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Povery Ia for Caribbean Studies

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Caribbean Studies Internal Assessment (Poverty within the Caribbean) Title page Candidate Name: Akizar Bascombe Name of School: Speyside Secondary School Centre Number: 16055 Candidate Number: 160550049 Subject: Caribbean Studies Name of Teacher: Mr Augustine Statement of problem What are the causes and effects of poverty and how does it impact on family life in the community of Betsy’s Hope, Tobago? Table of contents Headings Pages

Acknowledgements 5 Introduction 6 Literature Review 8 Research Design 16 Presentation of Data 17 Analysis of Data 6 Discussion of Findings 28 Conclusions 29 Recommendations 30 Limitations 31 Appendix 32 Bibliography 37 Glossary of Terms 38 Acknowledgement The accomplishment of my Internal Assessment would not have been possible without like to numerous persons.

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Firstly I extend immense thanks to God who was my constant guide during this process and for providing me with all the hope, strength and courage that I needed to carry out this tedious task. Secondly, heartfelt thanks to my mother who believed in me ensured I was financially steady and for me profoundly supporting me.

Countless thanks to my Caribbean Studies teacher, Mr Augustine who played a major role in conveying the knowledge necessary for the embarking on the project.

Special thanks to all my questionnaire respondents for the investing time and patience into responding to the survey. Finally, I give a warm sincere gratitude to my Parents for bestowing on me the motivational drive that was required and to my friends for their constructive criticism, which helped me in the long run. Introduction Poverty is the description of lacking common necessities such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of which determine our quality of life. Poverty may affect individuals or groups and includes the lack of access to opportunities such as education and employment.

Poverty is a lifelong phenomenon that has been with us from historical times and has transcended through generations. The word poverty canoes and undoable state which individuals or groups may be experiencing and need some assistance in changing. Many systems were implemented to assist in relating poverty e. g. money commission report and the Harwood and Henry page 4 of the Economic Planning Machinery. The Caribbean still has not been successful in improving the standard of living of its general population. Farley Braithwaite page 3 notes states “the pervasiveness and the conditions of the poor are two perplexing problem facing the Caribbean society. Poverty in the region has been estimated at 38% of the total population.

Poverty is correlated to many other social problems such as inequality, crime, environmental degradation, poor nutrition, inadequate health services and unemployment which makes it more wide spread difficult to identify and solve. The main aim of the research is to conduct an investigation into “what are the causes and effects poverty and how does it impact on family life in Betsy Hope, Tobago”. I have observed that in my village a large percentage of old and young people alike seems to display signs of poverty. Consequently I have decided to conduct a research in my village on causes and effects and impact of poverty. At the end of this study these 3 sub-questions will be answered: 1. What are the causes of poverty in my community? 2. How does poverty impact on the villagers of Betsy’s Hope? 3.

Are the social statuses of the villagers blameless enough for potential poverty alleviation? From conducting the research it is expected that the poverty stricken person would benefit by gaining information into dealing with the issue thereafter. 3 objectives for conducting the research are: * To seek out the ways in which people are affect by the phenomenon of poverty. * To examine the social statuses of persons that are affect by poverty. * To determine means by which poverty can be curbed in the village The Educational Value of this Study: In doing this research I have benefitted, as I have learnt to conduct independent studies and have gained the research skills necessary.

These skills can be used in the future at other stages of my academic career. This research also helped to create awareness for the stated problem and has broadened my knowledge. Through discussions on the topic, causes of the problem would have been discovered and solutions can therefore be generated to further enhance the lives of villagers. Literature Review Causes of poverty Poverty is an exceptionally complicated social phenomenon and trying to discover its causes is equality complicated. The stereotypic (and simplistic) explanation persists- that the poor cause their own poverty- based on the notion that anything is possible in America.

Some theorists have accused the poor of having little concern for the future and preparing to “live for the moment” others have accused them of engaging in self- defeating behaviour. Still other theorists have characterized the poor as fatalists resigning themselves to a culture of poverty in which nothing can be done to change their economic outcomes. In this culture of poverty- which passes from generation to generation – the poor feel negative, inferior, passive, hopeless and powerless. The “blame the poor” perspective is stereotypic and not applicable to all of the underclass. Not only are most poor people able and willing to work hard, have they done so when given the chance.

