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Sumation of Personality Theories

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    Psychology Chapter 14 — PersonalityName: ____________________ In the space provided, write the name of the person or term identified by each description. Choose your answers from the list below. Some answers will not be used. [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] 50 or 51 6pts |acculturation |reaction formation |congruence |displacement |anima-animus |Rogers | |defense mechanisms |repression |archetypes |regression |shadow self |Rogettes | |denial |socialization |collective unconscious |projection |Adler |conventional | |source trait |surface trait |sublimation |Oedipus puss |Hoyer |misplacement |

    1. Return to behavior that is characteristic of an earlier stage of development ______________________ 2. Store of human concepts shared by all people across cultures______________________ 3. Unconscious methods the ego uses to avoid things that may cause anxiety ______________________ 4. Process of adapting to a new or different culture______________________ 5. Channeling basic impulses into socially acceptable behavior______________________ 6. Consistency between one’s self-concept and one’s experience______________________ 7. Obvious personality trait such as friendliness______________________

    8. Ideas and images of the accumulated experience of all human beings ______________________ 9. Defense mechanism in which people act contrary to their genuine feelings ______________________ 10. Transfer of an idea or impulse from a threatening to a less threatening object ______________________ COMPLETION Fill in the blanks with the word or words that correctly complete each statement. (May not be in list) 11. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud argued that ________________________ leads boys to try to become like their fathers so that they will be accepted by them and no longer fear them. 12.

    A(n) ____________________ person tends to be imaginative and looks inward rather than to other people for ideas and energy. 13. _______________________ is the pattern of feelings, motives, and behavior that sets people apart from one another. 14. Freud believed that people sometimes deal with unacceptable impulses by __________________ these impulses outward onto other people. 15. ________________________ is the process by which people learn to perform socially desirable behaviors. 16. A(n) ____________________ person tends to be active and self-expressive and energized by interactions with other people.

    17. The single, underlying trait that gives rise to clusters of traits is known as a(n) ___________________ __________________. 18. ___________________ is a defense mechanism that uses self-deception to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideas. 19. _____________________ are aspects of personality that are considered to be reasonably stable. 20. An individual’s ________________________ gives a person a sense of who she or he is as an individual. 21. Personality theorist _________________ _____________________ developed the idea of basic anxiety. 22.

    Freud wrote that the ___________________ “stands for reason and good sense” because it is the part of the mind guided by the reality principle. 23. A person who is in _____________________ refuses to accept the reality of a bad or upsetting situation. 24. ____________________ is a defense mechanism that pushes anxiety-causing ideas into the unconscious. 25. A person with a(n) _____________________ ____________________ is motivated by feelings of inadequacy and insecurity. MULTIPLE CHOICE For each of the following, circle the letter of the best choice. ____ 26.

    The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates believed that personality traits are the result of a. experience and conscious learning. b. the activity of the id, ego, and superego. c. different combinations of the body’s humors. d. the collective unconscious. ____ 27. According to Freud, the part of the mind that functions according to the moral principle is the a. id. b. ego. c. superego. d. collective unconscious. e. penile injury ____ 28. Recent research suggests that the “big five” personality dimensions a. define a person’s psychological makeup. b. tend to be established at an early age. c.

    remain stable throughout life. d. do all of the above. ____ 29. Trait theory has been criticized for a. using studies that cannot be replicated. b. not explaining where traits come from. c. not putting enough emphasis on conscious choice. d. all of the above reasons. ____ 30. Freud believed that conflicts that occur during any of the stages of personality development may cause a person to become a. fixated. b. congruent. c. acculturated. d. sublimated. e. flatulent ____31. According to Freud, the part of the mind that is governed by the pleasure principle is the a. id. b. ego. c. superego. d.

