Rhetoric and Charles Paine

5.1 Rhetorical Analysis: Introduction

Addresses the effectiveness of the text in delivering its message

We will write a custom essay sample on
Rhetoric and Charles Paine
or any similar topic specifically for you
Do Not Waste
Your Time
SEND

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.

More Essay Examples on Speech Rubric

“Rhetoric”
1 The art of speaking or writing effectively: as
a : the study of principles and rules of composition formulated by critics of ancient times b : the study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion 2 a : skill in the effective use of speech

b : a type or mode of language or speech

“Rhetoric.” Merriam-Webster - Rhetoric and Charles Paine introduction. m-w.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2012. Web. 20 Dec. 2012.

From “Aristotle’s Rhetoric.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Definition of Rhetoric
Aristotle defines the rhetorician as someone who is always able to see what is persuasive (Topics VI.12, 149b25). Correspondingly, rhetoric is defined as the ability to see what is possibly persuasive in every given case (Rhet. I.2, 1355b26f.). This is not to say that the rhetorician will be able to convince under all circumstances. Rather he is in a situation similar to that of the physician: the latter has a complete grasp of his art only if he neglects nothing that might heal his patient, though he is not able to heal every patient. Similarly, the rhetorician has a complete grasp of his method, if he discovers the available means of persuasion, though he is not able to convince everybody. “Rapp, Christof. “Aristotle’s Rhetoric”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Spring 2010. Ed. Edward N. Zalta Web. 20 Jan. 2013. URL = .

The Appeals
Ethos
An appeal that relies upon the character of the rhetor or the character of another Pathos
An emotional appeal; moving your audience by getting in touch with what they
value Logos
Rational appeal; the truth of the word

The Five Canons of Rhetoric
Arrangement The order in which the content is organized for a communication (think five-paragraph essay); genre Invention The process of coming to the content we are going to communicate; rhetors have debated whether this is a process of developing knowledge or not. Style The signs-often words-one chooses for communication

Tropes Figures of speech, often refers to metaphors, apostrophe (addressing a person who is not there or addressing an abstraction), metonymy (substitution for an arbitrary or suggestive word in place of what is actually meant), synecdoche (understanding one thing with another); in our current age tropes are often problematized for be valued as reality Memory The pedagogy for remembering what one will state during a given communication Delivery The process of relating the word to the given audience; often understudied, but becoming more important in an electronic age

Depew, Kevin Eric. “Rhetorical Principles.” Introduction to Rhetoric and Writing: English 686. Old Dominion University. 05 May 2009. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. Defines terms related to rhetoric: Purpose, Appeals (ethos, pathos, logos), Five Canons of Rhetoric: Arrangement (order), Invention (choosing content), Style (specific words and figures of speech/rhetorical devices), Memory, Delivery. Note: The last two apply to oratory more than composition.

Site includes “Resources for Writers and Instructors” including links to academic journals: http://ww2.odu.edu/~kdepew/resources.html Link to “Rhetorical Principles”: http://ww2.odu.edu/~kdepew/eng686su09/rhetoricalconcepts.html

“Historical context”: the political, social, cultural, and economic environment related to historical moments, events, and trends . Historical artifacts and sources were created within particular worlds and are tied to
the political, social, and economic conditions of those worlds (teachinghistory.org).

“historical context.” Glossary of Commonly Used Terms. Teachinghistory.org. Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. 2012. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. Link: teachinghistory.org/outreach/glossary

Note: Context of arguments with which the class is familiar.

Additional Notes and resources:
See scpuckett The Essay

Other resources:
hegemony is the name of how cultural/political resources organize a common sense (a consensus) to support a dominant ideology (a world view that supports current asymmetries in power relationships between nominal groups). Nadler, Tony. “Critical Concepts in Rhetorical Theory.” 20 Feb. 2006. The Project of Hegemony. Web. 20 Jan. 2013.