The real trouble has to do with such problems as minimum wages and lack of access to the education necessary for obtaining a better- paying job. More recently, sociologists have focused on other theories of poverty. One theory of poverty has to do with the flight of the middle class, including employers, from the cities and into the suburbs. This has limited the opportunities for the inner- city poor to find adequate jobs according theory; the poor would rather receive welfare payments than work in demanding positions as maids or in fast food restaurants. As a result of this view, the welfare system has come under increasing attack in recent years.

Again, no simple explanation for or solutions to the problem of poverty exist. Although varying theories abound, sociologies will continue to pay attention to this issue in the years to come. Interestingly enough, effect of poverty are also causes of poverty and this leads to a cycle of poverty. Effects 1: Poor Health It is true that around the world around 18 million people a year or 50,000 people in a day will die of poverty related causes. Most of these people are women and children. In my view however Tobago we are privy to free health care. This, more or less assist in aiding proper health, starvation, Malnutrition, hunger and homelessness. Women who have their children in poverty will not be able to nourish.

Effects 2: Poor Education and Opportunity Persons more so children, in Tobago, who comes from low income housing are very high risk of educational underachievement. This is a process that usually begins immediately in elementary school. For children in poverty their rates of teenage pregnancy and juvenile delinquency are high leading them not to finish school. Children who live at or below the poverty level will have less success educationally than the children who live above the poverty line. Children of poverty often do not have health care and will be absent from school more often. These issues could keep a child from being able to achieve as much.

Additionally, children of poverty often move around schools a lot, leading to gaps in their education and often attend school that do not have adequate resources and have lost hope. Effect 3- Poor Health Opportunities Many children of poverty live in places without economic opportunities. They often live in slums, which are run down housing that do not have much security for those living there. They are usually located in the bad paths of the town and are cheaper to live in. Children living in poverty often live in overcrowded homes with lots of children and relatives living in close proximity. This makes it challenging for the children to have any peace and quiet to study for school, or to get appropriate sleep. Effect 4- Violence

Prostitution is a related issue to poverty. This is just another form of modern slavery. Violence and poverty have gone hand in hand. Where with the lack of money in Tobago girls and women alike sell themselves. Effect 5- Drug Abuse Unemployment is a big factor in drug and alcohol abuse. Some results of drug abuse are theft, killing, stealing, assault, poor grades in school or work performance, poor conduct at work and prison. Sometimes poverty is actually the effect of drug abuse, as people addicted to drugs may not be able to keep a job and may find other ways to support their addiction. The various effects mentioned above, affects the many age groups similarly. Impact of poverty

Those living in poverty and lacking access to essential health services, suffering hunger or even starvation experience mental and physical health problems which make it harder for them to improve their situation. Poverty is also major contributing factor to teenaged pregnancy and juvenile delinquency in a country. There are so many people who died of hunger and lack of proper medical facilities. Many infants and their mother die because they don’t get proper medical care or they lack the same. The rate of dying is so high that according to United Nations in every 3 seconds a person dies of some disease or hunger. Unfortunately children die more often.

Although it seems that the world or at least a few parts of it not having enough food but the reality is entirely different. If we talk more specifically the poverty in the Caribbean is resulting into these unwanted deaths in that area. The problem of severe poverty in Latin American and Caribbean region restrict them to buy enough food to nourish them. As they are continuous improperly fed; resulting into loss of health and weaken body. A fact about poverty in the Caribbean is that the poor are found everywhere; in developed and developing countries. Caribbean countries lack in infrastructure and may be considered as middle income countries as, per capita income is as less as a dollar a day.

It is also worth telling that in some countries like Bahamas, the Virgin Islands, and in Barbados have less poverty than countries like Guyana, Haiti and Suriname. Official and unofficial surveys have revealed the fact that how badly the poverty in Caribbean has affected the lives of the commons. Considering the basic requirements of healthy living like financing the food for the family, education and other must haves, the situation is not good in almost all the countries of the Caribbean. How severely does the poverty in the Caribbean has affected the lives there can be concluded from the fact that almost 63% of the population in Haiti and 61% in Suriname are living below poverty line.

