Organizational Behaviour

Part A:-
Multiple Choices:-
1. Which of the following is not comes under Maslow‟s needs theory? 1. Social needs
2. Affiliation needs
3. Physiological needs
4. Specification needs

2. Collegial model is an extension of:
a. Supportive model
b. Autocratic model
c. Custodial model
d. None of the above

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3. Sigmund Freud‟s theory on personality is:
a. Related with moral values
b. Related with sexual values
c. Related with social values
d. Related with parental values

4. A person who moves fast, talk rapidly, usually impatient, measures success by quantity is a person of: a. Class A personality type
b. Class B personality type
c. Class C personality type
d. Class AB personality type

5. According to Maslow‟s need hierarchy theory esteem need comes at__________ position from bottom: a. 2nd
b. 3rd
c. 4th
d. 5th
6. Informal communication is also called:
a. Grapevine
b. Red vine
c. Adams communication
d. Dead communication

7. Needs related to hunger, thirst, sleep etc. are considered as: a. Safety needs
b. Physiological needs
c. Social needs
d. Self actualization needs

8. Horizontal expansion of a job that involves the addition of tasks at same level of skills: a. Job enrichment
b. Job rotation
c. Job enlargement
d. Management by objectives

9. Path goal theory of leadership is developed by:
a. Robert R. Blake
b. Charles Bird
c. Fred fielder
d. Robert House

10. Potential or ability to influence others in a delivered direction is called: a. Politics
b. Power
c. Motivation
d. Leadership

Part B:-

1. Define Bureaucracy.

Bureaucracy in general may have a different meaning. But as far an organization is concerned, bureaucracy is a form of organization based on logic, order, and the legitimate use of formal authority. Bureaucracies are meant to be orderly, fair, and highly efficient. Their features include a clear‐cut division of labor, strict hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedures, and promotion based on competency.

Today, many people view bureaucracies negatively and recognize that bureaucracies have their limits. If organizations rely too much on rules and procedures, they become unwieldy and too rigid—making them slow to respond to changing environments and more likely to perish in the long run. Rules and regulations are formed for the uniform working but it should always have some acceleration space to adjust to specific needs. This is very important in current HR environment. Even management theory doesn’t view all bureaucratic structures as inevitably flawed.

2. State the concept of ‘Span of Control’.

Span of Control means the number of subordinates that can be managed efficiently and effectively by a superior in an organization. It suggests how the relations are designed between a superior and a subordinate in an organization. Span of control is of two types:

Narrow span of control: Narrow Span of control means a single manager or supervisor oversees few subordinates. This gives rise to a tall organizational structure.

Wide span of control: Wide span of control means a single manager or supervisor oversees a large number of subordinates. This gives rise to a flat organizational structure.

The level of control may vary between managers. When a manager has the capacity to manage a large group of subordinates with uniform attention, appreciation and recognition and create efficient workers, another manager may be able to manage only a few in an efficient manner. But is it always advisable to have vertical hierarchy in an organization structure as each manager/team leader should know his subordinate individually.

3. Wright a short note on classical conditioning learning theory of Ivan Pavlov. (Pg 17) Classical conditioning is one of the simplest yet powerful form learning. Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training. A naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Then, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response.

Ivan Pavlov is a Russian psychologist who has developed the classical conditioning theory based on his experiments to teach a dog to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. He noticed that when meat was presented to the dog (unconditioned stimulus) there was a great deal of salivation and when the bell rang, there was no salivation. He then linked the meat and the ringing of the bell to make the dog salivate on the sound of the bell. The dog then started responding merely to the ringing of the bell even without presenting the meat. This is where the classical conditional theory was born.

4. What are the various stages of group development?

A group of is a collection of two or more people, joined together to achieve a particular objective. A group can either be formal or informal. There are various stages in group development viz.,

Forming: This is the initial stage of group development. In this stage, people who have formed a group have to first agree with each other as to the purpose of grouping and methods to achieve the goal. The individuals have to come across anxiety, trustworthiness, disagreement of opinions etc. to arrive at a plan to achieve the goal. This is stage is very uncertain.

Storming: The storming stage is one of inter-group conflict. Though people accept the existence of the group, they find it difficult to accept the rules imposed on individuals by the group. The first challenge will be to select leader to lead the group. Even though he/she is selected unanimously some of them try to test the leader and this results in split of groups and clashes among them.

