Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements regarding domestic dogs is false? A) Dogs originated in East Asia. B) Dogs of different breeds can be identified through genetic analysis. C) Shar-pei and Akita are genetically very similar to the wolf. D) All dogs are descended from wolves. E) Humans have bred dogs for thousands of years. Answer: D Topic: Opening Essay Skill: Factual Recall 2) Which of the following statements best represents the theory of pangenesis developed by Hippocrates?
A) Pregnancy is a spontaneous event, and the characteristics of the offspring are determined by the gods.
B) Particles called pangenes, which originate in each part of an organism’s body, collect in the sperm or eggs and are passed on to the next generation. C) Offspring inherit the traits of either the mother or the father, but not both. D) Fertilization of plants is dependent on an animal. E) Heritable traits are influenced by the environment and the behaviors of the parents.
Answer: B Topic: 9. 1 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 3) Which of the following statements regarding hypotheses about inheritance is false?
A) The theory of pangenesis incorrectly suggests that reproductive cells receive particles from somatic cells. B) Contrary to the theory of pangenesis, somatic cells do not influence eggs or sperm. C) The blending hypothesis does not explain how traits that disappear in one generation can reappear in later generations. D) The blending hypothesis suggests that all of the traits of the offspring come from either the mother or the father. E) Aristotle suggested that inheritance is the potential to produce body features. Answer: D Topic: 9. 1 Skill: Conceptual Understanding ) Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on A) peas. B) roses. C) guinea pigs. D) fruit flies. E) clones. Answer: A Topic: 9. 2 Skill: Factual Recall 5) Varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as A) hybrids. B) the F2 generation. C) monohybrid crosses. D) independent crosses. E) true-breeding. Answer: E Topic: 9. 2 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 6) Which of the following statements regarding cross-breeding and hybridization is false? A) The offspring of two different varieties are called hybrids.
B) Hybridization is also called a cross. C) The parental plants of a cross are the P generation. D) The hybrid offspring of a cross are the P1 generation. E) The hybrid offspring of an F1 cross are the F2 generation. Answer: D Topic: 9. 2 Skill: Factual Recall 7) A monohybrid cross is A) the second generation of a self-fertilized plant. B) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties have only one trait in common. C) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one character. D) a triploid plant that results from breeding two very different plants.
E) a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties have only one prominent trait. Answer: C Topic: 9. 3 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 8) Which of the following statements regarding genotypes and phenotypes is false? A) The genetic makeup of an organism constitutes its genotype. B) An organism with two different alleles for a single trait is said to be heterozygous for that trait. C) Alleles are alternate forms of a gene. D) An allele that is fully expressed is referred to as recessive. E) The expressed physical traits of an organism are called its phenotype. Answer: D Topic: 9. 3 Skill: Factual Recall ) Research since Mendel’s time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation A) applies to all forms of life. B) applies to all sexually reproducing organisms. C) applies to all asexually reproducing organisms. D) applies only to unicellular organisms. E) is invalid. Answer: B Topic: 9. 3 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 10) All the offspring of a cross between a black-eyed mendelien and an orange-eyed mendelien have black eyes. This means that the allele for black eyes is ________ the allele for orange eyes. A) codominant to B) recessive to C) more aggressive than D) dominant to E) better than Answer: D
Topic: 9. 3 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 11) All the offspring of a cross between a black-eyed mendelien and an orange-eyed mendelien have black eyes. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between two orange-eyed mendeliens? A) 3 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed B) 0 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed C) 1 black-eyed:3 orange-eyed D) 1 black-eyed:0 orange-eyed E) 1 black-eyed:1 orange-eyed Answer: B Topic: 9. 3 Skill: Application 12) The alleles of a gene are found at ________ chromosomes. A) the same locus on homologous mitochondrial B) the same locus on heterologous C) different loci on homologous D) different loci on heterologous
E) the same locus on homologous Answer: E Topic: 9. 4 Skill: Factual Recall 13) The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be A) 1:2:1. B) 3:1. C) 9:1:1:3. D) 3:9:9:1. E) 9:3:3:1. Answer: E Topic: 9. 5 Skill: Factual Recall 14) If A is dominant to a and B is dominant to b, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the cross: AaBb ? AaBb? A) 16:0:0:0 B) 8:4:2:2 C) 4:4:4:4 D) 1:1:1:1 E) 9:3:3:1 Answer: E Topic: 9. 5 Skill: Application 15) Mendel’s law of independent assortment states that A) chromosomes sort independently of each other during mitosis and meiosis.
