rules”. The organisational culture shows significant role in the method of competition with new business. It can offer very good benefit if it is valuable, rare and autonomous from fake which is particularly vital because it offers a long-lasting benefit – such as corporation making “Coca-Cola” and „Rolls-Royce” Or even “Harley Davidson”. Organizational culture likewise has some dysfunctional features.
Occasionally it is difficult for the business problem to its optimistic growth. This occurs when the shared beliefs are not in line with those that raise the productivity of the business – mainly when the situation is vibrant and it needs alterations in the business. In such condition in the world nowadays is precisely one rigid culture, a structure of meeting the new desires definite values play a harmful part in the growth of the busyness society. Source: S. Robbins, Organization Theory: Structure, Design, and Applications, 3rd ed., NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1990

The individual behaviour of employees can change the direction of the performance of a business, particularly if they have direct communication with outside businesses. That’s why the organization must provide exact knowledge and make specific trainings to learn them on the company ethics. Ones the workers are well qualified they will do their best in their business operations. This will give to the personnel job roles which will let deep progression of the business.

1.3. Discuss the factors which influence the behaviour of an individual at work. The workers are mainly connected inside industries. A main problem of every organisation is how to detect every supreme hard work and effect of the human beings outlining these hard work and effect; those accountable for handling the society must appreciate the way human beings perform. The world of human work contained of individual performing jobs in some circumstances. The greatest corporate factors which affect the singular behaviour are as follows:

– Ethics – the ethic at work depends on individual himself. If I have to put in frame the main ethical principles they would look like Integrity and Honesty; Good Manners; Accepts Advices, Supervision, Criticism; Dependability (work diligently to complete tasks); On Time; Accuracy of Work; Pride and Productivity in Work. – Skills and abilities – the individual must be able to: Read; Speak; Write; Listen; Able to use computers and apply basic math skills; Demonstrates good common sense; Eager to learn the principles of business; Possesses high-level skills such as reasoning, analysis, and problem solving. – Personality – The general
outline or mixture of features that capture the exclusive environment of an individual as that person reply and cooperate with others. – Attitudes – attitude is a cultured disposition to respond in a constant positive or negative in terms of a situation or object. They show a positive or negative assessment to which employees abandon to the working environment. – Perception – This is rational method which each person detects the information from the surrounding, takes sense from it and organizes it. – Demographic factors – these are the sex, learning habits, age, nationality, race, etc. Business organizations demand employees that fit to good socio-economic background, have a science degree, to be as younger as possible etc. as they are assumed to be acting better than the others. The dynamic professionals that have good theoretical background and operational communication abilities are always in great mandate.

Source: < http://www.docstoc.com/docs/75634128/ADECCO-BULGARIA-MANAGED-SERVICES > [Accessed 03 April 2013] I would like to describe the above mentioned factors as ex-employee of organisation called “Adecco Bulgaria”, where the busyness is not affected from the demographic factors; due to this is intercontinental, multinational and multicultural organisation which hires workers from 18 to 70 years old. The management and the individuals in the organisation hold high level of ethics. Adecco builds its employee ethics from the very beginning in their career path in the organisation as per the company policy. For example there are some employees who cannot attend on time at work due to certain circumstances so the company management has made flexible working times and also “Home-Office” opportunity. Ad-hoc and special trainings are constantly provided to all levels in the company in order to improve and build better personalities, with better attitude and perception with which the employees become more analytical and problem solving in Adecco way and in life. That`s how the company increases its performance in positive way and also is taking care of the behaviour of human force for their better influence at work.

Task 2: Understand different approaches to management and leadership.
P 2.1.: Compare the effectiveness of two different leadership styles in
different organisations. Leadership is basically an art. It is the behaviour and activity that reflects the importance of the people, their interests, though inspiring them to achieve the tasks allocated to them in the best method, and to develop their imagination and potential value of the group, corporation or society. The stiles of the leadership are:

Source: < http://igbusinesss.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/chapter-13-motivation-at-work.html> [Accessed 3 April 2013] Autocratic – Leaders who make decisions and issue orders alone are responsible for this, perform a one-way communication, and suppress individual initiative. A prerequisite for decisions are the goals set by the leader, not the goals set their subordinates

Laisser-faire – Or also called “Interference Leaders” are those who reject responsibility and provide its entire power band to the group. In groups with Laisser-faire leaders stands as a characteristic horizontal communication. In the absence of the leader the group stays idle and the labour productivity is low. This type of leadership could also be very productive in organisations where the productivity is based on the creativity of the workers.

