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Summer Project on Britannia

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    1. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study consists of identifying the basic reason of de-motivation and providing the right and useful solution to the problem. The basic and main purpose of the study is to motivate the employees and workers to perform according to the company policy and to achieve the definite goal personal as well as organizational. One of the main factors of de-motivation is unclear or poor identification of the goal. Thus it is the duty of the organization to help its employees to identify their need, desire and destiny.

    Therefore the purpose is to identify and analyses the reasons of de-motivation in the organization. Salary, benefits, working conditions, supervision, policy, safety, security, affiliation, and relationships are all externally motivated needs. When these needs are achieved; the person moves up. When satisfaction is not found, the person becomes less productive and eventually quits or is fired. Achievement, advancement, recognition, growth, responsibility and job nature are internal motivators. Thus it is the responsibility of the H.

    R official to identify the require area of motivation to increase the productivity of their employees to achieve the organizational goals. The purpose of the study consists of identifying the basic reason of de-motivation and providing the right and useful solution to the problem. The basic and main purpose of the study is to motivate the employees and workers to perform according to the company policy and to achieve the definite goal personal as well as organizational. One of the main factors of de-motivation is unclear or poor identification of the goal.

    Thus it is the duty of the organization to help its employees to identify their need, desire and destiny. Therefore the purpose is to identify and analyses the reasons of de-motivation in the organization. Salary, benefits, working conditions, supervision, policy, safety, security, affiliation, and relationships are all externally motivated needs. When these needs are achieved; the person moves up. However, if levels one through three are not met, the person becomes dissatisfied with their job. When satisfaction is not found, the person becomes less productive and eventually quits or is fired.

    Achievement, advancement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and job nature are internal motivators. Thus it is the responsibility of the H. R official to identify the require area of motivation to increase the productivity of their employees to achieve the organizational goals. 1. 2 RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem here in this study is associated with the motivation of employees of SUNRISE BISCUIT COMPANY Limited, Guwahati. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of motivation; some of these factors include 1.

    The level of pay and benefits, 2. The perceived fairness of promotion system within a company, their employees, the more successful they will be. The challenge before HR managers today is to delight their employees and nurture their creativity to keep them a bloom. This study helps the researcher to realize the importance of effective employee motivation. This research study examines types and levels of employee motivational programs and also discusses management ideas that can be utilized to innovate employee motivation.

    It helps to provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organizations that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs. 1. 4 Objectives of the study ? Primary objective To study the important factors which are needed to motivate the employees. ? Secondary Objective • To study the effect of monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by the organization on the employee’s performance. • To study the effect of job promotions on employees. • To learn the employee’s satisfaction on the interpersonal relationship exists in the organization. To provide the practical suggestion for the improvement of organization’s performance. • To study the effect of motivation on the employees regarding wastage management, absenteeism problem and food safety management. 1. 5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS A hypothesis is a preliminary or tentative explanation or postulate by the researcher of what the researcher considers the outcome of an investigation will be. It is an informed/educated guess. It indicates the expectations of the researcher regarding certain variables. It is the most specific way in which an answer to a problem can be stated.

    Research hypotheses are the specific testable predictions made about the independent and dependent variables in the study. Hypotheses are couched in terms of the particular independent and dependent variables that are going to be used in the study. The research hypothesis of this study is as follows. Ho: There is no significant between incentives and employee’s performance. Ho: There is no significant between career development opportunities and the extent of employee motivation Ho: There is no significant between performance appraisal system and the extent of motivation.

    Ho: There is no significant between interpersonal relationship in the organization and extent of motivation. 1. 6 Research methodology. Research is a systematic method of finding solutions to problems. It is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge. According to Clifford woody, “research comprises of defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions, testing conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis” Sampling Design. A sample design is a finite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Simple random sampling is used for this study. • Universe. The universe chooses for the research study is the employees of SBCL. • Sample Size. Number of the sampling units selected from the population is called the size of the sample. Sample of 50 respondents were obtained from the population. • Sampling Procedure. The procedure adopted in the present study is probability sampling, which is also known as chance sampling.

    Under this sampling design, every item of the frame has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. • Methods of Data Collection. The data’s were collected through Primary and secondary sources. • Primary Sources. Primary data are in the form of “raw material” to which statistical methods are applied for the purpose of analysis and interpretations. The primary sources are discussion with employees data’s collected through questionnaire (given in Annexure I). • Secondary Sources Secondary data’s are in the form of finished products as they have already been treated statistically in some form or other.

    The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the management of the organization. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines and books. • Nature of Research. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation.