Resources related to rhetorical devices, figures of speech used in rhetoric, persuasive reading or writing:

“AP Rhetorical Devices List.” http://hhs-english-iv.wikispaces.com/file/view/Rhetorical+Devices.pdf Harris, Robert A. A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices. Virtual Salt. 19 Jan. 2013. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm

Nichol, Mark. “Fifty Rhetorical Devices for Rational Writing.” Daily Writing Tips. 20 Mar. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. Link: http://www.dailywritingtips.com/50-rhetorical-devices-for-rational-writing/

Rhetorical Devices and Concepts. Class Project. Introduction to Rhetoric – Theory and Practice. Tennessee Tech University. 14 Dec. 2011. A student-developed project; typographical errors indicate that the contributions were not edited: This project is designed to illustrate and
explain to our readers ways in which selected rhetorical devices and concepts–some thousands of years old–circulate and create meaning in contemporary popular texts. Each student chose a rhetorical concept/device, provided an overview or definition, and illustrated how the concept works in several different examples (1500-2000 words total for each student). For each concept, the overview and each illustration/example are self-contained blog entries. Overviews are categorized or tagged with the name of the concept and the word overview. Illustration entries are each categorized with the name of the concept, the medium or genre of the example, and the rhetorical effect achieved by the concept’s usage in the example.

About us, about this project

5.1 Rhetorical Analysis: Introduction

Notes and Annotations: Chapter 8 Writing Today “Rhetorical Analyses”

How and Why a text is (or is not) persuasive.
Consider:
Ideas being addressed and strategies being used
The effectiveness in influencing audience
The influence of the text, both past and present – if the text is historical (143)

Identifying the effectiveness of others’ writing helps you be a more effective writer.

5.2 Rhetorical Analysis: Appeals

Handout: S. Smith

Analysis: Consider Appeals

Logos
Ethos
Pathos

Logos

Handout: S. Smith

Reason, logic, appeals to common sense, uses examples to support If … then
Either .. or
Cause and effect
Cost and benefits
Better and worse
Examples
Facts and data
Anecdotes (as representative) (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine148)

See Hacker and Sommers:
A2 “Constructing reasonable arguments”
A3 “Evaluating Arguments” (reasonable vs. fallacious reasoning) Is the argument “reasonable”? (78-99)

Ethos

Handout: S. Smith

Credibility, own or authority; character, ethics
Personal experience
Personal credentials
Moral character
Appeal to experts
Identification with reader
Admission of limitation
Expression of good will
“Insider” language (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine148-149)

See Hacker and Sommers:
A2-c “…establish credibility”
A3-e “Citing Expert Opinion”
A2-f “Anticipate Objections”
A3-c “Judge how Fairly a Writer Handles Opposing Views” (80-99) Is credibility established?

Pathos
Emotion: joy, acceptance, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation Implied: Use of stories or images
Promise of gain
Promise of enjoyment
Fear of loss
Fear of pain
Expressions of anger or disgust (149)

See Hacker and Sommers:
A2-g “Build Common Ground” (86)
Are emotional appeals legitimate?

5.3 Rhetorical Analysis: Key Elements
Key elements

Concepts used for analysis: Define, be consistent

Logos, ethos, pathos; may consider genre, organization, style, use of narrative, other rhetorical devices (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine 147-149)

Summary of text: Detail depends on audience familiarity of text

Main idea (thesis), key points, objective, your language, select quotations (152) See Hacker & Sommers: Guidelines A1-c

Note the specifics for advertisements: unique qualities, typical features, differences compared to the typical (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine 158).

Context: Historical context*, compelling events, purpose, importance

Identify the following:
who wrote or presented: person or entity:
How does that information affect or influence the understanding of the text? when: historical events
How does the point in time affect the understanding of the text? why: pressures, purpose, goals (effective or not), target audience Why is this topic being addressed? What is the interest of the audience? issues being addressed

What concerns are being addressed?
public response or comment (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine 152)
Is there information that indicates how the audience or public responded?