Democratic – Leaders who allow their subordinates to participate in decision making, delegate some of their rights, but retain responsibility for them. Leaders with democratic style were carrying two-way communication, group members were committed to the goals and decisions.

Paternalistic – the lead take responsibility of his function like it is fatherly or paternal. His approach is that of handling the bond between the front-runner and his co-workers as that of a household with the manager as the head of household. He is doing his best to support, direct, defend and save his workers well working together as members of a household. In order to compare the effectiveness of two different leadership styles I`ll use Adecco Bulgaria. Each manager in Adecco Bulgaria has own method for leading. I`ll take as example the SDM (Service Delivery Manager) for the Ericsson account who uses autocratic leadership style where he takes the top
operative choices based on his understanding and provide it to the team leaders for execution. Afterwards they take the orders and deliver them to their teams. They use democratic leadership style as they cooperate with their desk-supervisors. Both mentioned stiles are also used from the supervisors (autocratic and democratic) due to they need to deal with experienced and new hired employees that means they use autocratic leadership style for the new hired employees also they used democratic leadership style to the experienced as they have more knowledge, skills and view of the work and the leaders or supervisors can use their advices to benefit for the company. In my opinion both of leadership styles brings company positivity in their own way.

P 2.2.: Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management with real organisational examples. The organizational management is the procedure of working with others to accomplish managerial goals successfully. Defining the mission and purpose for organization the managers need to cope in the organization as main task, creating duties for the work force to be more productive and to regulate public effects. Typically the management can be understood in its two key senses: As a procedure linking the performance of defined roles and requirements of the presence and activity of the business; As people activities connected to the putting into practice of the roles required for synchronization, pointing and checking of the business.

The functions of the managers are illustrated in the below diagram and their description is explained afterwards:

Planning – activities aiming to prompt further action and company guidance. The planning includes setting goals and objectives of the system, roads and means to achieve them. It covers the preparation of long, medium and annual forecasts, concepts and plans for all activities of the organization. Used to develop operating procedures and facilitate the process of making decision. Organizing – activities associated with establishing the structure of the company’s to the right, authority, responsibility, and tasks. Covers the formation of enterprise, company or business system – governing,
managing, technical, technological, occupational and economic system. Directing – includes directing subordinates. Ensure consistency between the different areas in the course of operation of system, striving to ensure optimal quality and quantity relationships. The guide provides a direct implementation of the decisions taken solutions. These include the concepts: communication, managerial behaviour and activities rewarding and punishing – (Motivation) – includes the development effective methods and tools to stimulate in order to achieve optimal results for operation of the system. Staffing – management route dedicated on staffing, obtaining, evaluating, creating, retaining and paying people so the busyness can select the most valuable individuals for exact spots and at exact time in the firm. In my opinion Staffing is one of the most valuable part of the management functions, because the people hired and working for a company are the force which move each company. Controlling – includes designing, implementing and using the system establish a correlation between the progress and development of production process and plans, standards, regulations and guidelines, developing and implementation of a system for checking the implementation of decisions. As I was dealing with the lower management at Adecco Bulgaria I can give real example for the managers and their behaviour. The different managers are using different methods, general events, scopes and factors which are well influenced with all of the management tasks. Personality and abilities of the Adecco managers are not closely connected to the failure of the success of the business. I would like to describe the approaches which are leading the managerial power of Adecco Bulgaria and other leading multinational companies which are not closely connected to the personality of the manager, but he must use them in order to reach the business goals of the company. Below are the approaches which originally underpin the practice of any business organization: Scientific management approach: Describes the managing science, and performance as having exact but dissimilar accountabilities, inspires scientific variety, preparation and improvement of the employees and the division of workforce between them and the bosses. Classical administration approach: focuses primarily on approaches that lead to improved management of the organization as a whole. Henry Fayol formulated the following management principles: division of labour, authority and responsibility,
discipline, unity of, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the collective, staff remuneration, centralization, chain of command, order, justice, security in the workplace each member of staff initiative, corporate spirit. Bureaucratic approach: At the heart of the concept of dominance, dominance whereby power is recognized to the extent that the subject sees the power in her own necessarily right and the objects of their government debt subordination. Human relation approach: This school focuses on human relations in order to enhance customer satisfaction and productivity for the individual’s participation in the management of the organization and its decentralization System approach: It is based on consideration of the organization as a set of interrelated elements personal and material-energetic; its co-operation is aimed at achieving a common objective (s). System approach requires proper delimitation of the respective system in the external business environment.

Contingency approach: The essence of situational approach can be seen as a need for a specific analysis of the situation to make the right decisions in government; it tries to bind specific concepts and skills of the manager with its specific actions in each situation.

To recap the above, I can accomplish that the managers in the business in general are managing organizational behaviour. This assumption, leads to the question which hinge on how and what should be the approach of the managers. A lot of research must be done regarding this, because this environment is changing rapidly. The design of the concepts depends on the existing necessities of the industries and creation of the endorsements depends on the future industry relations among the corporations.

P 2.3.: Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations. There are dissimilar methods to the management which I already highlighted above, but in this chapter I`ll focus on the founders (innovators) of the theories and the years of their invention: Scientific management approach: he undisputed father of scientific management is considered Frederick Taylor (1856-1915). He published the book “The Principles of Scientific Management” in 1911. His life and work are the
embodiment of that birth of the science of management is the result of generalization and theoretical understanding of the practical achievements in this regard. His generalizations and principles are born and tested in his own practice, first as an engineer inventor, and later as director of engineering and business management consultant. He rejects collective work and insists the worker is paid according to his individual craftsmanship. Believes that large teams productivity of each individual inevitably fall to the level of the worst worker and even below this level. Regarding the positive and negative sides of Taylor’s system has totally contradictory assessments. Positive ratings are based on its purely organizational and technical side prevail in other negative assessments related to its socio-economic, psychological, ethical and political aspects. Source: < http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=223 > [Accessed 1 April 2013]. Classical administration approach: The founder of this school is the French engineer Henri Fayol, who in 1916 as manager he takes out from insolvent the largest coal mine in France and leads it to a prosperous company with the highest profits. Fayol displays used in theoretical and actual practice on the following set of control functions: technical function; commercial purpose; financial function security feature, function of reconciliation, administrative function. Special attention given to the administration function, by breaking it on the following main functions: forecasting and planning, organization, management, coordination, control. And today they are the basis of the functions of management of organizational behaviour. The principles of Taylor, Fayol adds principles relating to the management process and system of management authority and responsibility, legal remuneration; hierarchical structure. Source: < http://www.tellersteps.org/tellersteps.org/Calendar.htm > [Accessed 1 April 2013]. Bureaucratic approach: The founder of this approach is scientific school German economist and sociologist Max Weber – in the beginning of XX century, a leading professor at Heidelberg and Munich (1864-1920). In his scientific works Weber affirms the need to strengthen the power and bureaucratization by: specialization and division of labour;

stronger hierarchical structure of organizations,
management employees with standards and technical regulations;
document-management.
Follower of Max Weber, professor of universities in Turin, Basel and Prague A. Mayhels displayed laws oligarchy under which an entity (organization) requires strict hierarchical and bureaucratic spirit with strictly prescribed rules and standards of conduct of staff. The bureaucratic model is adopted, developed and modified by American sociologists Merton, Selznick. Source: < http://www.mbsportal.bl.uk/taster/subjareas/busmanhist/mgmtthinkers/weber.aspx > [Accessed 1 April 2013] Human relation approach: the most prominent representatives of this school were Mary Parker Follett and Elton Mayo in 1939 with his work for “Hawthorne experiment”. For the first time Mary Follett defined management as ensuring implementation of works by other representatives. Mayo makes important finding of the human factors, especially social interaction and group behaviour in his opinion, have a significant impact on individual productivity. The conclusions reached by that group led by Mayo are the basis of a new direction in management CONCEPT OF HUMAN RELATIONS. Representatives of the school for psychological state that if the management cares about its employees, then the degree of satisfaction of their needs will be higher and hence their productivity will be higher. Source: < http://www.lib.uwo.ca/programs/generalbusiness/Mayo.html > [Accessed 1 April 2013]. System approach: Ludwig von Bertalanffy creates the system theory in 1968. System approach allows to clarify the relationships between the components can be seen facts to design new relationships. This approach formed and a new way of thinking of researchers and managers called. Systems thinking. Principles of system approach:

– Negation of classical approaches to management
– Emphasize the properties that are characteristic of the system as a whole, not its parts, and forces the subject to comply with them. – Viewing subjects as a whole system.
– Viewing system in relation to the environment.
Systems approach as a set of principles plays too abstract. It does not solve and cannot resolve specific management tasks. Mainly system analysis means how the complicated to become simple, how intractable or poorly understood
problem Source: < http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSTHEOR.html > [Accessed 1 April 2013]. Contingency approach: This approached was named by John Woodward in 1958 from the point that he identifies that the business does not exist in a constant external and internal surroundings. This method shows the constant collaboration and exchange between the business and the external situation, together inside and between its subsystems inside and outside. The management have to hang on the facts that the Organisation Behaviour is determined by numerous diverse and occasionally unknown or unforeseen aspects and in this high opinion there is no position of unchanging or long-term presentation. Source: < http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=11 > [Accessed 1 April 2013]. In the below example I`ll explain tow of the management functions working in Adecco Bulgaria for one of their projects Tool Retirement and Account Migration (TRAM). The planning in this team is the most important part for the project as a whole. The project managers are creating the project plan for all activities using Microsoft Project with setting up the project objectives, the time frames, creating the connection patterns between the different teams within the company which are going to migrate assigned to them clients. The managers are using company specific predefined processes for the migration signed with the clients. One of the other management function is the controlling which is assigned to the User Acceptance Testing (UAT) team. As part of the organisation they are using specific tool developed for their need which shows them if the migrated elements are working as per the clients need.

Task 3: Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations. P 3.1 The impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change. I mentioned the most important leadership styles in P 2.1:

Autocratic
Democratic
Laissez-Faire
Paternalistic
One of the main tasks of the personality management is the ability to
motivate, i.e. motivate people to work effectively and use their own potential. Therefore, knowledge of different views of the mechanisms and methods of motivation, nature of functioning of a motive, etc. are an important element in the preparation of leaders and specialists of human resources management. Motivation is the process of pushing yourself and others to the activity that leads to the achievement of personal goals and objectives. In an organization productivity of an employee or a worker is determined by the below mentioned main factors: Motivation is the desire to do a given job.

Ability, qualification to handle given tasks.
Working conditions and workplace, harm, burden, supply of tools, materials and information. The managers can create higher motivation among their workforce with the below three approaches: Traditional approach where the salary is used as stimulation for the labours Human relations approach focuses on social processes; membership in a particular social group; satisfaction with work. Approach for the active participation and cooperation to the organization increases the motivation. It is necessary to distinguish between motive and incentive. While the stimulus is internal motive to any action, the stimulus is external agent, which acts to create motivation. In the below paragraph I`ll discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change. To overcome the problems encountered тhroughout the crisis, firms must develop their anti-crisis programs. But this is not enough. It takes willpower, energy and resources to implement the programs for change. In other words, additional pressure is required for activation of the internal forces for change – will and professionalism of management, adequate formulation of objectives, open communication and active feedback, appropriate management style, engaging line managers, create teamwork, motivate and build commitment and engagement with the change of employees, improve processes, increase efficiency and capacity of the human, organizational and informational capital, organizational culture to adapt to changes in strategy, etc. The “Top to bottom” method is used in the Autocratic management. In this approach it is not allowed the workforce to involve in the decision making process. In times of change this circumstance
can demotivate the staff and from my opinion this is not good for any company especially in crisis. The democratic leaders adjust their workers to better performance. They allow the workers contribute in taking decisions and even encourage them, because the managers know that this is going to influence them. These impacts on the employees and the company as a whole in positive way especially in times of change. 3.2 The application of Maslow`s motivational theory in working environment Abraham Maslow in 1940’s issued his book “Hierarchy of Needs”, His theory of hierarchy of needs is described in the book I mentioned it below and illustrated as a pyramid. It provides starting points for practical action in the organization and promotion of staff in accordance with the prevailing level of their needs. Maslow believed that people have many needs and these needs can be divided into five groups: Physiological needs. They are necessary for the physical survival of man. Needs include food, water, rest, sex. In the workplace, these needs include basic salary and working conditions. Need for safety and confidence in the future.

