Parsons the new school for design
School of Art and Design History and Theory
Perspectives in World Art and Design, Part 1
1. What was the possible prupose of Jomon dogu?
The Jomon dogu served as an effigy which represented the owner or another person. Through compassionate magic, any illness or misfortune of the owner or other person could be transferred to the dogu.
2. What social changes occurred in the Yayoi period?
During the Yayoi period, continental ideas, objects and technology arrived in the islands. There were developments of rivalries, warfare and socio-elites. The period became a culture of complex political structures or chiefdom.
3. What was a haniwa used for?
Haniwa, which means circle of clay, was utilized to mark the borders of a burial ground. It symbolized as a continued service to the deceased in the other world.
4. What cultural transformations occurred during the Asuka period?
The significant cultural transformation that happened during the Asuka period was the arrival of Buddhism from Korea. It marked a change in the Japanese society. It was the stage wherein there were artistic, social and political transformations. The Japanese arts were influenced by Buddhism philosophies. Moreover, the name of the country was also altered from Wa to Nihon.
5. What was one of the results of a strong central authority in Nara?
The Japanese government has adopted the Chinese’s mode of government in the Prince Shotoku’s Seventeen Article Constitution. The reforms that have been undertaken by Shotoku did not only address the internal problems that the Yamato court has faced rather the period has also changed that Japanese history. The varieties of Japanese states were named for the regions wherein the capital was located.
6. What is Esoteric Buddhism and how is the concept artistically interpreted?
Esoteric Buddhism was a form of Buddhism wherein the most philosophical and profound teachings were not illustrated and developed openly. It was transmitted from master to disciple. It contained strong elements of magic and ritual. It made use of art in order to send out religious ideas. It was interpreted through visuals and symbols because one way of comprehending the philosophies behind Buddhism was to portray it visually and symbolically.
7. What are the teachings of Pure Land Buddhism?
The teachings of Pure Land Buddhism focused on the belief that salvation could be achieved by invoking the name of Amitabha with complete faith in his grace and the worth of his vow. Moreover, there were advantages to be obtained from the non-attach practices of Wisdom and Compassion.
8. What is the “Women’s Hand” style and how was it characterized?
Women’s Hand was the ancient Japan writing that mixed kanji and kana and was used primarily by women. It was also known as onnade. It was characterized using simpler and more angled characters. Furthermore, the use of color and the manipulation of lines and shapes represented emotions.
9. What is “Men’s Hand” style and how was it characterized?
The Men’s Hand was very different from Women’s Hand. The sweeping and lively lines were the ones that develop a scene. It utilized caricatures or animals to outwit censorship.
10. How does Zen Buddhist differ from both Esoteric and Pure Land Buddhism?
Zen Buddhism is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that declares and states that enlightenment can be achieved through meditation, self-contemplation and intuition rather than execution of devotion and faith. It differs from Esoteric and Pure Land Buddhism because both types of Buddhism focus and revolve in the attainment of enlightenment and Nirvana through faith and devotion, through utterance of Amitabha’s name (Pure Land) and through rituals and magic (Esoteric).