*“Historical context”: the political, social, cultural, and economic environment related to historical moments, events, and trends. Historical artifacts and sources were created within particular worlds and are tied to the political, social, and economic conditions of those worlds (teachinghistory.org).

“historical context.” Glossary of Commonly Used Terms. Teachinghistory.org. Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. 2012. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. Link: teachinghistory.org/outreach/glossary

Analysis of text

Point by point following text: uses the organizational structure of the textBy concept: organizes the analysis, ordering the concepts emphatically: Consider least to most effective use or most to least effective use. (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine153-154)

See Fig. (144): Order may vary: Note points that are included. See above.

5.4 Rhetorical Analysis: The Process of Analyzing a Text

Identify text to be analyzed

Highlight the use of logos, pathos, ethos (Identify examples of each; consider effectiveness) Identify specific text that illustrates or is an example of how the text uses a particular appeal or device. To introduce examples of specific text into rhetorical analysis, see discussion of “signal phrase” (Hacker and Sommers 382-384, 364-365). See 5.5 Signal Phrase

Summarize the text: main idea and key points.
Note the specifics for advertisements for critique: unique qualities, typical features, differences compared to the typical (158).

Research context: author, context, determine how others react (See: historical context)

Is there information that will help in evaluating the effectiveness of the text? If so, identify what about the context is important to understanding and evaluating the text

compelling events, purpose, importance
who wrote or presented: person or entity:
How does that information affect or influence the understanding of the text? when: historical events
How does the point in time affect the understanding of the text? why: pressures, purpose, goals (effective or not), target audience Why is this topic being addressed? What is the interest of the audience? issues being addressed

What concerns are being addressed?
public response or comment (152)
Is there information that indicates how the audience or public responded?

Draft analysis: Introduction with thesis**, definitions of concepts, historical context, summary, analysis (144, 153-154), conclusion (returns to
thesis and stresses importance of issue)

**The thesis of the analysis identifies the main point of the text being analyzed, the concepts that are being used to analyze the text, and the position taken in the analysis: legitimacy of appeals, effectiveness, ineffectiveness of text.

Note: An analysis is not a response to the position of the text being analyzed (agree or disagree) but an evaluation of the legitimacy of appeals and their effectiveness in persuading the audience.

Design: If analysis focuses on an image, include the image
See “Adding a Screen Shot” (156)
See “Using Photography and Images” (382-383)
See “Labeling a Photograph or Image” (382-383)

5.5.1 Rhetorical Analysis: Using Signal Phrases to Introduce Source Material

“signal phrase” 

Signal phrases are used to integrate source material.

According to Hacker and Sommers, these signal phrases serve a number of purposes:

prepares the reader for the introduced source material
names the author of the source
provides context
clarifies how the source will contribute to [the] paper
establishes authority, the reliability, credibility or credentials of the source marks boundaries between source material and the writer’s own words or ideas (382-384)

Hacker, Diana, and Nancy Sommers. A Writer’s Reference, 7th ed. Boston: Bedford, 2011.

The signal phrase introduces source material, material that is borrowed (ideas or exact word).

According to Hacker and Sommers, authors of A Writer’s Reference, the course handbook, the signal phrase “commonly appears before the source material” and “usually names the author of the source and provides some context”: This is important the first time a source is introduced; however, after that initial introduction, the author’s last name may be used to introduce material (382).

Hacker and Sommers also indicate that a signal phrases uses a “verb that is appropriate.” For examples, see “Using Signal Phrases in MLA Papers” (Hacker and Sommers 383). A second resource: https://sites.google.com/site/scpucketttheessay/research/introducing-source-material

Hacker and Sommers note that of particular importance is that fact that the signal phrase indicates the start of a “boundary between [the words of the paper’s author] and the source’s words” (382). They also state that marking the boundary with a signal phrase and a parenthetical citation, the reader knows when the borrowed/source material begins and ends (384).