Include protection from physical and psychological dangers of the environment, and confidence that will be needed physiological met in the future. These needs are reflected in the availability of home, life insurance, a job that guarantees a higher pension. In business people evaluate those needs in order to create safe working conditions, job security and acceptable level of adverse social benefits to ensure the health, protection and retirement. Social needs – Includes need for belonging to someone or that someone belongs to you, feeling that they adopt others, a sense of social interaction. In the workplace, this need is related to the desire to communicate with other employees. Satisfaction of this need is expressed mainly in the cohesiveness of the team due to ongoing meetings, public activities of personnel outside the organization, creating a united spirit of life in the workplace. Esteem needs – Includes need for self-respect, personal achievement, competence, respect from others, recognition. Respect and self-esteem through which one person feels useful and important part are the psychological needs of the person. Psychological needs are satisfied by evaluating and promoting of the results of our work, providing training , offering more meaningful work, participation in
decision-making and the formation of the organization’s objectives.

Self-actualization – It is a need for realization of potential and growth as a person. Self-improvement is a need which makes it possible to develop and demonstrate the potential power of the individual.

Source: < http://notbuyinganything.blogspot.co.uk/2011/05/what-do-we-really-need.html > [Accessed 2 April 2013]

P3.3 The usefulness of motivation theory for the managers

Herzberg’s Hygiene theory:
Hygiene-motivational theory of Frederick Herzberg, also called two-factor theory of Herzberg was created in the 50s by the quest “when the workers are feeling good and when bad”. There are two groups of factors – motivational and hygienic. According to Herzberg`s first group of factors (motivators) provide job satisfaction because they satisfy the need of the people of improvement. Unlike from motivators, hygiene factors are not as important, i.e. they are not motivators. When their motivation is in bad condition to the level that one believes to be acceptable, one begins to feel the frustration of the job. In the employment impact the motivators, and the hygiene factors, but the main recommendation of Herzberg to the business is to impact by the factors – motivators. McGregor’s Theory X and Y:

A prominent representative of the school of human relations in the post-World War II Professor of the School of Management at the University of Michigan – Douglas McGregor (1906-1964). Wide fame get his views on the two alternatives in dealing with people as elements of the organization, described in his book “The Human Side of Enterprise”, which he called Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X, which according to McGregor is traditional, based on several fundamental plays. First the men is lazy by nature, feels innate dislike of work and if you can avoid it, so always work as little as possible. Second, in order to work properly, to make reasonable efforts to achieve the objectives of the organization, people must be coerced,
controlled, directed and threatened with punishment. Third, the person usually lacks ambition, he prefers to be led, seeks to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and it prefers to mostly security. Fourth, one in its deepest essence is conservative, preferring stability and opposes change. Fifth, he is gullible, not very flexible and can be easy prey for demagoguery. According to McGregor’s Theory X is not a theoretical structure but is real theory in many sectors of American industry has a significant impact on management strategies. Unlike Theory X Theory Y is based on a positive view of man. According to proponents of the Theory Y manager interactions with people is based on the following assumptions: First, the application of physical and mental effort in the labour process is natural for man as for rest and play. Aversion to work is not intrinsic to the common man. Second, external control and threat of punishment are not the only, nor the most effective means to get people to use their best efforts to achieve the goals of the organization to mobilize human energy that stood before this task in the implementation of self-supplied functions. Third, adherence to the aims of the organization due to the incentive associated with their achievement. For your efforts you expect some reward incentive recognition (recompense), and the satisfaction of self, a feeling that has expressed itself in achieving this goal is best reward for his efforts. Fourth, the average person learns and convenes under appropriate conditions not only to accept responsibility but to pursue it. Fifth, the ability to show a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widespread among people. In the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potential of people using it is only marginally due to adherence of many of the leaders of the postulates of the theory X. But here lie the largest reserves. So the important task of management is to create such conditions in the organization and to apply such methods, where everyone is motivated to achieve their own goals only if it focused its efforts on achieving the organization’s objectives. Unlike Theory X Theory Y is based on a positive view of man. According to proponents of the Theory Y manager interactions with people is based on the following assumptions: First, the application of physical and mental effort in the labour process is natural for man as for rest and play. Aversion to work is not intrinsic to the common man. Second,
external control and threat of punishment are not the only, nor the most effective means to get people to use their best efforts to achieve the goals of the organization to mobilize human energy to solve the problems that stood before him, self-control in the performance of provided functions. Third, adherence to the aims of the organization due to the incentive associated with their achievement. For your efforts you expect some reward incentive recognition (recompense), and the satisfaction of self, a feeling that has expressed itself in achieving this goal is best reward for his efforts. Fourth, the average person learns and convenes under appropriate conditions not only to accept responsibility but to pursue it. Fifth, the ability to show a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widespread among people. In the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potential of people using it is only marginally due to adherence of many of the leaders of the postulates of the theory X. But here lie the largest reserves. So the important task of management is to create such conditions in the organization and to apply such methods, where everyone is motivated to achieve their own goals only if it focused its efforts on achieving the organization’s objectives. Vroom’s Expectancy theory:

Developed in 1964 by Victor Vroom the theory is an attempt which is trying to understand the motivation with studying the processes of making any effort to achieve the final results. He developed a formalized process schematic model of motivation by presenting it as a sequence of elementary actions. According to Vroom there are three basic conditions for motivation. The expectation is the probability that a given activity (action) will lead to a certain result. The choice is also a subjective probability, but it is associated with targeting one of several alternatives of behaviour. Preference is initiated by different values, which is given by the results from the work (penalties and rewards). Studies conducted on the model of Victor Vroom show that when the employee realizes that the alleged result is adequate to the efforts of the task, the efforts of the employee usually rises. The Victor Vroom model has been successfully used in the practice of many companies that implement their own programs for motivation. At the same time, each leader can in their daily work to create and maintain
expectations in their employees, and this is part of his daily work, i.e. part of his competency as manager. To succeed, he needs to know the valence of the expectations, their strength and the different ways of creating certain expectations. It is extremely important for the managers to use the motivational theories in order to keep their best performers working for them and also to motivate the productivity of the person (s) which doesn`t perform very well. In Adecco Bulgaria the managers are using the McGregor`s theories. It is absolutely forbidden the employees to share and to tell to anybody the amount of their salaries. The leaders of the teams are making different performance appraisals every month, every six months and at the end of the year. Depending on the results of the person performance his leader creates the target to be met for the next appraisal and includes bonus in his salary if he has met the minimum target. If the worker reaches 80% from the target for more than 6 times in a year, his salary is revised. This is stimulating the improvement of the personality of the employee and motivates him to be happy with his work for the company.

Task 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations. 4.1. Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organizations; use particular, real and traceable company examples. Group

Source: < http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/57/social-networking-bridging-formal-and-informal-learning > [Accessed 03 April 2013]

According to Sigmund Freud, the group has libidinal character. The leader identifies himself as father. Wanted to overcome the anxiety related to the unsatisfied libido. The group is a combination of two or more individuals who interact in such a way that each influences the other and in the same time is under their influence. There are different types of groups and subgroups, as well as a differentiation in roles, status and functions of the individual members of the group.

Team
Team is a group of people with common goals who effectively perform
particular tasks.

Source: [Accessed 03 April 2013]
The Importance of the groups within the organization can be defined in the following areas: a) The group is an important source of guidance for the recognition of common values and norms of behaviour; b) Participating in groups the individuals can satisfy their important social and economic needs; c) Working in groups is fundamental to achieving the goals of the organization. The management ideas could be implemented through the groups. The lack of group spirit and tense climate could affect the performance in the organization. The groups are 2 main types:

– Formal – created with order from the management in order to realize the objectives of the organization.

– Informal – arise spontaneously on the basis of friendship, sympathy, common interests, and not by the will of the leadership. Can have a big impact in the organization and management therefore should not omit them from the scope of their attention, and to use them for the purposes of the organization.

