In this case, upward and lateral influences are used as preferent power tactics by influence direction. Firstly, rasional persuasion is presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate that a request is reasonable. For example, An employee informs to her superior about her performance and achievement as a reason for her to get a promotion in job. Secondly, consultation is increasing the target’s motivation and support by involving him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be done.
For instance, Both of these are the most effective power tactics that can be used by employees. The next power tactics that can employees use to translate their power bases into specific actions is personal appeals which are asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty. For example,Hashim invites his boss for a lunch at one of the expensive hotel when he knows that the boss has a final say in promoting someone as a new general manager. Besides that, exchange is rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request.
For example, When Jack heard about the promotion, he went to see his boss and highlighted the favour that he had done to the company and asks the boss to promote him as a return favour. Coalitions are enlisting the aid of other people to persuade the target or using the support of others as a reason for the target to agree. For instance,May asks few of her friends to recommend her to the boss to get the promotion. Other than that, legitimacy is also can be used by employees.
It is relying on one’s authority position or stressing that a request is in accordance with organizational policies or rules. As an example, Joe comes to you with a request for funds for a project. He reminds you that company policy supports his position. This shows that he is using a legitimacy power tactic. Lastly, ingratiation is using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request. For example, Both of these tactics can be used to lessen the negative reactions that might come from the appearance of being ‘dictated to’ by the boss.