Whereas in countries like Belize, Grenada, Guyana, St. Kitts, Dominica, almost 35% – 45% of the total population is living below the poverty line. These surveys not only depict the bad condition of the common people in these countries but also the unavailability of basic needs a human deserves. It also concludes that the poverty in the Caribbean countries is mostly found in rural areas. Poverty eradication is a very long-term process in Caribbean. The governments have to concentrate on giving a boost to the rural economy to enable the poor to see the ray of hope. Otherwise all efforts would result into disappointing failure. http://larry50. wordpress. com/2008/01/16/poverty-in-the-caribbean/

The experience of long-term poverty affects a child’s personality development, through a family stress process in which poverty is considered to be one of the major factors. This causes family dysfunction, stress among caregivers and inadequate parenting. According to the World Bank estimates in 2003, there were 1. 2 billion out of the developing world’s 4. 8 billion people living on $1 per day, while another 2. 8 billion are living on less than $2 per day. Many factors contribute to family poverty including underemployment and unemployment. Some may ‘inherit’ poverty because of being born into a particular social group defined by race, class and location.

Families who constitute the ‘working group’ may have one or both parents working at or near the minimum wage. The findings of a research done by Zaslow & Eldred (1998) provide strong support for the view that parenting is important to children’s development, as are influences from the children’s larger social context. Impacts of poverty The ‘Family Stress Model’ (Conger et al. 2000) proposes that the experience of poverty is one of the more important factors that can put severe strains on spousal relationships, bring about feelings of depression and increasing family dysfunction. According to the ‘Family Stress Model’ family contributes to emotional distress (e. g. depression) and family dysfunction.

Family distress causes problems in the relationship between adults that are, in turn, linked to less effective parenting – a complex notion that involves insufficient surveillance, lack of control over the child’s behavior, lack of warmth and support, inconsistency, and displays of aggression or hostility by parents or older siblings. Poverty, Family Stress & Parenting 2 Overall there could be following three impacts of poverty on parents and children (McClelland, 2000): 1. Hardship and stress. 2. Isolation and exclusion. 3. Longer-term impacts as adults a) Hardship & stress People with inadequate income typically give accounts of their difficulties in meeting basic costs, including struggling to pay for food, accommodation, clothing, education, health care, utilities, transport and recreation and trying to balance competing demands.

The harmful impact of poverty on parents and children comes from the stress and alienation connected with having a very low income; the continual juggling of finances, financial uncertainty in some cases and very often the sense of being different and less worthwhile. For children, the impact of stress and unhappiness may be direct and indirect through the parents’ experiences and behavior. b) Isolation & exclusion Homelessness is perhaps the extreme manifestation of isolation and stress for children arising from the combination of low income and housing difficulties. In poor families children could feel homelessness due to lack of parents’ attention. Because poverty is blocking the ways of parents to perform the role of good parenting, most of the poor families, usually single mothers, work for their survival. c) Long-term Poverty This results in long-term low income. d) Longer-term impacts

Family poverty and low socio-economic status are consistently related to poorer school performance and low school retention rates. Young people from low socio-economic backgrounds are early school leavers. Those with low achievement at school are more likely to be unemployed, out of the labor market, in part-time employment (McClelland et al. 1998). In extremely poor conditions parents willingly induce their children in to the labor market which exposes children to many risks, such as sexual and physical abuse. http://www. humiliationstudies. org/documents/AhmedPovertyFamilyStressParenting. pdf Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean is at its lowest level in 20 years.

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) reports that between 1990 and 2010 the poverty rate in the region dropped by 17 percentage points (from 48. 4 per cent to 31. 4 per cent), while the indigence rate (extreme poverty) fell by 10. 3 percentage points (from 22. 6 per cent to 12. 3 per cent), according to a publication entitled Social Panorama of Latin America 2011, presented in Santiago, Chile on November 29. The region will close this year with 174 million inhabitants living in poverty, with 73 million living in extreme poverty or indigence. In 2010, there were 177 million poor, with 70 million living in indigence. ECLAC states that the decrease in these rates is primarily due to an increase in labour income. Public monetary transfers also contributed, but to a lesser extent. Poverty and inequality continue to decline in the region, which is good news, particularly in the midst of an international economic crisis. However, this progress is threatened by the yawning gaps in the productive structure in the region and by the labour markets which generate employment in low-productivity sectors, without social protection,” warned Alicia Barcena, executive secretary of ECLAC.