B) genes sort independently of each other in animals but not in plants. C) independent sorting of genes produces polyploid plants under some circumstances. D) each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation. E) genes are sorted concurrently during gamete formation. Answer: D Topic: 9. 5 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 16) Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision).
We can conclude that A) both of the parents are homozygous for both traits. B) one of the parents is homozygous for both traits. C) the same alleles that control coat color can also cause PRA. D) the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation. E) the alleles for color and vision segregate dependently during gamete formation. Answer: D Topic: 9. 5, 9. 6 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 17) A testcross is A) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest.
B) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual heterozygous for the trait of interest. C) a mating between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous dominant for the trait of interest. D) a mating between two individuals heterozygous for the trait of interest. E) a mating between two individuals of unknown genotype. Answer: A Topic: 9. 6 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 18) Using a six-sided die, what is the probability of rolling either a 5 or a 6? A) 1/6 ? 1/6 = 1/36 B) 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/3 C) 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/3 D) 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/12 E) 1/6 Answer: B Topic: 9. 7
Skill: Application 19) Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple’s first-born child will be female and that their second-born child will be male? A) 20% B) 25% C) 50% D) 75% E) 100% Answer: B Topic: 9. 7 Skill: Application 20) A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be ________ to transmit it to offspring. A) heterozygous for the trait and able B) heterozygous for the trait and unable C) homozygous for the trait and able D) homozygous for the trait and unable
E) heterozygous for the trait and unlikely Answer: A Topic: 9. 8 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 21) Dr. Smith’s parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith’s parents could have which of the following genotypes? A) DD and dd B) dd and dd C) Dd and Dd D) DD and DD E) Dd and DD Answer: C Topic: 9. 8 Skill: Application 22) Most genetic disorders of humans are caused by A) multiple alleles. B) recessive alleles.
C) drinking during pregnancy. D) a mutation that occurs in the egg, sperm, or zygote. E) dominant alleles. Answer: B Topic: 9. 9 Skill: Factual Recall 23) The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were A) both affected by the disease. B) not affected at all by the disease. C) slightly affected by the disease, showing some but not all of the symptoms. D) subjected to some environmental toxin that caused the disease in their children. E) affected by the disease but had subclinical symptoms. Answer: B Topic: 9. 9 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 4) Which of the following statements best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders? A) Lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles are usually more severe than lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles. B) Unlike lethal disorders caused by recessive alleles, lethal disorders caused by dominant alleles usually cause the death of the embryo. C) Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce.
D) The presence of a lethal dominant allele causes sterility. E) Many lethal recessive alleles cause enhanced disease resistance when they are present in the heterozygous state, and carriers of these alleles have more children, on average, than other people. Answer: C Topic: 9. 9 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 25) Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for ________ and ________ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities. A) imaging . . . biochemical testing B) imaging . . . karyotyping C) sexing . . . imaging D) karyotyping . . . biochemical testing E) direct observation . . . iochemical testing Answer: D Topic: 9. 10 Skill: Factual Recall 26) Which of the following statements regarding prenatal testing is false? A) Results from chorionic villus sampling come faster than from amniocentesis. B) Chorionic villus sampling is typically performed later in the pregnancy than amniocentesis. C) Ultrasound imaging has no known risk. D) The complication rate for chorionic villus sampling is about 2% and for amniocentesis is about 1%. E) Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis are usually reserved for pregnancies with higher than usual risks of complications. Answer: B Topic: 9. 10
Skill: Factual Recall 27) Which of the following statements regarding genetic testing is false? A) Genetic testing before birth requires the collection of fetal cells. B) Carrier testing helps determine if a person carries a potentially harmful disorder. C) Most children with recessive disorders are born to healthy parents. D) The screening of newborns can catch inherited disorders right after birth. E) Most human genetic diseases are treatable if caught early. Answer: E Topic: 9. 10 Skill: Factual Recall 28) For most sexually reproducing organisms, Mendel’s laws A) cannot strictly account for most patterns of inheritance.