Norming: This is the stage of cohesion and the members understands where they fit and for a policy to achieve the goal. A new leader may emerge at this stage or the existing leader understands the group better and their possible contributions. The norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group arrives at a common set of expectations defining the correct member behavior.

Performing: The group at this stage is fully functional and accepted. Group members start performing towards the goal actively. Some of the members actively involve themselves in the work and some others take the initiative to support by recognizing, administering and encouraging.

Adjourning: For permanent work group, performing is the last stage of development. For specified workgroups that has formed to complete a specific task, the group adjourns once the task is completed.

Section B: Caselets (40 marks)
Each Caselet carries 20 marks.
Detailed information should form the part of your answer (Word limit 150 to 200 words).

Caselet 1
M/s. ABC Ltd is a medium-sized engineering company producing a large-range of product lines according to customer requirements. It has earned a good reputation as a quick and reliable supplier to its customers because of which its volume of business kept on increasing. However, over the past one year, the Managing Director of the company has been receiving customer complaints due to delays in dispatch of products and at times the company has to pay substantial penalty for not meeting the schedule in time. The Managing Director convened an urgent meeting of various functional managers to discuss the issue. The marketing manager questioned the arbitrary manner of giving priority to products in manufacturing line, causing delays in wanted products and over-stocking of products which are not required immediately. Production Control Manager complained that he does not have adequate staff to plan and control the production function; and whatever little planning he does, is generally overlooked by shop floor manager. Shop floor managers complained of unrealistic planning, excessive machine breakdowns, power failure, and shortage of materials for scheduled products because of which it is impossible to stick to the schedule. Maintenance manager says that he does not get important spares required for equipment maintenance because of which he cannot repair machines at a faster rate. Inventory control manager says that on one hand the company often accuses him of carrying too much stock and on other hand people are grumbling over shortages. Fed up by mutual mud-slinging, the Managing Director decided to appoint you, a bright management consultant with training in business management to suggest ways and means to put his “house in order”.

Caselet 1 – Questions:-
1. What would you suggest to avoid delays in dispatch of products?

Many manufacturing units face this situation when it faces a sudden overwhelming demand from market. Only a proper planning and execution could help the organization cross this stage with less difficulty.

It is an undeniable fact that meeting customers’ requirement in time is quite important to be successful in the market. It is the end customer who is going to decide your success or failure in the market.

M/s. ABC Limited manufactures many products and this makes it quite difficult to meet the demand from all the ends. Yet, it could be met by sketching a clean plan and execute it in a right way. As a consultant, I would meet all the managers (production control, maintenance, sales) and understand their timeline under normal circumstances. With this, I would chart out a detailed plan which describes the actions to be taken to meet the timeline. It would contain the following points. MIS will play a major role in this scenario.

The sales and marketing team should have clear communication with the customers. They must inform the customers the real time needed for supply of the products. No false promises should be encouraged. The sales and marketing team should submit a report about the market needs – which product has more demand and is fast moving, which product is constantly moving in the market and which is slow. Based on the above report, a production plan will be drawn. Importance will be given to fast moving products and vice versa. At any point of time, a minimum stock level should be maintained to meet any urgent demand of the customer. The Procurement team should inform the production team about the number of days required to acquire raw materials and spares. This timeframe will vary for imports, localization, finding a new OEM partner etc. Supply Chain Management plays a major role in uninterrupted production. The logistics team should also prepare an MIS which indicates the number of days taken to reach the goods at different markets. Logistics is a big challenge as they may have to face many hurdles such as natural disasters, political problems, change in government polices etc.

The maintenance department should be ready to meet any unexpected stoppage of machinery. They should understand the machineries well and be able to arrive at a list of frequently required spares, spares that are difficult to procure, spares that has a long lead time etc. They have to maintain the inventory of such spares as stoppage of production for a single day could lead to a big loss. Wherever necessary, sufficient manpower should be appointed. HRD should keep some technical candidates in the pipeline. They should also identify within the organization talents that would be useful in production and transfer them accordingly. HRD has to maintain a smooth environment to avoid any clashes among employees. Hardworking, sincere and talented employees should be identified and encouraged. Employees who are not very productive should be warned and punished accordingly. The HR Department should also be able to acquire temporary manpower when the production target is very high and the time frame is small. Production team should work in extra shifts when an urgent order has to be met.