The report observed that public expenditure, and in particular social expenditure, has increased significantly over the past 20 years in countries that have social spending per capita of over US$1,000, including Trinidad and Tobago. They spent the most on social security and assistance. “In response to the global conomic crisis, these countries opted to temporarily expand public spending rather than to shrink it, which was the action traditionally taken. Although, the emphasis is not always placed on society, expansion still prevented the rise in unemployment and social vulnerability,” said the report. In September, Planning and Economy Minister Dr Bhoendradatt Tewarie said that the latest statistics for poverty in Trinidad and Tobago showed an increase from 2007 (17 per cent) to 19 per cent for 2008-2009. (Story Created: Dec 13, 2011 at 9:37 PM ECT) (Story Updated: Dec 13, 2011 at 9:37 PM ECT) http://www. trinidadexpress. com/business-magazine/Poverty_at_lowest_level_in_region-135551458. html Caribbean countries have grappled with poverty and related problems for decades.

So have anti-poverty strategies and welfare programmes worked? What should be done now? This article from the International Journal of Social Welfare presents an overview of persistent problems and outlines proposals for social development. No single approach applies to all Caribbean countries. NGOs, community organisations and ordinary people should be involved in programmes to reduce poverty, develop human capital and improve social welfare. The Caribbean’s small island economies face formidable challenges in dealing with globalisation, particularly in relation to the vital agricultural sector. Race, class and gender hierarchies of colonial domination have left a legacy of exclusion of the poor.

Despite general improvements in living standards, poverty rates average 30 per cent of the Caribbean population. Social and human development indicators show that Barbados, Antigua-Barbuda and the Bahamas are doing better than Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica and Suriname. Plagued by political and economic problems, Haiti consistently scores lowest. The causes and characteristics of poverty in the Caribbean and efforts to overcome it are discussed below: * The human capital of the poor, including education levels, is low. Accessible employment tends to be low-skilled and low-paid. There is evidence of intergenerational transfer of poverty, stigmatisation and discrimination. Factors contributing to extreme poverty in Haiti include political corruption, the “brain drain”, business monopolies, deforestation, decreased tourism and the economic embargo of the 1990s. * Structural adjustment programmes, aimed at creating economic stability, forced some Caribbean countries to lay off public employees and resulted in more severe poverty. Economic and institutional measures have failed to achieve their intended “trickle down” effect. * The legacy of the Victorian Poor Law is evident in distinctions between the “deserving” and “undeserving” poor. Social welfare programmes provide basic services but there is little provision for the able-bodied.

Maintaining the poor at the threshold of poverty may be valued politically in some areas. Author: G A Bowen Date: 2007 http://www. gsdrc. org/go/display&type=Document&id=2694 Research Design In this study, the quantitative research methodology was employed in which a survey was used as my research method, to investigate the causes and effects of poverty in my community. Using a Survey was apt for studying the views and opinions of the people within my village. In turn a questionnaire was used as my research instrument as a mean of primary data collection. I decided on a questionnaire for my research instrument consequently to the following: * They are easy to administrate * The information collected can generalized The data can be easily tabulated, measured and analysed. * It is quick and easy to complete * It is cost effective * It is confidential The villagers within the community of Betsy’s Hope were used as my sample. Stratified sampling was used in carrying out this study. The layers within the village population are males, females, the young and the elderly. A specific number from each layer was selected to administer the questionnaires to. These are five young male, five young female and vice versa. A total of 20 questionnaires were distributed. The questionnaires were administered face to face and to the individual home at various times and hours.

All the questionnaires administered were collected immediately after completion, as I believed that it was the most guaranteed approach of receiving them intact. Research from secondary sources of data such as articles and websites as referenced in the bibliography was also used, providing an in-depth explanation of the existing research problem. These secondary sources provided information pertaining to the research problem, from formerly analyzed investigations and also other related topics which added profoundly to the aspects of this research. Presentation of Data * FIG 2: Responses of villagers giving their views on question 13: As a result of poverty, in your opinion, what are some of the rates that went up? Misfortunes| Percentage of Respondents who Agreed|