B) explain the reasons why certain genes are dominant. C) help us understand the global geographic patterns of genetic disease. D) indicate if a particular genotype will cause a certain phenotype. E) clarify the phenomenon of incomplete dominance. Answer: A Topic: 9. 11 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 29) Which of the following statements is false? A) Incomplete dominance supports the blending hypothesis. B) Heterozygotes for hypercholesterolemia have blood cholesterols about twice normal. C) The four blood types result from various combinations of the three different ABO alleles.
D) ABO blood groups can provide evidence of paternity. E) The impact of a single gene on more than one character is called pleiotropy. Answer: A Topic: 9. 11, 9. 13 Skill: Factual Recall 30) All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ________ to the allele for white flowers. A) dominant B) codominant C) pleiotropic D) incompletely dominant E) recessive Answer: D Topic: 9. 11 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 31) Imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene.
You mate a finch homozygous for orange (pigmented) beak with a finch homozygous for ivory (unpigmented) beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have a pale, ivory-orange beak. This pattern of color expression is most likely to be an example of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) crossing over. Answer: A Topic: 9. 11 Skill: Application 32) Which of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans? A) sickle-cell disease B) hypercholesterolemia C) skin color D) ABO blood groups E) phenylketonuria Answer: B Topic: 9. 11
Skill: Factual Recall 33) The expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) blending inheritance. Answer: B Topic: 9. 12 Skill: Factual Recall 34) A person with AB blood illustrates the principle of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance. E) blending inheritance. Answer: B Topic: 9. 12 Skill: Factual Recall 35) Which of the following statements regarding sickle-cell disease is false? A) Sickle-cell disease is common in tropical Africa.
B) Persons who are heterozygous for sickle-cell disease are also resistant to malaria. C) Sickle-cell disease causes white blood cells to be sickle-shaped. D) All of the symptoms of sickle-cell disease result from the actions of just one allele. E) About one in ten African-Americans is a carrier of sickle-cell disease. Answer: C Topic: 9. 13 Skill: Factual Recall 36) Sickle-cell disease is an example of A) codominance and pleiotropy. B) codominance and blended inheritance. C) multiple alleles, pleiotropy, and blended inheritance. D) codominance and multiple alleles. E) multiple alleles and pleiotropy.
Answer: A Topic: 9. 13 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 37) Which of the following terms refers to a situation where a single phenotypic character is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) pleiotropy D) polygenic inheritance E) blending inheritance Answer: D Topic: 9. 14 Skill: Factual Recall 38) Which of the following is essentially the opposite of pleiotropy? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) multiple alleles D) polygenic inheritance E) blending inheritance Answer: D Topic: 9. 14 Skill: Factual Recall 9) The individual features of all organisms are the result of A) genetics. B) the environment. C) genetics and cytoplasmic determinants. D) the environment and individual needs. E) genetics and the environment. Answer: E Topic: 9. 15 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 40) The chromosome theory of inheritance states that A) chromosomes that exhibit mutations are the source of genetic variation. B) the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for patterns of inheritance. C) the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis accounts for inheritance patterns. D) humans have 46 chromosomes.