Planning alone will not help ABC Ltd survive this situation. The managers should have updated information about their functions and meet at regular intervals to check and review the status. A graph should be maintained to indicate where the teams have to be and where they are in their current performance level.

When all the above requirements are met within the organizations, the regular meetings will not be mutual mud-slinging, rather informative and productive discussions.

It is the ‘Team Work’ that leads to success rather than an individual’s hard work!

2. What action should be taken by various functional managers to meet the scheduled dates?

The answer to this question has already been discussed in the previous answer. The functional managers should understand their individual responsibility as a team leader and collective responsibility as an employee of the concern. A Manager, as a team leader is not only responsible for his own credits and mistakes but also of his entire team.

The functional managers should understand their team’s demand and inputs. An MIS should be prepared which lists the timeframe for each function by each manager.

The Marketing Manager should provide market details such as – the demand level for each product, customers’ expectation about the delivery etc. The marketing manager should be able to advise the management about any
modifications / improvements that can increase the sales volume of the product. This helps the organization meet the challenging market requirements and sustain their market share.

The Sales Manager should ensure that his team earns the reasonable delivery time from the customers. At any point of time, the customers should not be misguided with false commitments for early delivery. This will create difficulty within the organization and will also spoil the image of the company. If not careful, situations may continue to arise wherein ABC has to be pay compensation to customers for late delivery and incur losses. Sales forecast is very important in manufacture.

The Maintenance Manager and his team should be able to understand the machineries well and be able to foresee any repairs that occur frequently in the machineries. In such cases where the chances of repair of certain parts are too high, a good inventory should be maintained to avoid any break in production. Also, some spares might take a very long lead time. The production manager must ensure that a minimum level of stock of such spares is maintained. Also, proper arrangements should be made to meet any power cut.

The Purchase / Procurement manger should be in constant touch with the production team and understand their requirements. Dependency on single supply source is not advisable. When same product is procured from more than one supplier, the production can go on without any interruption if any problem arises with one of the suppliers.

Even when the production is over in time and the products are shipped at the right time, it becomes meaningless if the products does not reach the consumer in time. Logistics plays a major role in carrying the products to the customers. The logistics manager should be able to foresee any trouble in transporting the goods. The hindrances may be due to various reasons – natural disaster, political reasons, government policies, strike, economical changes etc. The logistics manager should have alternate plans to reach the goods to the customers in time in case of any such troubles.

Caselet 2

Rajender Kumar was a production worker at competent Motors Limited (CML) which made components and accessories for the automotive industry. He had worked at CML for almost seven years as a welder, along with fifteen other men in the plant. All had received training in welding both on the job and through company sponsored external programs. They had friendly relations and got along very well with one another. They played Volleyball in the playground regularly before retiring to the quarters allotted by the company. They work together in the company canteen, cutting Jokes on each other and making fun of everyone who dared to step into their privacy during lunch hour. Most of the fellows had been there for some length of time, except for two men who had joined the ranks only two months back. Rajender was generally considered to be the leader of the group, so it was no surprise that when the foreman of the new was transferred and his job was posted, Rajender applied for the job and got it.

There were only four other applicants for the job, two from mechanical section and two from outside, when there was a formal announcement of the appointment on a Friday afternoon, everyone in the group congratulated Rajender. They literally carried him on their shoulders, and bought him snacks and celebrated. On Monday morning, Rajender joined duty as Foreman. It was company practice for all foremen to wear blue jacket and a white shirt. Each man‟s coat had his name badge sewn onto the left side pocket. The company had given two pairs to Rajender. He was proud to wear the coat to work on Monday. People who saw him from a distance went up to him and admired the new blue coat. There was a lot of kidding around calling Rajender as „Hero‟, „Raja Babu‟ and „Officer‟ etc.