In the Tool Retirement and Account Migration group (TRAM) in Adecco Bulgaria the workers has been preselected from the firm recruiter. All the people formed a group which is called “Formal”. After completion of several tasks the group members has found their soul mates with which are cooping better than the others and this forms the “informal team” inside the group. Due to the better performance of the teams the group is divided internally with the knowledge of the management which don`t have anything against this. Combinations of personal characteristics of team members play an important role in its success. Some of the problems that companies face in forming a team are foolish selection of their members. Careful monitoring of the best performing teams shows that in fact the individual members assume one or more roles, without which is impossible successful completion of the task.

4.2. Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective
teamwork in organizations; give real and traceable organization examples. What team stands out among the other structures?

– Togetherness.
– Freedom of expression associated with creativity.
– That the formation of the contribution of each.
– Synergy provides higher performance than individual accomplishments for each. – Flexibility and mobility.
– Personal and team accountability.
– Personal and professional growth of each.
– Distribution of power in partnership.
– Open and transparent communication, trust between team members. What are the weaknesses of the team?
– Number. There is no single criterion for the number of team members. – Vague goals.
– Inappropriate handpicked team composition.
Advantages
Knowing the processes that contribute to the achievement of effective teamwork, the managers must be familiar with the factors that affect performance. The elements and characteristics of the working groups are also the factors of their effectiveness. – The size of the larger group communication becomes more difficult and more difficult to reach agreement, it is better to split into subgroups. Studies have shown that groups of up to 5 people experience greater satisfaction and in smaller groups of 2 – 3 persons increased the personal responsibility, which can also be stressful. – The composition – the degree of similarity in the views influence the effectiveness of the team. At the same time, diversity of opinion is more productive to find the optimal solution than in groups with similar views on an issue. – Group norms influence on the behaviour of individual members, and hence the effectiveness of the group as a whole. Positive are norms that support the goals and objectives of the group and encourage behaviour intended to achieve the objectives. – Cohesiveness is a measure of the mutual attraction of the members to one another and to the group. Can be increased by management by conducting periodic meetings with a focus on the overall objectives of the group to discuss current and potential problems,
current changes, new projects. The meetings provide the opportunity for each member of the group to express himself. – The group consensus is defined as a tendency to compromise individual’s own views to undisturbed harmony in the group. The personal opinion is not expressed for reaching consensus, but it does not help for the effective operation of the team, not because they provide and discuss alternative solutions. – The conflict as a result of differences – the exchange of views might lead to disputes and conflicts found to prove detrimental to the team. The status of members is determined by the position in the hierarchy, job title, availability and location of study, education, skills, knowledge, and experience. Members with higher status can exert a strong influence on other team members in discussions and decision-making. This does not necessarily lead to better decisions. A man who started his works in the organization recently may have some more valuable ideas and experience in some ways by another member of the group with higher status and experience. The sense of teamwork

Development of effective, cohesive team is extremely difficult. But it is easy. I want to say that teamwork does not require any great intellectual insights or masterful tactics. It’s simply the courage and perseverance. So, if you are determined to strengthen your team and manage to infect with this idea the other members you will most likely succeed. The true measure for a team is to achieve the goals that have set. To achieve them always and consistently, the team must overcome the five weaknesses listed here. Weakness№ 1: Lack of trust.

Recommendations:
Members of the strongest teams believe each other on a fundamental, emotional level and don`t afraid to show their weaknesses, mistakes, fears and behaviour. They can be completely open to each other – without any inhibitions. Weakness № 2: Fear of conflict.

Recommendations:
Teams, in which people believe each other, do not be afraid to engage in a live dialogue on the key questions to the success of the organization and solutions. They no doubt to disagree, challenge opinions and are caused each
other, all in the name of finding the best answer, finding the truth and making the best decision. Weakness № 3: Lack of commitment.

Recommendations:
The teams involved in unfiltered conflict are able to provide support to important decisions, even when team members initially disagreed with them. This happens because all the options and ideas were thrown on the table and discussed, which gives confidence to the team members that no stone is left unturned. Weakness № 4: Avoiding of responsibility.