    Thus, descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. • Questionnaire. A well defined questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. A defeated questionnaire was carefully prepared and specially numbered. The questions were arranged in proper order, in accordance with the relevance. • Nature of Questions Asked.

    The questionnaire consists of open ended, dichotomous, rating and ranking questions. • Pre-testing A pre-testing of questionnaire was conducted with 10 questionnaires, which were distributed and all of them were collected back as completed questionnaire. On the basis of doubts raised by the respondents the questionnaire was redialed to its present form. • Sample A finite subset of population, selected from it with the objective of investigating its properties called a sample. A sample is a representative part of the population. A sample of 50 respondents in total has been randomly selected.

    The response to various elements under each questions were totaled for the purpose of various statistical testing. • Variables of the Study. Direct variable of the study is the employee motivation Indirect variables are the incentives, interpersonal relations, career development opportunities and performance appraisal system. • Presentation of Data. The data are presented through charts and tables. • Tools and Techniques for Analysis. As the study is based on large sample (i. e. 50 workmen), so to test the hypotheses large sample test (i. e. z test) can be implemented. . 7 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY • The research was conducted within a limited duration. So a detailed and comprehensive study could not be made. • The sample was confined to 150 respondents. So this study cannot be regarded as “full – proof” one. • Some respondents hesitated to give the actual situation; they feared that management would take any action against them. • There was a fear of reprisal among the employees to reveal their personal feelings and the result may not reflect the actual satisfactions. • The research was conducted within pickup and delivery staffs only.

    So it is not reflect the other official employee’s job satisfaction. • The findings and conclusions are based on knowledge and experience of the respondents sometime may subject to bias. • Time frame is one of the biggest constrain in carrying this kind of study. • Limited sample size is another main constrain in the process of study. • As the sample size is limited so lacks in confidence in conclusion and therefore error may occur at any point of time. • The ultimate outcome of the experiment may not be ethical and valid as it may become outdated because of its time frame.

    So one should on make judgment on the basis of outcomes only. • Interviewee may hesitate to answer some sort of question especially in sensitive cases. Therefore direction questioning can not be the ultimate and fruitful source of investigation in the study purpose. • It needs matured and experienced person for designing the sample size, sample frame population to be considered etc and in interpreting the conclusion and findings of the study or experiment. • Because of the size and shape of the population it is not always possible to consider the exacta and accurate size of the sample. . 8 Outline of the study The process of study contains the impact of effective motivation on the employees and workers of the organization. It includes motivation to the workers regarding absenteeism problem, motivation to the workers regarding food safety management and personnel hygiene, motivation to the employees regarding wastage management. The study includes studying the workers behavior, their job profile, their working culture etc. Executive summary Motivation is the set of reasons that determines one to engage in a particular behavior.

    According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, morality, or avoiding mortality. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of the management in inspiring the work force . It is the major task of every manager to motivate his subordinate or to create the will to work among the subordinates .

    It should also be remembered that the worker may be immensely capable of doing some work, nothing can be achieved if he is not willing to work . creation of a will to work is motivation in simple but true sense of term. Motivation is an important function which very manager performs for actuating the people to work for accomplishment of objectives of the organization . Issuance of well conceived instructions and orders does not mean that they will be followed . A manager has to make appropriate use of motivation to enthuse the employees to follow them.

    Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is executed efficiently and effectively. 2. THE INDUSTRY Biscuits derive its name from a French word meaning twice backed bread; Biscuits in general have a good shelf life, which is higher than all other snack items available in the market. India is the second largest producer of biscuits in the world after the U. S. A. but still the per capita consumption is only 2. 3 kg/year of developed countries. As per the latest survey done by N. C. A. E. R. 49 biscuits are consumed in rural areas. The penetration of biscuits into households stands at an average of 83. 2% with the rural penetration at 77% and urban penetration at 88%. Biscuits are reserved for the small scale sector but there are strong possibilities of the industry being deserved in line with the government policy of liberalization. The net effect thus would be greater choice for the consumer as well as a check on the costs. The country production of the biscuits during 2004-05 was 18. 6 Lac tons of which 1/2 were manufactured by the organized sector. The industry turn over was 5322. Crores of which organized sector contributed 2519. 3 crores. Britannia, makers of Britannia biscuits, doubled capacity from 25 tonnes a day to 50 tonnes and plans to be a national brand soon. In an aggressive mode, the North dominated biscuit player has increased its ad budget to Rs. 5 crore this year from Rs. 3 crore last year. Britannia has also recently invested about Rs. 5 crore in the modernization and expansion of its production and packing its production capacity of 40 tonnes per day to 100 tonnes per day by next year. The aim: to take the current turnover of Rs. 0 crore to Rs. 100 crore by the year. The low priced brand claims to have a 15 per cent market share in the North and is aggressively eyeing a bigger bite of the Rs. 2,500 crore biscuit industry. The brand plans to gain a 40 per cent market share in the North by the year of. The company’s strategy has been to attract new consumer segments and widen its consumer base with its well packaged low priced offerings. Britannia’s success has also come from its formidable. 2. 1 COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY’S BACKGROUND The SUNRISE BISCUIT COMPANY LTD was incorporated in the year 1987.