One of the guys went back to his locker and returned with a long brush and acted as though he were removing dust particles on the new coat. After about five minutes of horseplay, all the men went back to work. Rajender went to his office to familiarize himself with the new job and environment. At noon, all the men broke for Lunch and went to the canteen to eat and take a break as usual. Rajender was busy when they left but followed after them a few minutes later. He bought the food coupon, took the snacks and tea and turned to face the open canteen. On the left-side corner of the room was his old work group; on the right-hand side of the canteen sat the other entire foreman in the plant—all in their smart blue coats. At that point of time, silence descended on the canteen. Both groups looked at Rajender anxiously, waiting to see which group he would choose to eat with. Caselet 2 – Questions:

1. Whom do you think Rajender will eat with? Why?
Employee orientation is very important in any organization. In fact it is a challenge for both the employer and employee to develop a mutual relationship at workplace, on arrival. This challenge is faced even within the organization when an employee gets promoted or transferred to a new department. Even though the organization is the same, the workplace is new for the employee. Belongingness is such a fundamental human motivation that we feel consequences of not belonging. If it wasn’t so fundamental, then lack of belonging wouldn’t have such dire consequences on us. This desire is so universal that the need to belong is found across all cultures and different types of people. This sense of belongingness creates positive and negative reflections at workplace. Based on the above theory, I opine that Mr. Rajender will eat with his new foreman group. I come to this conclusion because of the following reasons;

Mr. Rajender has come to a new team and it is important at the initial stage to get to know the team. This is the stage he has to develop a rapport with the new team. It is a common attitude that employees form groups according to their work, knowledge, experience etc. An employee feels comfortable to move with another man of same category. This also applies to Mr. Rajender. It is not only a matter of comfort but also a necessity. When a person had worked in a different level and position in the past but has attained a development in his career, he has to adapt to the new situation. He has to refine his behavior at the workplace. In Mr. Rajender’s case, only when he moves along with other foreman he will understand the job, working conditions etc. It takes some time for any employee to understand his new portfolio. In this ‘holiday period’ he should create a friendly relationship with the other team mates, observe their working, demands that are being faced by the team etc. This smooth relationship creates a pathway for learning the new assignment. He has to create a bonding with his new foreman team for better orientation. It would be a right attitude for Mr. Rajender to wave or wish his old group with a comforting smile and join in the foreman group for tea/lunch. That is where he belongs to after his promotion. Team bonding and belongingness is very important for better performance by the employees. Mr. Rajender was working as a production worker for more than seven years and had a very good relationship with his group. Hence, his group will also understand his decision and appreciate it. Ignoring the above fact, if Mr. Rajender chose to join with his old group ignoring his foreman group, it will create a disfavor against him in the foreman group. They will find it difficult to accept him in their team and share their knowledge and experience.

2. If you were one of the other foremen, what could you do to make Rajinder’s transition easier?

Transition management is about what employees experience personally within themselves. It is concerned with helping employees let go of how things used to be and adapt to the way things are or are going to be. Managing transitions means helping employees to make a difficult process less stressful and disruptive for everyone.

If the transition process is not effectively managed then an organisation is likely to experience some or all of the following:

increased sickness absence
reduced/poor performance
loss of creativity and initiative
increased grievances

A smooth transition in to a new job increases the employee productivity and retention. It is a very important phase for both the employer and the employee.

Any existing team would initially hesitate to accept a new member into their team. Sometimes, an employee in the team takes initiative to smoothen this hick-up. When I put myself in the position of the ice-breaker, I would try to make it comfortable for Mr. Rajendren to fit in to the new team with the help of the following tools. I will have an informal chat with him first and understand his talents, interest, knowledge etc. Take him along and introduce him to other team mates giving a positive opinion about him. As it is important to know the people with whom you are working, I will give him brief about each team mate in a positive manner and how I tackle with them. I will also brief him about employees from other teams / department with whom we have to deal with on a day-to-day basis. Though he might be aware of company policies and procedures, some of them may have to be detailed to him. It is not necessary that all the employees are fully aware of the policies and procedures of the company. They will learn about it only when a situation arises. Hence, I will give him a gist of policies which he has to know in his new position. I will guide him through the procedures that need to be followed in the work. Give him an idea about the boss’ temperament so that he finds it a bit easy to tackle. To say it in a simple manner, I would provide him the fullest support that I would expect from a fellow-worker if I am a new joinee.


Section C: Applied Theory (30 Marks)
This section consists of Applied Theory Questions.
Answer all the questions.
Each question carries 15 marks.
Detailed information should form the part of your answer (Word limit 200 to 250 words).