Finally, the signal phrase helps connect the writer’s ideas to ideas of others, “clarifying how the source will contribute to [the] paper.” In fact, source material is not only introduced and connected, “interpretive comments [are used to] link the quoted material to your paper’s argument” or position (Hacker and Sommers 385). In other words, quotations cannot speak for themselves, they must be explained: Their relationship to the idea being discussed and how they contribute to the development of the idea.

Hacker & Sommers R3-c “Integrating and Citing Sources to Avoid plagiarism” Gives examples for using source material that is an exact sentence, a few exact words, near-exact words but making changes for clarity, paraphrasing, summarizing, substitute a few synonyms (364-365)

5.5.2 In-text Citations

See Hacker & Sommers MLA-4a for models (390-398).

The Basic Rules

1. The first time a source is used, the author is named in the signal phrase that introduces the source 2. At the end of the sentence with the citation, the page number that the information came from is included in parentheses, before the closing quotation mark. Once the source has been introduced, the citation at the end of the sentence may include both the author and page number, if the author’s name does not appear in the sentence. 3. If there is no author named, use the name of the article, an abbreviated form is acceptable. 4. If there is no page number, use the name of the author. (Hacker and Sommers 390-391)

Note:
#13 Encyclopedia or dictionary entry (394)
#16 Selection from an anthology (395)
#20 Visual (396)

5.6 Rhetorical Analysis: Provide Bibliographic Citations for Works Cited in the Text

Include a Works Cited, an alphabetical list of sources used in the paper: Use “hanging indent” (paragraph formatting > indentation > special > hanging

The text being analyzed:

For texts from course text:
see Hacker & Sommers MLA4b, #24 Selection in an Anthology” (395). For advertisement:
see Hacker and Sommers MLA4b, #71 advertisement (424).

Any sources used for definitions.

Course Text
Johnson-Sheehan, Richard, and Charles Paine. Writing Today. 2nd ed. Boston: Cengage, 2013.

For dictionaries:
See MLA4b #27 Encyclopedia or dictionary entry (394)

5.7 Rhetorical Analysis: Suggested examples in Writing Today

Copeland, Libby. “Shooting from the Hip, with a Smile to Boot.” Writing Today. 2nd ed. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 674-677. Print.

In “Shooting from the Hip, With a Smile to Boot” Libby Copeland “explains Palin’s use of style to win people over” by addressing “how issues involving reputation and image” (674).

Nordquist, Richard. “Homer Simpson’s Figures of Speech.” Writing Today. 2nd ed. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 669-671. Print.

In “Homer Simpson’s Figures of Speech,” Richard Nordquist “uses rhetorical concepts to demonstrate how the writers of the Simpsons use language to make the show clever and insightful” (669). Use the link to rhetorical devices to define terms: https://sites.google.com/site/scpucketttheessay/diction/rhetorical-devices

Rodenburg, Wes. “Rhetorical Analysis of the Keep America Beautiful Public Service Announcement (1971).” Writing Today. 2nd ed. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 145-147. Print.

Wes Rodenburg’s paper, “Rhetorical Analysis of the Keep America Beautiful Public Service Announcement (1971),” a student paper, addresses the success
of the 1970s public service campaign to raise awareness about environmental issues to a large audience.

5.8.1 Rhetorical Analysis: Consider Persuasive Writing

Senator Barack Obama’s speech to the 2008 Democratic National Convention was given in response to criticisms that were levied against Obama in light of remarks made by Obama’s minister Jeremiah Wright. The speech, now considered to be a landmark because of its frank discussion of race relations in America, addresses Obama’s personal history, Wright’s divisive remarks, and the challenges that the country faces, challenges that Obama argues can be met effectively only if “all Americans” realize that the dreams of one group do not come “at the expense” of another’s dreams and that only by working together can the country move forward (Johnson-Sheehan and Paine 704).

Obama, Barack. “A More Perfect Union.” Writing Today. 2nd ed. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 699-706. Print.