Recommendations:
Teams tied to decisions and standards of presentation; do not hesitate to hold one another accountable for adhering to these decisions and compliance. Moreover – they do not rely solely on the team leader to seek responsibility so they go directly to their colleagues. Weakness № 5: Retreat from the results.

Recommendations:
Teams in which people trust each other, engage in conflict adhere to decisions and seek some other responsibilities, will probably put aside their personal needs and plans and will focus only on what is the best for the team. They do not succumb to the temptation to put their department, career growth or selfish aspirations against collective results that define the success of the team.

– Examples to a work group to which I have previously belong. As a previous employee of the Tool Retirement and Account Migration team (TRAM) in Adecco Bulgaria some of the factors which influenced the team performance were the work atmosphere, objectives of the team, collaboration and the communication in and outside the office. We were so strong team dedicated to the project that even when we were on teambuilding’s our project managers were acting as they are in the office. What I mean is that the HR of the company has chosen the perfect professional for the exact role which helped us to achieve the company goals. Our managers were using the critique to motivate us and to brainstorm us rather to affect us. They have left us to be involved directly
in setting goals which led us to be more creative and to collaborate even better in the team. The managers knew that miracles could be made with the right motivation, so they left us chose by ourselves our seats in the office so we could make teams which led to perfect work atmosphere which helped us for better decisions to achieve the company goals.

P4.3 The impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization; give real and traceable organization examples. Globalization appears at the beginning of the XX century and reflects the distribution of information and communications networks worldwide. Technological characters of this process were the telegraph and radio, and today is the media and the Internet. There are many definitions of this process. According to the example of Giddan`s who believes that this is “… an intensification of global social relations linking different areas so that local events are influenced by events taking place over large distances and vice versa.” K. Kaiser describes globalization as “… a system of world economic dependence created by individuals or groups.” Even without going back in time if you put in front of you only to investigate the so-called information society will be faced with many difficulties which overcome will naturally reveal part of positive social forces. In the modern world challenges of information and communication technologies are determined by the growing trends towards globalization and synchronization of legislation with advanced social change and the fight against entropy. Global changes in social stratification, based on the possibility of any tangible and intangible public resource to be converted into information inevitably cause functional changes in the world economy and its social structure. So in 1985, Internet technology is supported by a wide range of researchers and developers. Internet began to be used in daily computer communications from various people. The new improvements in the Information Technologies have run to a more and more mobile labour force. The revolution in communications technology modifies the nature of personal and group interaction. Four inventions in technology radically altered the relationship between people in the social sphere. The first is e-mail / traditional mail /, which allows communication without the constraints of physical boundaries. Gaining popularity e-mail, demonstrated the usefulness of mass electronic
communication between people. The second significant achievement is the mobile (cellular) phone, provides communication between individuals distant in space. And in this meaning shortens the distance between the individuals even they are in thousand miles away from each other. The third is a breakthrough Internet allows communication between people at great distances to work instantaneously. Internet communication, on the one hand replaced traditional communication models in society, but on the other hand easy access to such technology weakens social ties and people are less inclined to leave their homes. As multinational company Adecco Bulgaria has developed its own way of communications between the country managers using coded video conference connections. With this technology the company makes great savings from the previous way of flying to particular places for the high important meeting in which they were discussing sensitive busyness information.

Conclusion
In conclusion I would like to present ten positive outcome of organizational development. 1) Orientated action and continuous action that requires companies to continuously maintain the ability to respond quickly 2) Close to the client, i.e. getting inspiration for new ideas from customers themselves 3) Autonomy and entrepreneurial opportunity for experimentation, resulting in creating a variety of new products. 4) Increasing productivity through people developed companies treat their employees as a source for improving quality and productivity. 5) Valueable orientation which is more closely related to the performance of the company, rather than the technology, resources, organizational structure 6) Doing what the particular company is best

7) Simple structure levels of government have the least to the most effective solutions 8) Appropriate balance of centralization decentralization
9) Ordering the key success factors must be able to explain how each relates to the others and their influence 10) Assessment of all risks and costs of achieving the objective Efficiency in the management of an organization is the result of two interrelated subsystems: personnel management and management of organizational and technical means. Management System staff must operate according to the effective motivation of people, and the

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