E) the inheritance pattern of humans is predetermined from chromosomes. Answer: B Topic: 9. 16 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 41) Genes located close together on the same chromosomes are referred to as ________ genes and generally ________. A) associated . . . sort independently during meiosis B) linked . . . sort independently during meiosis C) homologous . . . are inherited together D) linked . . . do not sort independently during meiosis E) codependent . . . do not sort independently during meiosis Answer: D Topic: 9. 17 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 42) Linked genes generally
A) follow the laws of independent assortment. B) do not follow the laws of independent assortment. C) show incomplete dominance. D) reflect a pattern of codominance. E) show pleiotropy. Answer: B Topic: 9. 17 Skill: Factual Recall 43) You conduct a dihybrid cross and then testcross the generation. A ________ ratio would make you suspect that the genes are linked. A) 3:1 B) 1:2:1 C) 1:1:1:1 D) 7:7:1:1 E) 9:3:3:1 Answer: D Topic: 9. 17 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 44) Crossing over ________ genes into assortments of ________ not found in the parents. A) recombines unlinked . . . genes B) recombines linked . . . lleles C) combines unlinked . . . alleles D) combines linked . . . genes E) recombines unlinked . . . chromosomes Answer: B Topic: 9. 18 Skill: Factual Recall 45) The mechanism that “breaks” the linkage between linked genes is A) incomplete dominance. B) pleiotropy. C) codominance. D) independent assortment. E) crossing over. Answer: E Topic: 9. 18 Skill: Factual Recall 46) Which of the following kinds of data could be used to map the relative position of three genes on a chromosome? A) the frequencies with which the genes exhibit incomplete dominance over each other B) the frequencies of mutations in the genes
C) the frequencies with which the genes are inherited from the mother and from the father D) the frequencies with which the genes are heterozygous E) the frequencies with which the corresponding traits occur together in offspring Answer: E Topic: 9. 19 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 47) What is the normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human male? A) two X chromosomes B) two Y chromosomes C) two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome D) one X chromosome and one Y chromosome E) one Y chromosome Answer: D Topic: 9. 20 Skill: Factual Recall 48) The sex chromosome complement of a normal human male is
A) XO. B) XX. C) XY. D) YY. E) YO. Answer: C Topic: 9. 20 Skill: Application 49) How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete? A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five Answer: A Topic: 9. 20 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 50) How is sex determined in most ants and bees? A) by the X-Y system B) by the Z-W system C) by the number of chromosomes D) by the size of the sex chromosome E) by the X-O system Answer: C Topic: 9. 20 Skill: Factual Recall 51) Given the sex determination system in bees, we can expect that A) female bees will produce eggs by meiosis, while male bees will produce sperm by mitosis.
B) female bees will produce eggs by mitosis, while male bees will produce sperm by meiosis. C) male and female bees will produce sperm and eggs by meiosis. D) male and female bees will produce sperm and eggs by mitosis. E) female bees will produce eggs by meiosis, but male bees will not produce sperm. Answer: A Topic: 9. 20 Skill: Application 52) What is meant by the statement that “male bees are fatherless”? A) Male bees don’t play a role in the rearing of bee young. B) Male bees are produced by budding. C) Male bees develop from fertilized eggs. D) Male bees develop from unfertilized eggs.
E) The queen bee’s mate dies before the male eggs hatch. Answer: D Topic: 9. 20 Skill: Factual Recall 53) Any gene located on a sex chromosome A) is called a recessive gene. B) is called a sex-linked gene. C) is called a dominant allele. D) will exhibit pleiotropy. E) will exhibit codominance. Answer: B Topic: 9. 21 Skill: Factual Recall 54) Recessive X-linked traits are more likely to be expressed in a male fruit fly than a female fruit fly because A) males are haploid. B) the male’s SRY gene doubles the chances that sex-linked genes are expressed.