1. What are Psychological games & why people play these games?

Psychological games are not similar to those games we usually play. It is also called “Mind Game”. It is played to find out the mindset of people. The Human Resource Management is not just appointing people for specified tasks; it also involves the well-being of the staff within the organization which results in the well-being of the company. It is the responsibility of the HR department to act on behalf of the employees of the organization. They foresee the requirements of employees, their capabilities, growth prospects and in turn the growth opportunities for the company. It is a truth that a better interaction among employees eases the workflow. Hence, many corporate spend money and time in Out Bound Trainings – shortly known as OBT. OBT is generally conducted in outdoor areas where the employees play these “Mind Games” or “Psychological Games”. These games do not require intelligence like other games. Many of the psychological games will be silly but it all has a concealed purpose. The criteria, that defines a game as a mind game is as follows : 1. A continuing series of complementary transactions, that is credible on the social level. Basically it looks like honest, good old social interaction between people. 2. An ulterior transaction, which is the basic message of the game. There is a concealed message. This is not straightforward, honest social intercourse. 3. There is a predictable payoff and this ends the game. This is the purpose of playing the game. The reasons for playing psychological or mind games are;

These games helps employees relax their minds and get away from the work place tension and chaos. It removes the differences between employees while having fun and creates a smooth relationship. The observer can study the mindset of the employee who is playing the game. It creates a bonding among the employees.

It refreshes the minds of employees and prepares them to face the critical tasks ahead of them on their day-to-day office life once they return back to routine. It helps the team members understand each other which might not be possible during office routine. It opens up the minds of the employees and helps solve the indifferences and misunderstandings among them. It brings out the creativity of an individual

From HR point of view, the observer can identify the hidden talents / technical knowledge of the employees and help develop themselves which is a benefit to the organization too. It helps improve the social skills of employees.

Helps people to view a problem in different angles.

In short, psychological or mind games are not played for fun. It can be as simple as “passing the ball” or “dumb charades” but has a purpose in it. It helps understand the attitude and skills of other team mates, and improves the relationship among the employees or a group. As the social skill of an employee also plays a significant role in the business world, it is important to sharpen such skills. 2. A good leader is not necessarily a good manager.” Discuss this statement & compare leadership with management.

I completely contradict to this statement because “All leaders can become Managers but All Managers cannot become Leaders”.

I would like to quote late management guru Peter Drucker’s writing – with the rise of the knowledge worker, “one does not ‘manage’ people,” “The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual.” He was one of the first to recognize this truth, as he was to recognize so many other management truths.

A good leader must possess the following qualities of which managerial skill is one among the three. He must be a

Critical Thinker – ability to remove emotion and think of all alternatives and options on how to move a department, organization, project or sale forward. Ability to solve problems and maintain a leadership position in the marketplace. Manager – ability to execute processes properly to achieve desired results. This includes staffing and scheduling. Coach – ability to get things done through others. Understand individual’s strengths and weaknesses and create environment to get the most out of each individual.
Coaching is not about changing people. Leaders create opportunities and environments for success. Individuals must want to personally succeed and do whatever it takes.

As you see from the above, a good leader has in him, the managerial ability. He not only gets the job done but also guides his subordinates whenever necessary.

Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves. Still, much ink has been spent delineating the differences. The manager’s job is to plan, organize and coordinate. The leader’s job is to inspire and motivate. In his 1989 book “On Becoming a Leader,” Warren Bennis composed a list of the differences:

Comparison between Leadership & Management:
The manager administers; the leader innovates.
The manager is a copy; the leader is an original.
The manager maintains; the leader develops.
The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why. The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon. The manager imitates; the leader originates.

The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. Perhaps there was a time when the calling of the manager and that of the leader could be separated. A foreman in an industrial-era factory probably didn’t have to give much thought to what he was producing or to the people who were producing it. His or her job was to follow orders, organize the work, assign the right people to the necessary tasks, coordinate the results, and ensure the job got done as ordered. The focus was on efficiency. But in the new economy, where value comes increasingly from the knowledge of people, and where workers are no longer undifferentiated cogs in an industrial machine, management and leadership are not easily separated. People look to their managers, not just to assign them a task, but to define for them a purpose. And managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results. The late management guru Peter Drucker was one of the first to recognize this truth, as he was to recognize so many other management truths. He identified the emergence of the “knowledge worker,” and the profound differences that would cause in the way business was organized. With the rise of the knowledge worker, “one does not ‘manage’ people,” Mr. Drucker wrote. “The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual.”a

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