    The company is the contract packer of BRITANNIA. In the beginning the company started its operation with only 70-80 workmen and with 15 management staff with one plant-l with marie n thin biscuits. Plant-ll installed in the year 1993 with four varieties and with the manpower of 150 workmen and 22 management staff. In September 5th 2008 plant-lll was installed with 13 varieties and 29 SKU’s with the manpower 500 workmen and 25 management staff. No major I. R problem is faced by the company over the last 22 years; no agitations are there against the organization.

    The organization is following ISO-22000 for their food safety and management system. Following are the verities company is manufacturing currently. These are – 1) Renovated Marie 2) Nutrichoice Thinarrot 3) Time Pass 4) Milk Bikies 5) Good Day Butter 6) Tiger Shell 7) Cream Britannia was incorporated in 1918 as Britannia Biscuits Co LTD in Calcutta. In 1924, Pea Frean UK acquired a controlling stake, which later passed on to the Associated Biscuits International (ABI) an UK based company. During the 50’s and 60’s, Britannia expanded operations to Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai.

    In 1989, J M Pillai, a Singapore based NRI businessman along with the Groupe Danone acquired Asian operations of Nabisco, thus acquiring controlling stake in Britannia. Later, Groupe Danone and Nusli Wadia took over Pillai’s holdings. PLANT LOCATION Britannia’s plants are located in the 4 major metro cities – Kolkatta, Mumbai, Delhi, and Chennai. A large part of products are also outsourced from third party producers. Dairy products are out sourced from three producers – Dynamic Dairy based in Baramati, Maharashtra, and Modern Dairy at Karnal in Haryana and Thacker Dairy Products at Howrah in West Bengal.

    Britannia had spent 0. 1 million US$ to hire Paris based designer Shombit Sen Gupta to create a logo and packaging design. The logo had three objectives: ? Give consumer reassurance that it was a trusted and familiar brand. ? Britannia has the ability to change. ? It had to be appropriate to the business the company was in. The logo consists of the company’s name and slogan, “Eat Healthy Think Better”. The Hindi rendition is “Swastha Khao, Tan Man Jagao”. The corporate statement “Eat Healthy Think Better” captures the Indian concept of the unity of mind and body.

    The logo has three colours red, white, and green each having its own significance. Colour Red denotes Energy and Vitality. White denotes purity. Green stands for Nutrition and Freshness. The strike communicates Innovation and Futuristic Power of Britannia. Today, Britannia is the largest biscuit and bakery company in the country with the daily sales turnover of over Rs. 8478 million. It is the market leader in the 1. 3-million tonne Indian biscuits industry with a 60% share. It has maintained market leadership with a 48% value market share in the organized sector.

    Britannia core businesses constitute of Bakery and Dairy products. Bakery products account for 90% of the revenues and include Biscuits, Bread and Cake & Rusk. Dairy products contribute to 10% of Britannia’s annual turnover of Rs13. 38bn. Throughout its existence, Britannia has operated on the principles of providing products to the consumers that are healthy and tasty. This is brought about by the use of high quality ingredients with a strong focus on ‘naturalness’ and modern manufacturing practices. The company today has a wide range of bakery products in the biscuit, bread and cake segment.

    It has trimmed down its wide product portfolio by reducing the products from 35 to around 25 and began to focus on value-added instead of low-margin products. BIL (Britannia Industries Ltd. ) has decided to focus on seven core brands in the biscuits and bakery category. The brands included Good Day, Tiger, 50-50, Snax, and the Cream Treat brands, among others. With the launch of Tiger brand, it has taken a plunge in the low-end category, taking competition head on with Parle, which is the leader in this segment.

    The company has also diversified within dairy and bakery products to enter the butter, cheese and ghee markets. The portfolio was expanded with the launch of butter, pure flavored milk in tetra packs and UHT milk. Britannia has built an enviable retail distribution network, which services 400,000 retail outlets in 2,200 towns with the help of 2,500 distributors. The company is aggressively expanding its network with a bias towards the rural markets Recently, in the ethnic food segment, the company introduced a new range of traditional ‘namkeens’ in Mumbai called Britannia Snax.