    collective unconscious. e. Electra envy object ____ 32. The analytic theory developed by Carl Jung stresses that human behavior is influenced by a. basic drives. b. external forces or influences. c. the scientific method. d. mysticism and religion. ____33. Psychologist Raymond Cattell developed the 16 PF scale based on a. 16 surface traits. b. 16 source traits. c. 16 bodily humors. d. 16 stages of personality development. ____34. Personality theorist Alfred Adler believed that people are motivated by a. the collective unconscious. b. external forces and influences. e. high salaries and glamour c.

    feelings of inferiority. d. a desire for consistency. ____ 35. Sociocultural theorists have found unusually high self-esteem among a. young white women. b. immigrants who reject the values and language of their home country. c. immigrants who speak only the language of their home country. d. people who are bicultural. e. arrogant, illiterate, fish heads ____ 36. The sociocultural perspective focuses on the role of a. ethnicity. b. gender. c. culture. d. all of the above. e. biologically engineered eloquence ____ 37. Psychoanalytic theory argues that personality is the result of a. combinations of traits. b.

    learning and experience. c. the search for self-actualization. d. inner conflicts between drives and rules. ____ 38. Psychologist Carl Rogers argued that personality is the result of a. the conflicts among the id, ego, and superego. b. free choice and action. e. chance, pure and simple c. the inferiority complex. d. external forces and influences. ____39. The psychologist whose list of personality traits is most similar to that of Hippocrates is a. Gordon Allport. b. Raymond Cattell. c. Hans Eysenck. d. Sigmund Freud. ____ 40. According to Carl Rogers, congruence is important to one’s self-concept because it

    a. reinforces a person’s self-concept. b. helps a person acculturate his or her self-concept to the adopted culture. c. balances the struggles of the id, ego, and superego. d. does all of the above. ____41. Socialization is a process described by a. humanistic psychologists. b. behavioral psychologists. c. trait theorists. d. psychoanalytic theorists. ____42. Psychologist Gordon Allport argued that an individual’s personality is the result of a. combinations of traits. b. combinations of bodily fluids. e. radiation exposure c. the unconscious. d. the need to overcome an inferiority complex. ____ 43.

    Abraham Maslow argued that differences in personality are linked to a. the search for self-actualization. b. hereditary factors. e. small trains that go whoo – oo c. the inferiority complex. d. fixations at early stages of development. ____ 44. The young hero, the fertile and nurturing mother, and the wise old man are examples of a. source traits. b. archetypes. c. congruencies. d. acculturation. e. sociopaths ____ 45. The personality theory that played the biggest role in matching people to educational programs and jobs based on their personality is a. learning theory. b. psychoanalytic theory. c. trait theory. d. humanistic theory.

    SHORT ANSWER Write a brief answer to each of the following. 46. What are the “big five” personality factors? 47. How do social learning theorists explain behavior? 48. According to Carl Jung, why is individuation important? 49. What is the difference between individualists and collectivists? Match the following terms and phrases ____52. Approach in which behavior is shaped by rewards and punishments A Archetypes ____53. People who are creative, have a sense of humor, and accept themselves and others the way they areB Bandura ____54. What Adler believed made people strive toward complete fulfillmentC Behaviorism ____55.

    Psychologist who believed that people are motivated by a hierarchy of needs D Collective ____56. This psychologists stated that we learn by watching and imitating othersE Creative Self ____57. According to Freud, this refers to the moral aspects of a person’s personalityF Erikson ____58. Consistent, organized, and unique ways of behavingG Freud ____59. Jung believed that the __ unconscious contains all of the memories from our ancestorsH Horney ____60. This man argued that personality exists in terms of interpersonal relationshipsI Hoyer ____61. Created the theory that people are faced with a crisis in each of eight stagesJ Maslow ____62.

    Psychologist associated with the belief that behavior can be explained through reinforcementK Psilocybin ____63. Argued that “self-concept” is an important part of personalityL Personality ____64. Went to great lengths discussing Psychosexual stages of developmentM Psychoanalytic ____65. Objected to the concepts of “penis envy” and “castration anxiety,” in favor of social relationshipsN Rogers between young children and their parentsO Self Actualized ____66 School of personality theories that stress the role of the unconscious in determining behavior P Self Image ESSAY Write a brief essay on one of the following Q Skinner 50.

    Identify and describe the five stages of Freud’s theory of personality development. R Sullivan Describe the psychological problems that may arise during the first three stages. S Super Ego 51. Analyze how the personality theories of Carl Jung, Karen Horney, and Erik Erikson drew on and differed from Sigmund Freud’s theories. ANSWER KEY FOR TEST- 14 Personality 1. regression 2. collective unconscious 3. defense mechanisms 4. acculturation 5. sublimation 6. congruence 7. surface trait 8. archetypes 9. reaction formation 10. displacement 11. identification 12. introverted 13. Personality 14. projecting 15.

    Socialization 16. extroverted 17. source trait 18. Rationalization 19. Traits 20. self-concept 21. Karen Horney 22. ego 23. denial 24. Repression 25. inferiority complex 26. c 27. c 28. d 29. b 30. a 31. a 32. d 33. b 34. c 35. d 36. d 37. d 38. b 39. c 40. a 41. b 42. a 43. a 44. b 45. c 52Behaviorism 53Self Actualized 54Creative Self 55Maslow 56Bandura 57Superego 58Personality 59Collective 60Sullivan 61Erikson 62Skinner 63Rogers 64Freud 65Horney 66 Psychoanalytic 46. The “big five” personality factors include the introversion-extroversion and emotional stability-instability dimensions identified by Hans Eysenck.

    The others are conscientiousness-carelessness, agreeableness-disagreeableness, and openness to new experience-close-mindedness. 47. Social learning theorists believe that observation and cognitive processes cause behavior. In addition, internal variables such as skills, values, goals, and expectations also influence how a person acts. 48. According to Carl Jung, individuation is the process of creating healthy personalities. Individuation brings together the four functions of the conscious mind, thinking, feeling, intuition, and sensation with the collective unconscious. 49.

    Individualists usually define themselves in terms of their personal identities and give priority to their personal goals. Collectivists, on the other hand, define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong and often give priority to the goals of the group. 50. Sigmund Freud believed that an individual’s personality developed through a series of five stages. The five stages he identified are the oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital stages. In the first year of life, infants experience the oral stage. At this stage, an infant explores the world by putting things in his or her mouth.

    If a child’s caregivers do not meet his or her needs during this stage, later on the person may develop habits such as smoking, overeating, excessive talking, or nail biting. The orally fixated person may form clinging, dependent relationships. At the anal stage, children learn to control their bodily functions. A conflict that occurs at this stage may cause anal-retentive traits involving an excessive need for self-control or anal-expulsive traits involving carelessness and messiness. The phallic stage begins at about age three and involves a discovery of physical differences between the two sexes and a greater awareness of the body.

    Children at this stage may also develop strong attachments to the parent of the opposite sex and see the same-sex parent as their rival. Depression, excessive guilt, and anxiety later in life can have their origins at this stage. By age five or six, children enter the latency stage in which they retreat from conflict with their parents and repress all aggressive urges. The genital stage is the final stage of personality development and occurs at puberty. 51. The personality theories of Carl Jung, Karen Horney, and Erik Erikson drew on the work of Sigmund Freud.

    Like Freud, Carl Jung believed that people store repressed memories at an unconscious level. But Jung suggested that people also have a collective unconscious in which human concepts shared by all people are stored. Archetypes make up the collective unconscious and form a foundation on which our personalities develop. Jung also differed from Freud in putting more emphasis on conscious thought. Karen Horney agreed with Freud that childhood experiences, especially the parent-child relationship, play a major role in forming the adult personality.

    Horney agreed with Freud that children repress their hostile feelings toward parents. But she differed from Freud in her belief that genuine and consistent love can help erase the damage of a painful childhood. Like Freud, Erik Erikson focused on the important mother-infant relationship in forming an individual’s personality. But Erikson differed from Freud in his belief that people can make real choices. Erikson built on Freud’s five stages of personality development and extended them into adulthood.

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