Obama, Barack. “A More Perfect Union.” 27 July 2008. Democratic National Convention. Fleet Center, Boston Speech. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. Links:
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/convention2004/barackobama2004dnc.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrp-v2tHaDo

Background: Excerpts of Wright Sermons

“Reverend Wright Transcript: From ‘The Day of Jerusalem’s Fall.’ 16 Sept.2001. and From ‘Confusing God and Government’ 13 Apr. 2003.” ABC News. Web. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/story?id=4719157&page=1

Historical Context: Jim Crow

Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia: Using Objects of Intolerance to Teach Tolerance and Promote Social Justice. Ferris State University. 2012. Web.
Link: http://www.ferris.edu/news/jimcrow/who.htm

The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow: Emancipation Ended Slavery but Not Its Legacy. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. Web. Link: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/

Response: For Comments About the Speech

“A More Perfect Union (speech).” Wikipedia. 7 Sept. 2012. Web. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_More_Perfect_Union_(speech) Note disclaimer regarding Wikipedia: May not be used as a source in academic research, but content found there can be traced back to original, credible sources.

5.8.2 Rhetorical Analysis: Consider Persuasive Texts

Stevenson, Bryan. “We Need to Talk About an Injustice.” Mar. 2012. Ted.com. Web. 7 Mar. 2012.
http://www.ted.com/talks/bryan_stevenson_we_need_to_talk_about_an_injustice.html

Background and Context:

Spencer, Thomas. “Montgomery Lawyer’s Speech Inspires $1.1 million in Donations to his Cause.” 7 Mar. 2012. Birmingham News [Alabama]. Al.com. Web. 7 Mar. 2012. Link: http://blog.al.com/spotnews/2012/03/post_737.html

“Bryan Stevenson Achieves Latest Victory before Supreme Court.” NYU School of Law. 25 Jun. 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. Link: http://law.nyu.edu/news/STEVENSON_BRYAN_MILLER_OPINION Includes links to related articles.

“Bryan Stevenson: Public-interest Lawyer.” TED.com. Ted Talks. 2012. Web. 7 Mar. 2012. Link: http://www.ted.com/speakers/bryan_stevenson.html
“Eastern Alumnus Bryan Stevenson (’81) Wins Supreme Court Case.” Eastern
University. 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. http://www.eastern.edu/welcome/supremecourt.html Equal Justice Initiative. 2013. http://www.eji.org/

McKinney, Melissa. “[Montgomery] Attorney argues before Supreme Court.” 20 Mar. 2012. WSAF.com Raycom Media. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. Link: http://www.wsfa.com/story/17205903/montgomery-attorney-takes-juvenile-case-to-supreme-court

Whitmire, Kyle. “An Interview with Bryan Stevenson: What is Justice?” 2 Nov. 2012. Al.com. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. Link: http://blog.al.com/spotnews/2012/11/an_interview_with_bryan_steven.html

5.9 Rhetorical Analyses: Topic options

1. One of the summary-response reading assignments as the text for a rhetorical analysis. Clark. Taylor. “Nervous Nellies.” Writing Today. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 328-331. Print. Dailey, Kate. “Friends with Benefits.” Writing Today. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 218-221. Print. Turnbow, Katelyn. “Lives not Worth the Money.” Writing Today. Ed. Richard Johnson-Sheehan and Charles Paine. Boston: Cengage, 2013. 307-311. Print.

Note that the information is correct for the citation, above.
2. An effective advertisement or advertising campaign: Search for images by topic:
public service advertisement
smoking
domestic violence
environmental issues
health
nutrition
A company’s ad or ad campaign
Chick-fil-a
Geico
Aflac
Beer
a product you use
automobile
For this option, include a copy of the advertisement with the paper submission.

The Essay Website: https://sites.google.com/site/scpucketttheessay Check pages for definitions, explanations, links to additional resources, and additional information in attached documents.

Rhetorical Analyses
Argument
Logical Fallacies
Rhetoric
Rhetorical Devices

Haven’t Found A Paper?

Let us create the best one for you! What is your topic?

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get your custom essay sample

For Only $13/page

Eric from Graduateway Hi there, would you like to get an essay? What is your topic? Let me help you

logo