    The new range includes seven varieties of traditional namkeens like ‘Bikaner ki Bhujia’ and ‘Rajasthani Alu Bhujia’ in a price range of between Rs 5 and Rs 20. The company is in the process of setting up a Greenfield Biscuit Project in Uttaranchal to augment its production capacity, entailing an investment of about Rs 55. 2 crore. This plant will have capacity to produce over 45,000 tonnes of two or three varieties of biscuit per annum. So after over seven decades of being inseparable part of life in India, Britannia is now set to usher its customers into a healthier and tastier future.

    ABOUT EVOLUTION OF BRITANNIA The story of one of India’s favorite brands reads almost like a fairy tale. Once upon a time, in 1892 to be precise, a biscuit company was started in a nondescript house in Calcutta (now Kolkata) with an initial investment of Rs. 295. The company we all know as Britannia today. The beginnings might have been humble-the dreams were anything but. By 1910, with the advent of electricity, Britannia mechanised its operations, and in 1921, it became the first company east of the Suez Canal to use imported gas ovens. Britannia’s business was flourishing.

    But, more importantly, Britannia was acquiring a reputation for quality and value. As a result, during the tragic World War II, the Government reposed its trust in Britannia by contracting it to supply large quantities of “service biscuits” to the armed forces. As time moved on, the biscuit market continued to grow… and Britannia grew along with it. In 1975, the Britannia Biscuit Company took over the distribution of biscuits from Parry’s who till now distributed Britannia biscuits in India. In the subsequent public issue of 1978, Indian shareholding crossed 60%, firmly establishing the Indianness of the firm.

    The following year, Britannia Biscuit Company was re-christened Britannia Industries Limited (BIL). Four years later in 1983, it crossed the Rs. 100 crores revenue mark. On the operations front, the company was making equally dynamic strides. In 1992, it celebrated its Platinum Jubilee. In 1997, the company unveiled its new corporate identity – “Eat Healthy, Think Better” – and made its first foray into the dairy products market. In 1999, the “Britannia Khao, World Cup Jao” promotion further fortified the affinity consumers had with ‘Brand Britannia’.

    Britannia strode into the 21st Century as one of India’s biggest brands and the pre-eminent food brand of the country. It was equally recognised for its innovative approach to products and marketing: the Lagaan Match was voted India’s most successful promotional activity of the year 2001 while the delicious Britannia 50-50 Maska-Chaska became India’s most successful product launch. In 2002, Britannia’s New Business Division formed a joint venture with Fonterra, the world’s second largest Dairy Company, and Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt.

    Ltd. was born. In recognition of its vision and accelerating graph, Forbes Global rated Britannia ‘One amongst the Top 200 Small Companies of the World’, and The Economic Times pegged Britannia India’s 2nd Most Trusted Brand. Today, more than a century after those tentative first steps, Britannia’s fairy tale is not only going strong but blazing new standards, and that miniscule initial investment has grown by leaps and bounds to crores of rupees in wealth for Britannia’s shareholders.

    The company’s offerings are spread across the spectrum with products ranging from the healthy and economical Tiger biscuits to the more lifestyle-oriented Milkman Cheese. Having succeeded in garnering the trust of almost one-third of India’s one billion population and a strong management at the helm means Britannia will continue to dream big on its path of innovation and quality. And millions of consumers will savour the results, happily ever after. ORIGIN OF EAT HEALTHY THINK BETTER Britannia -the ‘biscuit’ leader with a history-has withstood the tests of time.

    Part of the reason for its success has been its ability to resonate with the changes in consumer needs-needs that have varied significantly across its 100+ year epoch. With consumer democracy reaching new levels, the one common thread to emerge in recent times has been the shift in lifestyles and a corresponding awareness of health. People are increasingly becoming conscious of dietary care and its correlation to wellness and matching the new pace to their lives with improved nutritional and dietary habits.

    This new awareness has seen consumers seeking foods that complement their lifestyles while offering convenience, variety and economy, over and above health and nutrition. Britannia saw the writing on the wall. Its “Swasth Khao Tan Man Jagao” (Eat Healthy, Think Better) re-position directly addressed this new trend by promising the new generation a healthy and nutritious alternative – that was also delightful and tasty. Thus, the new logo was born, encapsulating the core essence of Britannia – healthy, nutritious, optimistic – and combining it with a delightful product range to offer variety and choice to consumers.

    PRODUCTS Tiger Banana Britannia is committed to help secure every child’s right to Growth & Development through good food everyday. Purposefully taking forward the credo of ‘Eat Healthy, Think Better ‘, we have launched a new variant under our power brand TIGER – TIGER BANANA – power packed with IRON ZOR & and with the delightful taste of banana. NutriChoice. Treat Fruit Rollz Milk Bikies Biscuits can be broadly categorized into the following segments: Biscuit Category |Annual Production in Percentage | |Glucose |44% | |Marie |13% | |Cream |10% | |Crackers |13% | |Milk |12% | | Others | 8% | BOARD OF DIRECTORS | | | |[pic] | | |Mr.

    Nusli Neville Wadia | | | | | | | | | |Chairman | | | | |[pic] | | |Ms. Vinita Bali | | | |Managing Director | |Mr. Keki Dadiseth |Director | |Mr. Avijit Deb |Director | |Mr. A. K.

    Hirjee |Director | |Mr. Nimesh N Kampani |Director | |Mr. S. S. Kelkar |Director | |Mr. Pratap Khanna |Director | |Mr. Jeh N Wadia |Director | SWOT Analysis OF bRITANNIA | | |Strength |Weakness | |Fulfill one of our Basic Requirement among Air , Water , Food, |Decreases nutritional value | |Shelter |Increases the cost of food product | |Widely accepted in all Generations |Industry and technology requires high investment | |Easily available in various forms |Regular usage of processed food can cause alteration in health | |Provide good Instant Remedy for hunger in the form of readymade | | |food | | |Preserves the non seasonal food and makes it available all | | |throughout the year | | | | | |Opportunities |Threats | |Increase economy of India |Many companies are esult oriented | |Generate employment opportunity |Increase in pollution | |Good quality of Goods |Sometimes provide poor quality of product for more profit | |Provide competition to foreign companies |Lack of technology | |Improve living standard |Unable to utilize all the resources efficiently | |Provide goods to nation at cheaper rate | | |Inflow of foreign reserve and funds for the govt. taxes) | | FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Britannia’s gross sales turnover increased to Rs 18,179 mn in 2005-06 from Rs 16,154 mn in the previous year, registering a growth of 13%. Operating profit at Rs 1,763 mn increased by 7%, profit before tax and exceptional items at Rs. 1,958 mn declined by 19% against 2004-05 , impacted by the profit on sale of long term investments that accrued to ‘other income’ last year. [pic] [Fig- 2. 1: Gross Sales of Britannia] The Company achieved these results despite significant increases in input cost, particularly sugar, fuel and oils, coupled with aggressive pricing in the industry.

    Your Company’s focused initiatives on commercialising market place opportunities, supply chain efficiencies and overall cost management resulted in its top line growth and profitability. Operating margin at 10. 3% in 2005-06 compared with 10. 9% in the previous year was impacted by the inflation in input costs. Despite stiff competition, your Company stabilised and held its overall market share at 31. 7% in volume and 38. 8% in value for the last year. Exports turnover during the year was Rs 111. 71 mn against Rs 71. 65 mn in 2004-05, a growth of 56% [pic] [Fig 2. 2: Earning per Share of Britannia] [pic] [Fig 2. 3: Graph of Share Movement of Britannia Industry on the BSE] FINANCIAL RESULTS Net sales in 2004: 13,024 million Euros (+6. 1% at comparable scope) • Operational Income: 1,706 million Euros • Operating Margin: 13. 1% (+40 base points in relation to 2004) QUALITY POLICY ? Customer Satisfaction ? Total quality management • Continuous up gradation of technology • Improvement in processes • Focus to meet emerging needs of the customers • Mutually dependent lasting relationship with co-packers, associates and suppliers. ? Environment responsibility ? Development of human resources ? Improving skills and knowledge • Generating motivation to excel • Installing a sense of pride • Commitment towards quality QUALITY OBJECTIVES Reduction in customer complaints ? To start documentation of market returns dealer wise ? To empower the workmen on individual work area to ensure that only quality product are passed on the next page of production. ? Continuous training for the development of human resources. ? To minimize the accident level. 3. THE CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION The word motivation has been derived from motive which means any idea, need or emotion that prompts a man in to action. Whatever may be the behavior of man, there is some stimulus behind it . Stimulus is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and desires.

    There is no universal theory that can explain the factors influencing motives which control mans behavior at any particular point of time. In general, the different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviors. The process of motivation studies the motives of individuals which cause different type of behavior. • DEFINATION OF MOTIVATION According to Edwin B Flippo, “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of gain or reward. • SIGNIFICANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation involves getting the members of the group to pull weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the purpose of the organization.

    The following results may be expected if the employees are properly motivated. ? The workforce will be better satisfied if the management provides them with opportunities to fulfill their physiological and psychological needs. The workers will cooperate voluntarily with the management and will contribute their maximum towards the goals of the enterprise. ? Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization. This will also result in increased productivity. ? The rates of labor’s turnover and absenteeism among the workmen will be low. There will be good human relations in the organization as friction among the workers themselves and between the workers and the management will decrease. ? The number of complaints and grievances will come down. Accident will also be low. ? There will be increase in the quantity and quality of products. Wastage and scrap will be less. Better quality of products will also increase the public image of the business. • Motivation Process. ? Identification of need ? Tension ? Course of action ? Result –Positive/Negative ? Feed back 3. 1 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne study results (Terpstra, 1979).

    Six major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Mcclelland’s Achievement Need Theory, Behavior Modification theory; Abraham H Mallows need hierarchy or Deficient theory of motivation. J. S. Adam’s Equity Theory,Vrooms Expectation Theory, Two Factor Theory. o McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory. According to McClelland’s there are three types of needs; Need for Achievement (n Ach) This need is the strongest and lasting motivating factor. Particularly in case of persons who satisfy the other needs. They are constantly pre occupied with a desire for improvement and lack for situation in which successful outcomes are directly correlated with their efforts.

    They set more difficult but achievable goals for themselves because success with easily achievable goals hardly provides a sense of achievement. Need for Power (n Pow) It is the desire to control the behavior of the other people and to manipulate the surroundings. Power motivations positive applications results in domestic leadership style, while it negative application tends autocratic style. Need for affiliation (n Aff) It is the related to social needs and creates friendship. This results in formation of informal groups or social circle. o Abraham H Maslow Need Hierarchy or Deficient theory of Motivation The intellectual basis for most of motivation thinking has been provided by behavioral scientists, A.

    H Maslow and Frederick Heizberg, whose published works are the “Bible of Motivation”. Although Maslow himself did not apply his theory to industrial situation, it has wide impact for beyond academic circles. Douglous Mac Gregor has used Maslow’s theory to interpret specific problems in personnel administration and industrial relations. The crux of Maslow’s theory is that human needs are arranged in hierarchy composed of five categories. The lowest level needs are physiological and the highest levels are the self actualization needs. Maslow starts with the formation that man is a wanting animal with a hierarchy of needs of which some are lower ins scale and some are in a higher scale or system of values.

    As the lower needs are satisfied, higher needs emerge. Higher needs cannot be satisfied unless lower needs are fulfilled. A satisfied need is not a motivator. This resembles the standard economic theory of diminishing returns. The hierarchy of needs at work in the individual is today a routine tool of personnel trade and when these needs are active, they act as powerful conditioners of behavior- as Motivators. Hierarchy of needs; the main needs of men are five. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self actualization needs, as shown in order of their importance. Fig (2. 1) The above five basic needs are regarded as striving needs which make a person do things.

    The first model indicates the ranking of different needs. The second is more helpful in indicating how the satisfaction of the higher needs is based on the satisfaction of lower needs. It also shows how the number of person who has experienced the fulfillment of the higher needs gradually tapers off. ? Physiological or Body Needs: – The individual move up the ladder responding first to the physiological needs for nourishment, clothing and shelter. These physical needs must be equated with pay rate, pay practices and to an extent with physical condition of the job. ? Safety: – The next in order of needs is safety needs, the need to be free from danger, either from other people or from environment.

    The individual want to assured, once his bodily needs are satisfied, that they are secure and will continue to be satisfied for foreseeable feature. The safety needs may take the form of job security, security against disease, misfortune, old age etc as also against industrial injury. Such needs are generally met by safety laws, measure of social security, protective labor laws and collective agreements. ? Social needs: – Going up the scale of needs the individual feels the desire to work in a cohesive group and develop a sense of belonging and identification with a group. He feels the need to love and be loved and the need to belong and be identified with a group.

    In a large organization it is not easy to build up social relations. However close relationship can be built up with at least some fellow workers. Every employee wants too feel that he is wanted or accepted and that he is not an alien facing a hostile group. ? Ego or Esteem Needs: – These needs are reflected in our desire for status and recognition, respect and prestige in the work group or work place such as is conferred by the recognition of ones merit by promotion, by participation in management and by fulfillment of workers urge for self expression. Some of the needs relate to ones esteem e. g. ; need for achievement, self confidence, knowledge, competence etc. On he job, this means praise for a job but more important it means a feeling by employee that at all times he has the respect of his supervisor as a person and as a contributor to the organizational goals. ? Self realization or Actualization needs: – This upper level need is one which when satisfied provide insights to support future research regarding strategic guidance for organization that are both providing and using reward/recognition programs makes the employee give up the dependence on others or on the environment. He becomes growth oriented, self oriented, directed, detached and creative. This need reflects a state defined in terms of the extent to which an individual attains his personnel goal. This is the need which totally lies within oneself and there is no demand from any external situation or person. 3. 2 TYPES OF MOTIVATION

    Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades) o Incentives An incentive is something which stimulates a person towards some goal. It activates human needs and creates the desire to work. Thus, an incentive is a means of motivation. In organizations, increase in incentive leads to better performance and vice versa. Need for Incentives Man is a wanting animal. He continues to want something or other. He is never fully satisfied. If one need is satisfied, the other need need arises.

    In order to motivate the employees, the management should try to satisfy their needs. For this purpose, both financial and non financial incentives may be used by the management to motivate the workers. Financial incentives or motivators are those which are associated with money. They include wages and salaries, fringe benefits, bonus, retirement benefits etc. Non financial motivators are those which are not associated with monetary rewards. They include intangible incentives like ego-satisfaction, self-actualization and responsibility. INCENTIVES Financial Incentives Non-financial incentives – Wages and Salaries. Competition – Bonus – Group recognition – Medical reimbursement – Job security – Insurance – Praise – Housing facility – Knowledge of result – Retirement benefits. – Workers participation. – Suggestion system. – Opportunities for growth 3. 3 MOTIVATION IS THE KEY TO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink only if it’s thirsty – so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do.

    Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the ‘ivory tower’ they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus. Are they born with the self-motivation or drive? Yes and no. If no, they can be motivated, for motivation is a skill which can and must be learnt. This is essential for any business to survive and succeed. Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus: • Job performance =f(ability)(motivation) Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start.

    As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation. There are broadly seven strategies for motivation. • Positive reinforcement / high expectations • Effective discipline and punishment • Treating people fairly • Satisfying employees needs • Setting work related goals • Restructuring jobs • Base rewards on job performance Essentially, there is a gap between an individual’s actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap. Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. Motivation in an organizational context holds a lot of value as employees needs to be pushed to achieve maximum results leading to better performance of the company.

    Every employee in the organization needs motivation. Rewards, incentives, recognition, perks, praise, appraisals, gifts, awards and other kinds of monetary or non monetary benefits motivate employees to work and give their best in the organization. Companies often spend thousands of dollars each year hiring outside firms just to give motivation seminar. Today, the biggest challenge of a human resource is to keep the staff motivated. There are lots of programs that HR personnel introduce to motivate the employees and keep them enthusiastic about the work. Since motivation cannot be easily measured, it is difficult for an HR manager to keep charged up all the time!

    Apart from the extrinsic motivation, employees can also motivate themselves intrinsically. In the process of study “motivation” to the workmen the information about their work culture, their attitude and behavior has been collected by using different media like – official records and files, personal interviews, counseling session with the workmen and through taking data from internet. The study includes the basic reasons of absenteeism problem within the workmen, reasons for high wastage and identifying the loop wholes of food safety and management system. It has been noticed that absenteeism rate is very high in the organization and it is one of the main reason of incurring huge loss for the organization.

    Thus my area of study is to go to the root cause of this high absenteeism rate by using different methods like personal interviews and counseling session with the workmen. By conducting the study it has been clear that why absenteeism rate is high in the organization. It is because those who are working in the organization (workmen) are of first generation workmen. Therefore in their family they do not posses the habit of working in factories and organization. Therefore they do not know the work culture of the organization. Again it has been noticed by the help of conducting personal interviews why wastage management is not proper in the organization. It is because of two reason infrastructural as well as workmen carelessness.

    It has been observed by carrying out the project that communication gap exist within the workmen as well as within workmen and the management because of which wastage management is not at par. By conducting the study it has been clear that organization is taking different steps in order to maintain their ISO 22000 food safety and management system, the organization also providing time to time training to their workmen to make them aware of ISO 22K but still workmen those who are working in the organization is some where lacking behind in maintaining proper food safety laws, rules and regulations and it is because they do not posses any responsibility from their own. They always wait for the order. They do not feel the necessity of taking proper precautions before entering to the factory as well as within the factory premises.