Serious Crimes (robbery, murder etc. )| 100%| Violence| 75%| Teenage Pregnancy| 100%| Drug Abuse| 50%| ANALYSIS OF DATA The previous graphs represented the responses that were accumulated for 9 specific questions which were included in the questionnaires administered. For question 14 of the questionnaire; ‘’to what extent do you believe poverty affects the crime rate in the community? ’’, 5%, which (1 person), stated that poverty affects the crime in the community to a very high extent. 10%, (2 persons), believed that poverty affects the crime rate in the community to a high extent. 70%, (14 persons), thought that poverty affects the crime rate the community to a low extent. 5%, (3 persons), believed that poverty affects crime in the community to a very low extent. Figure 2 illustrated the retorts of the interviewees for question 13; “As a result poverty, in your opinion, what are some of the rates that went up? ”. Unanimously, 100% (20 persons) of the respondents agreed that seriously crime went up as a result of crime. Only 75% (15 persons) agreed that the rate of violence went up. Cohesively, 100% (20 persons) of the respondents believed that the teenage pregnancy rate increased as a result of poverty? Merely 50% (10 persons) agreed that the drug abuse rate amplified as a result of poverty.

Question 11 queried how persons thought poverty was a result of poor family planning. 5% of respondent (5 persons) agreed that poverty was an effect of poor family planning. 50% (10 persons) strongly agreed that poverty was a result of poor family planning. 25% (5 persons) disagreed that poverty is due to poor family planning. 0% (0 persons) strongly disagreed that poor family planning leads to poverty. In respect to question 12, 90% (18 persons) strongly agreed that poverty decreases standard of living. 10% (2 persons) agreed that poverty decreases standard of living. Coincidentally, 0 % (0 persons) neither disagreed nor strongly disagreed that poverty decreases standard of living. Question 18 asked, “Do you think poor housing in significant sign of poverty? ’’. 5% (3 persons) of the respondents agreed that poor housing in a community is a significant sign of poverty. 75% (15 persons) strongly agreed that poor housing in a community is a significant sign of poverty. 10% (2 persons) disagreed that poor housing in a community is a significant sign of poverty? 0% (0 persons) strongly agreed that poor housing in community is a significant sign of poverty. The respondents were ask to give their opinion on whether or not they agree that Betsy’s Hope is greatly affected by poverty (question 20). 20% (4 persons) agreed that Betsy’s Hope is greatly affected by poverty. 20% also strongly agreed. 20% disagreed and 40% (8 persons) strongly disagreed.

Question 10 asked, “Do you think if one lacks education or a credible trade, poverty will prevail in his/her life? ”. 10% (2 persons) of the respondents agreed and 85% strongly agreed. 5% (1 person) disagreed whereby 0% strongly disagreed. The question was asked, “What are the housings in Betsy’s Hope like? ” 50% (10 persons) thought that the housings were good. Mystifyingly 50% also thought that the housings were poor. 0% thought that they were either very good or very poor. For questions 1-3 as they relate to the social status of the respondent, 10% were students, 25% were civil servants, 5% works with the private sector, 10 were self-employed while a majority of 50% were unemployed.

Those that were students were only at the upper secondary level. Discussion of Findings 1. What are the causes of poverty in my community? After the data was analysed I found that the cause of poverty in my community was dependent on 3 main reasons. These reasons are high levels of unemployment, poor family planning and lack of education/skill. 2. How does poverty impact on the villagers of Betsy’s Hope? Serious crimes, teenage pregnancy/high fertility rate, drug abuse and violence have become rampant in my community. These are all unfortunate impacts of poverty. These negative factors are detrimental to family life and can even cause poverty deterioration. There were no married respondent over age 20.

These respondents have no less than 2 children each. This supports (Oscar Lewis) Culture of Poverty theory, stating that at the family level, there will be high divorce rates and a notable number of female-headed household. Unemployed youth tend to idle thus resulting in engaging themselves with drugs, violence and criminal activies, leading to home weakening. 3. Are the social statuses of the villagers stable enough for potential poverty alleviation? Betsy’s Hope has a population of 144 persons. The unemployment level in my community is quite high. In order to alleviate poverty the villagers must first elevate themselves. There is to some extent, potential for poverty alleviation.

Those attending school should remain focused. However, the thriving entrepreneurs can create jobs for the unemployed thus improving their unsatisfactory standard of living. Conclusion The aim of the study was mainly to decipher poverty associated issues in attempt to formulated means of poverty eradication in the community of Betsy’s Hope thus improving family life. Economically deprived parents struggle for the survival of their families. They are often unable to pay attention to the importance of parental care. Therefore, the children in poor families usually miss the personality development teachings from their first learning institution the family.

