Self-Regulated Learning “Learning is what most adults will do for a living in the 21st century. ” (Alfred Perlman). As he said, there is no doubt that learning is a very important skill especially in modern society because of the knowledge explosion and rapid developing of information technology. However, there are different results with different learning methods. Good learning method can lead to success easier, on the contrary, poor learning method means wasting time and energy. Therefor, self-regulated learning is presented by numerous eminent scholars as a excellent learning method. Self-regulated learning is not a mental ability or an academic performance skill; rather it is the self-directive process by which learners transform their mental abilities into learning skill. ” (Zimmerman 2001). This definition is offered by Barry Zimmerman who is one of the foremost researchers on self-regulated learning. Self-regulated learning emphasizes autonomy and control by the individual who monitors, directs and regulates actions toward goals of information acquisition, expertise, and self-improvement. (Paris and Paris 2001).
It refers to one’s ability to understand and control one’s learning environment. In general, scholars think there are three most important components of self-regulated learning, they are metacognition, learning strategy and motivation. In practice, self-regulated learning is a very useful skill especially for students be more successful. The research from Perry’s team shows students who are self-regulated learners belive that opportunities to take on challenging tasks, practice their learning, develop a deep understanding of subject matter, and exert effort will give rise to academic success. (Perry et al. 006). Above all, self-regulated learning have three most important components which are metacognition, learning strategy and motivation, these can help students be more successful in their academic endeavors. First, metacognition is an important component of self-regulated learning to help students be more successful in their academic endeavors. J. H. Flavell first used the word “metacognition”. He describes it in these words: Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e. g. , the learning-relevant properties of information or data.
For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes me that I should double check C before accepting it as fact(J. H. Flavell 1976). Meanwhile, the activities about metacognition include those concerned with an ongoing attempt to plan, check, monitor, select, revise, evaluate, etc, all of which are related to self-regulated learning. Thus, metacognition is an important feature of self-regulated learning. In practice, metacognition can help students recognize and control their own cognition to be more successful in their academic endeavors.
There is research exploring the relationship between learner metacognition and performance. An educator Zhang(2001) investigates some students who are second language learners in the field of TESOL, the students with metacognition are more efficient on learning, instead, the students without metacognition can not express themselves well on learning. Because metacognition is an important factor which help students recognize their advantages and disadvantages to learn better. So metacognition can stimulate the students maximize their potential to think, to learn, to success.
Second, learning strategy is anther important component of self-regulated learning to help students be more successful in their academic endeavors. According to Jasmina Hasanbegovic(2006), “learning strategies refer to students’ self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions, which are systematically oriented toward attainment of their goals”. Learning strategy, in another word, it is in learning process, students create proper methods for themselves to manage their learning system, the creation is self-generated. So, learning strategies are closely related to self-regulated learning.
And many researches have proved that learning strategies can help students be more successful. Pei-Shi. W(2012) has found that most successful students use learning strategies more frequently and effectively than unsuccessful students. We can explain the research in this way. A learning strategy is a student’s approach to learning and using information. However students who do not know or use good learning strategies often learn passively and ultimately fail at study. Learning strategies are used by students to help them understand information and solve problems. Successful students are good much good at using it, eanwhile, learning strategy can make the students be more active and effective, because the students know how to learn and how to use what they have learned to solve problems, and lead them to success. At last, motivation is another important component of self-regulated learning to help students be more successful in their academic endeavors. Motivation in common is defined as an internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior over time. In other words motivation gets you going, keeps you going, and determines where you’re trying to go (Slavin 2000).
Particular in self-regulated learning, motivation is the sprint to encourage students to drive their academic goals toward the finish line directly, the sprint is initiative and voluntary. Motivation can help students become more active and productive learners because it urges students be more autonomous from their own desire. There are some experiments demonstrate how motivation works in self-regulated learning. Most students with strong motivation tend to sit close to the front of the classroom, instead, students don’t have motivation often sit at back . (Labuhn and Hasselhorn 2010).
Furthermore, students with strong motivation have more intention to answer teachers’ questions, however, students without motivation have less interaction with teachers. (Elstad and Turmo 2010). So, the result is obvious, the students with strong motivation have better results, on the contrary, most students without motivation are unsatisfactory. From the experiments, motivation can lead students to have better performance. It can be explained that motivation helps students know the value of learning from motivation, which keeps them persistent when there are obstacles.
Thus, motivation is the power that stimulate students to be more successful in their academic endeavors. Above all, metacognition, learning strategy and motivation are the three most important components of self-regulated learning, they can lead students to success in their academic endeavors. Students with self-regulated learning are successful because they control their learning environment both internal and external. They exert this control by directing and regulating their own actions toward the learning goals. In learning process, the three components help students know that, ” I want to learn, I have the bility to learn, I need the methods how to learn. ” This is the most important point to success in academic endeavors. Thus, it is encouraged for students to properly utilize metacognition, learning strategy and motivation of self-regulated learning, it is the path to academic success. Works cited 1. Elstad, E. and Turmo, A. (2010). Students’ self-regulation and teacher’s influence in science: Interplay between ethnicity and gender. Research in Science & Technological Education, 28(3), 249-260. 2. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed. ), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–236).
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum 3. Hasanbegovic, Jasmina (2006). IGIP Course materials, Module 5 – Tutoring and Collaboration. 4. Labuhn, A. S. And Hasselhorn, M. (2010). Enhancing students’ self-regulation and mathematics performance: The influence of feedback and self-evaluative standards Metacognition and Learning, 5(2), 173-194. 5. Pei-Shi, W. The effect of learning styles on learning strategy use by EFL learners. Journal of Social Sciences. 230-234. 2012. 6. Perry, N. E. , Phillips, L. , and Hutchinson, L. R. (2006). Preparing student teachers to support for self-regulated learning. Elementary School Journal, 106,237-254. . Slavin, R. E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Theory and practice (6th ed. ). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. 8. Zhang, L. J. (2001). Awareness in reading: EFL students’ metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies in an input-poor environment. 9. Zhang and Sternberg, R. J. Are learning approaches and thinking styles related? A study in two Chinese populations. The Journal of Psychology. 134(5), 469-89. 2000 10. Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). “Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and analysis ” . In Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives.