What are the salient points in Philippine history that shaped the nations modern education? Philippines history has the greatest influence in shaping our nations modern education. Philippine history accounts for the use of “Filipino” which has been questioned in itself by critics who claims that the term FILIPINO is in honor to one of their kings,our oppressor ,King Philippe II of Spain. The irony of it was within the term “Filipino” we were called “INDIOS”, (what a way to honor their king) Trading was another great influence in our history .
Trade occurred between the 10th and 16th centuries, mostly the Chinese and Islamic people. Trading has remained and continued to influence the Filipino culture including the educational system. There is also a high level of evidence that during the pre-hispanic culture, native literature has been illustrated by the Ilocano ballad epic Biag ni Lam-ang narrating the life and bravery of Lam-ang in his conquest of various indigenous groups in Luzon. Education as an informal type, was taught during the years prior to the arrival of the Spanish colonizers.
It was an oral tradition which was handed down from generation to generation in the form of poetry, ballads , songs and dances. As a people, the Filipino has developed unique cultural traits and rituals which has become part of his traditions , lifestyle and education. He sings even when he is sad, he dances when he is happy. This oral literature was an informal and unstructured type of education and training. Songs , poetry, dances, whether religious, festive, heroic ,folklore, seasonal or about harvest, love or war ,represents high aspects of a culture.
Parents and tribal leaders , most likely provided the oral tradition ,instruction and other vocational trainings. On March 16, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan arrived and claimed the islands for Spain’s king, Charles I. His claim was the forerunner of over three centuries of Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the inhabitants of the archipelago were literate and had their own system of writing that they used for communication. This writing system is often erroneously referred to as Alibata (the first three letters of the Maguindanao version of the Arabian alphabet: alif, ba, ta).
It is more properly named Baybayin, which in Filipino means “to spell. ” Baybayin has seventeen basic symbols, three of which are vowel sounds. This writing system was used extensively by the inhabitants of the islands, as witnessed by the Spanish upon their arrival. Father Pedro Chirino, a Jesuit chronicler and historian for Miguel de Legazpi (an explorer and the first royal governor of the islands), reports in Relaciones de las Islas Filipinas that when he arrived in the islands in 1565, all the islanders, both men and women, were reading and writing.
Another witness and recorder of this fact was Antonio Morga, the Senior Judge Advocate of the High Court of Justice and Commander of the galleon warship San Diego. He noted in Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas that almost all the natives, men and women alike, wrote in the Baybayin language and that there were few who did not write it excellently or correctly. When the Spanish found that the islanders were educated and literate, the missionaries among them published several books to propagate the Catholic religion among the islanders.
The Tagalog Doctrina Christiana (1593) and its Chinese version, based on the catechism teachings of Cardinal Bellarmino, were released a couple of months apart. In 1610, the first Filipino author Tomas Pinpin published a book in Baybayin entitled Librong pagaaralan nang mga Tagalog ng uicang Castila (Book for Tagalogs to Study the Castillian Language). Clearly, the title of the book indicates that education, whether formal or informal, was taking place during this period. In 1620, a fourth book was published.
Father Francisco Lopez produced an Ilocano version of the Doctrina Cristiana (spelling changed from the 1593 version) using the Baybayin language. Between 1620 and 1895, this book was reprinted several times. The Baybayin language can still be observed since a form of it is still in use by two indigenous Filipino groups, the Mangyans of the island of Mindoro and the Tagbanuas in the island of Palawan. The origins of the Baybayin language are unknown, but various theories abound. The early friars learned the Baybayin script to allow for better communication with the islanders, particularly in the religious aspect.
Religious education then took place using this language. By royal decree the friars were required to teach the Spanish language to the natives, but this was not enforced. This suppression of literacy in the language of the administration kept the inhabitants in ignorance and in subservience for more than 300 years. From 1565 to 1863, there was no specific system of instruction. Worse still, the Baybayin script was replaced by the Roman alphabet since using this gave the indigenous people ore leverage dealing with the local Spanish colonial administrators. The Baybayin script was neglected and was not used by succeeding generations. What are the prevailing philosophies of Philippine Education? As many would like to disagree ,it has been said that,the golden age of the Philippines was under the leadership of President Ferdinand E Marcos. President Marcos laid – down the Philosophical underpinnings of the new society of Philippines and of course an educational philosophy, at least in his two decades un interrupted power.
And it is very difficult to eliminate this ideology after more than 18 years with five Presidential predecessors from President Corazon Aquino ,President Fidel V. Ramos, President Joseph Estrada to the present President Noynoy Aquino. Frankly speaking , Marcos considered Values as representing Man’s aspirations for himself, his society and the world in general. He posited that opposing ideologies converge toward the same set of values, namely, freedom, liberty, equality, democracy, and so forth. Such convergence in the ethical realm suggest, according to him, that human societies are held together by common aspirations.
The philosophy of Philippine education under the Marcos presidential era is as follows : •Individual as a useful member of society •Education for all •Emphasis on research •Responsiveness to changing needs and conditions •Non formal education •Optional religious instruction •State supervision and control of schools Under the Aquino Administration ,the new educational objectives in the education and manpower development sector were : •To improve the quality and increase the relevance of education and training. To increase access to disadvantages groups in all educational areas •To accelerate the development of middle and high level manpower required by economic recovery and sustainable growth as well as enhance their employ-ability, productivity and self reliance •To inculcate values needed in social transformation and renewal •To preserve, enrich and propagate the nation’s desirable cultural heritage and legacy •To raise the level of awareness, interest and articipation in sports and cultural activities, and; •To maintain an educational system that truly Filipino in orientation, open to constructive ideas from everywhere, but alert to influences inimical to national dignity. The emerging Educational Philosophy under Pres Fidel Ramos Refocus education that it may attain the following : 1. Universal basic education which will make ever citizen functionally literate and numerate. 2. Formation of those skills and knowledge necessary to make the individual a productive member of society. 3.
Development of high level professional who will search after new knowledge, instruct the young and provide leadership in the various fields or disciplines required by a dynamic econo Under President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo’s Administration and present administration, the following board goals were defined and in the same statements 1. Attainment of universal education which will make every citizen functionally literate and numerate 2. Formation of those skills and knowledge necessary to make the individual a productive member of society 3.
Development of high level professionals who will search after new knowledge, instruct the young and provide leadership in various fields or discipline require by a dynamic economy. Phil education has undergone a process of a thorough transformation to ensure that it will continue to produce Filipinos whose educational philosophy is a rich blend from all philosophies in life and all of these were enshrined in the fundamental laws of the land, the Philippine Constitution. Theresa Gay Dimacali-Calingo