    Thus they need more training and motivation to make themselves aware of the need of food safety rules and guidelines in that case it will be beneficial for the organization to have a motivated, energetic, enthusiastic workforce who will be able to achieve any kind of challenges and will be able to reach the ultimate goal personnel as well as organizational. Motivation is a continuous process of learning. It is possible to motivate one self or employees can motivate themselves (after external motivation needs are met. ) An employer or leader that meets the needs on the “Howletts Hierarchy” (five levels) will see motivated employees and see productivity increase. Understanding the definition of motivation, and then applying it, is one of the most prevalent challenges facing employers and supervisors and by the researchers and by the management. 3. 4 analysis and interpretation of data • DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Response about the support from the HR department |SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Highly satisfied |18 |36 | |2 |Satisfied |29 |58 | |3 |Neutral |3 |6 | |4 |Dissatisfied |0 |0 | |5 |Highly satisfied |0 |0 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 1) (Chart 4. 1) The above table shows that 58% of the respondents are satisfied with the support they are getting from the HR department. ? Management is interested in motivating the employees |SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree 27 |54 | |2 |Agree |20 |40 | |3 |Neutral |3 |6 | |4 |Disagree |0 |0 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |0 |0 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 2) [pic] (Chart 4. 2) The above table shows that 54% of the respondents are strongly agreeing that the management is interested in motivating the employees. ? The type of incentives motivates you more SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Financial Incentives |15 |30 | |2 |Non financial Incentives |9 |18 | |3 |Both |26 |52 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 3) [pic] (Chart 4. 3) The above table shows that 52% of the respondents are expressing that both financial and non financial incentives will equally motivate them. The company is eagerness in recognizing and acknowledging employee’s work |SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |18 |54 | |2 |Agree |29 |58 | |3 |Neutral |3 |6 | |4 |Disagree |0 |0 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |0 |0 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 5) [pic] (Chart 4. 5) From the above table it is clear that, 58% of employees agreed that the company is eager in recognizing and acknowledging their work, 36% strongly agreed and only 6% showed neutral response. ? Periodical increase in salary |SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |12 |24 | |2 |Agree |23 |46 | |3 |Neutral |3 |6 | |4 |Disagree |9 |18 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |3 |6 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 6) [pic] (Chart 4. 6) The above table shows 46% of employees agree that there is a periodical increase in the salary. ? Job Security existing in the company SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |15 |30 | |2 |Agree |18 |36 | |3 |Neutral |11 |22 | |4 |Disagree |3 |6 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |3 |6 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 7) [pic] (Chart 4. 7) The above table shows 35% of employees agree with good job security exist in the company. ? Good relations with the co-workers. SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |15 |30 | |2 |Agree |27 |54 | |3 |Neutral |8 |16 | |4 |Disagree |0 |0 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |0 |0 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 8) [pic] (Chart 4. 8) The above table shows 54% of the respondents agree that they have good relations with co-worker. ? Effective performance appraisal system SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |10 |20 | |2 |Agree |23 |46 | |3 |Neutral |8 |16 | |4 |Disagree |6 |12 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |3 |6 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 9) [pic] (Chart 4. 9) The above table shows 46% of the respondents agree to effective performance appraisal system existing in the company. ? Effective promotional opportunities in present job SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |9 |18 | |2 |Agree |26 |52 | |3 |Neutral |9 |18 | |4 |Disagree |3 |6 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |3 |6 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 10) [pic] (Table 4. 10) The above table shows 52% of the respondents agree with effective promotional opportunities in their present job. ? Good safety measures existing in the organization SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |15 |30 | |2 |Agree |23 |46 | |3 |Neutral |3 |6 | |4 |Disagree |6 |12 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |3 |6 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 11) [pic] (Chart 4. 11) The above table shows 46% of the respondents agree that there is a good safety measure existing in the company. ? Performance appraisal activities are helpful to get motivated SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |9 |18 | |2 |Agree |23 |46 | |3 |Neutral |6 |12 | |4 |Disagree |3 |3 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |9 |18 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 12) [pic] (Chart 4. 12) The above table shows 46% of the respondents agree that the performance appraisal activities are helpful to get motivated. ? Support from the co-worker is helpful to get motivated |SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree 12 |20 | |2 |Agree |29 |46 | |3 |Neutral |0 |0 | |4 |Disagree |6 |12 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |3 |6 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table 4. 13) [pic] (Chart 4. 13) The above table shows 58% of the respondents agree that the support from the co-worker is helpful to get motivated. ? Career development opportunities are helpful to get motivated SL NO | |Number of | | | |PARTICULAR |Respondents |Percentage | |1 |Strongly Agree |10 |20 | |2 |Agree |26 |52 | |3 |Neutral |2 |4 | |4 |Disagree |4 |8 | |5 |Strongly Disagree |8 |16 | | |Total |50 |100 | (Table No. 4. 14) [pic] (Chart 4. 14) The above table shows 52% of the respondents agree that the career development opportunities are helpful to get motivated. ? Factors which motivates you the most SL NO | |Number of |

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