Social issues such as teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, deviance, unemployment and prostitution are all increasingly prevalent in my rural, inaudible community. Family lives are also broken up due to poverty. At the end of each questionnaire interviewees were asked to leave a comment as it relates to their lifestyle. More than 75% of the respondents claimed that the indirect questions to the cause of poverty in general, actually exist in their surroundings. Other said that poverty leads to alienation. (Oscar Lewis) At the individual level the poor tends to experience feelings of marginalization. Recommendations Poverty and its consequences are not simple issues requiring single-pronged approaches.

To raise the commitment of governments and donors to arrange resources to ensure children’s health and to encourage routine data assembly by all governments, it is recommended that child malnutrition be included as one of the era development goal indicators. If child’s upbringing fails, both the child and the society will suffer a great deal of pain and trouble. Therefore, there is a need to start focusing on poverty and lack of parental training. First, for poverty alleviation state parties should generate more employment opportunities. Also there could be a possibility of providing small loans (microcredit) to the poor families, which help them to establish their very own enterprise. Job creations and relief programme is also an excellent way of elevating poverty stricken members of the community and unemployed youths, thus enhancing their way of life.

Providing assistance to single mother as well as proper housing facility, for those desperately in need of it is recommended for poverty alleviation in my community. For the academic resisting persons, skills and training programmes can be implemented. The construction of a school in the environment would also be accommodating. Limitations Constraints were on-going during this study. Some of these challenges include miscalculation of data accumulated and stubborn respondents. the cooperation of respondents to answer questionnaires as some respondents were a bit of a challenge due to background noise and the ignorance of a few. Another challenge I had encountered was the insufficiency of funding for the little expenses that accompanied the research.

If I could have improved this Internal assessment in one way or the other I would have done interview rather than a survey because I think it would have been more effective. Due to the lack of time and deadlines, I was unable to invest the time to conduct interviews and further investigate the psychological effects of the poverty on villagers and how it relates to their decision making. Appendix SURVEY: THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF POVERTY IN MY VILLAGE AND ITS EFFECTS IT HAS ON FAMILY LIFE, IN THE COMMUNITY OF BETSY HOPE, TOBAGO. Dear Villagers, I am a student at the Speyside High School, and I am embarking on a survey to determine how, poverty affects my community. If it does, how it affects family life more so.

This study is done as an assignment for Caribbean Studies and no other purpose. I ask you to please answer the following questions truthfully. You are not required to write your name on the Questionnaire for anonymity. What matters most, is your answers. I should tell you that there are no wrong or right answers; and you should not treat it as a test. I thank you very much for your kind consideration and cooperation. Yours faithfully ……………………………………………….. Akizar Bascombe VILLAGER’S QUESTIONAIRE Sex:a. male( )b. female ( )Age: a. 11-15 ( )b. 16-19 ( )c. 20 and over ( )To what ethnic group do you belong? a) African descent ( ) (b) East Indian descent ( ) (c) Caucasian ( ) (d) Chinese descent ( ) (e) Mixed descent ( ) (state) ______________________ (f) Other ( )| 1. Are you a student? ( ) Yes( ) No 2. If yes, state whether Primary ( ) Lower Secondary [forms 1-3] ( ) Upper Secondary [Forms 4-6] ( ) University ( ) 3. If no, state whether Civil servant ( ) Self-employed ( ) Employed with Private sector ( ) Unemployed( ) 4. What is your marital status? Married ( ) Single ( ) DIvored ( ) Engaged ( ) 5. If yes, State how long. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6.

Do you have kids? No ( ) Yes ( ) 7. If yes, How much 1 ( ) 2-4 ( ) 5 & over ( ) 8. What are the ages of the children? 2 years & under ( ) 3-5 years ( ) 6-10 ( ) 11 & 0ver ( ) 9. How do you live? Rent ( ) My home ( ) By a relative/friend ( ) 10. Do you think that if one lacks education or a trade, poverty will prevail in their life? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 11. Do you think poverty is a result of poor family planning? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 12.