C) the male’s phenotype results entirely from his single X-linked gene. D) the male chromosome is more fragile than the female chromosome. E) the male chromosome is more susceptible to mutations. Answer: C Topic: 9. 21 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 55) A color-blind woman marries a man who is not color-blind. All of their sons, but none of their daughters, are color-blind. Which of the following statements correctly explains these results? A) The gene for color vision is incompletely dominant to the gene for sex determination. B) The gene for color vision is completely dominant to the gene for sex determination. C)
The gene for color vision is codominant with the gene for sex determination. D) The gene for color vision is linked to the X chromosome. E) The gene for color vision is linked to the Y chromosome. Answer: D Topic: 9. 22 Skill: Application 56) Sex-linked conditions are more common in men than in women because A) men acquire two copies of the defective gene during fertilization. B) men need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be fully expressed. C) women simply do not develop the disease regardless of their genetic composition. D) the sex chromosomes are more active in men than in women.
E) the genes associated with the sex-linked conditions are linked to the Y chromosome, which determines maleness. Answer: B Topic: 9. 22 Skill: Factual Recall 57) According to scientists, about what percentage of men currently living in Central Asia may be descended from the Mongolian ruler Genghis Khan? A) 4% B) 8% C) 12% D) 25% E) 40% Answer: B Topic: 9. 23-Evolution Connection Skill: Factual Recall 58) Female inheritance patterns cannot be analyzed by simply studying the X chromosome because A) the X chromosome is too fragile for long-term analysis. B) the X chromosome is too susceptible to mutations.
C) the X chromosome is obtained from both father and mother. D) the X chromosome is too difficult to isolate from the other chromosomes. E) the X chromosome is physically too large to analyze accurately. Answer: C Topic: 9. 23-Evolution Connection Skill: Conceptual Understanding Art Questions 1) [pic] Which plants in this figure must all be heterozygous? A) purple-flowered plants in the P generation B) white-flowered plants in the P generation C) purple-flowered plants in the F1 generation D) purple-flowered plants in the F2 generation E) white-flowered plants in the F2 generation Answer: C Topic: 9. 3
Skill: Application 2) [pic] According to this figure, heterozygotes for this form of hypercholesterolemia suffer from the disease because they A) produce an abnormally shaped LDL receptor. B) don’t produce any HDL receptors. C) don’t produce any LDL receptors. D) produce too many LDL receptors. E) don’t produce enough LDL receptors. Answer: E Topic: 9. 11 Skill: Application Scenario Questions After reading the following paragraph, answer the question(s) below. A woman has been trying to conceive for several years, unsuccessfully. At a fertility clinic, they discover that she has blocked fallopian tubes.
Using modern technologies, some of her eggs are removed, fertilized with her husband’s sperm, and implanted into her uterus. The procedure is successful, but the couple discovers that their new son is color-blind and has blood type O. The woman claims that the child can’t be theirs since she has blood type A and her husband has type B. Also, neither parent is color-blind, although one grandparent (the woman’s father) is also color-blind. 1) As a genetic counselor, you would explain to the parents that A) the eggs must have been accidentally switched, since the baby’s blood type has to match one of his parents.
B) each parent could have contributed one recessive allele, resulting in type O blood. C) the eggs must have been accidentally switched, since a type A parent and a type B parent can have any type children except O. D) it is possible for the baby to have type O blood, since type O is inherited through a dominant allele. E) the baby is theirs, since the blood types of parents have no relation to their children’s blood types. Answer: B Topic: 9. 12 Skill: Application ) In regard to the baby’s color blindness, a sex-linked recessive trait, you explain that A) color blindness often appears randomly, even if neither parent is color-blind. B) the baby’s father must have a recessive allele for color blindness. C) since color blindness is sex-linked, a son can inherit color blindness if his mother has the recessive color blindness allele. D) the eggs must have been accidentally switched, since males inherit sex-linked traits only from their fathers. E) since color blindness is recessive, both parents can pass it on, even if neither is color-blind. Answer: C Topic: 9. 21 Skill: Conceptual Understanding
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