Do you think poverty decreases the standard of living? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 13. As a result of poverty, in your opinion, what are some of the rates that went up? Serious Crimes {robbery, murder, etc. } ( ) Drug abuse ( ) Teenage pregnancy ( ) Violence ( ) Prostitution ( ) 14. To what extent do you believe poverty affects the crime rate in the community? High ( ) Very high ( ) Low ( ) Very low ( ) 15. Do you think prostitution is rampant in Betsy’s ophoHope? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 16. Does teenage pregnancy appears to be fecund in Betsy’s ophoHope? Agree ( )

Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 17. What are the housings in Betsy’s Hope generally like? Very good ( ) Good ( ) Poor ( ) Very Poor ( ) 18. Do you think that poor housing in a community is significant sign of poverty? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 19. What family type/s do you believe is mainly affected by poverty? Nuclear ( ) Extended ( ) Single Parent ( ) Sibling Household ( ) 20. In your opinion, are the villagers of Betsy’s Hope greatly affected by poverty? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly Disagree ( ) 21. What do you think can be done to lesson poverty rate? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Open Comments Bibliography This study might not have been possible without the following directories: * http://larry50. wordpress. com/2008/01/16/poverty-in-the-caribbean/ * http://www. humiliationstudies. org/documents/AhmedPovertyFamilyStressParenting .pdf * http://www. trinidadexpress. com/business-magazine/Poverty_at_lowest_level_in_region-135551458. html (Story Created: Dec 13, 2011 at 9:37 PM ECT) (Story Updated: Dec 13, 2011 at 9:37 PM ECT) * Author: G A Bowen Date: 2007 http://www. gsdrc. rg/go/display&type=Document&id=2694 * http://financial-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/globalisation Glossary of Terms Area-based programmes: a co-ordinated series of actions which are devised and delivered within a particular spatial context to address social and economic disadvantage e. g. RAPID, CLAR. Brain Drain: A situation in which the smartest, best educated people in a society or country leave for elsewhere. For example, brain drain may occur if the best doctors in a country leave to work abroad. Brain drain can occur for any number of reasons. Common examples, however, include political instability, better career opportunities or simply higher salaries.

Community development: The long-term process whereby people who are marginalised or living in poverty work together to identify their needs, create change, exert more influence in the decisions which affect their lives and work to improve the quality of their lives, the communities in which they live, and the society of which they are part. ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean): A commission established by the United Nations to foster economic and other cooperation among Central, South American and Caribbean states. Interestingly, members include North American and Western European countries as well. It was founded in 1948

Globalization: The integration of global markets by the reduction trade barriers, improved communication, foreign direct investment, and other means. Globalization allows a multinational corporation to make a product in one country and sell it in another. This provides jobs in one country and less expensive goods in the other. Globalization also allows for the free flow of capital between countries, which many believe spurs economic growth. Indigence: Seriously impoverished condition; poverty. Inequity: An instance of injustice or unfairness Malnutrition: an imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.

Marginalisation: The process whereby certain groups suffering deprivation, eg the impoverished, unemployed, single parents and those with limited formal education are pushed to the edge of society where they have little say in decision making and are denied the means to improve their position. Poverty: People are said to be living in poverty if their income and resources are so inadequate as to preclude them from having a standard of living considered acceptable in Irish society. Because of their poverty they may experience multiple disadvantages through unemployment, low income, poor housing, inadequate health care and barriers to education. They are often excluded and marginalized from participating in activities that are the norm for other people. Quantitative Research: The gathering and analyzing of measurable data.

Social economic: refer broadly to the use of economics in the study of society. More narrowly, contemporary practice considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social markets and the formation of social norms. In the latter, it studies the relation of economics to social values. Stereotype: A commonly held popular belief about specific social groups or types of individuals. Stereotypes are standardized and simplified conceptions of groups based on some prior assumptions. Underemployment: A term used to describe persons who are working part time but would like to work full time, or persons whose skills exceed those needed for the job they are performing.

For example, an economist working as a retail clerk may be described as underemployed. Underemployment increases during recessions and periods of slow economic growth. Unemployment: The state of not having a job, especially if one is available for work. For example, a person who is laid off and still wishes to work may be considered unemployed. The unemployment rate of a region is an important indicator of economic health Welfare: A generic term for many government assistance programs. In general, it refers to programs in which the government pays money to indigent and unemployed persons. However, it may include non-cash payments such as food stamps

Cite this Povery Ia for Caribbean Studies

Povery Ia for Caribbean Studies. (2016, Oct 02). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/povery-ia-for-caribbean-studies/

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