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Teaching Strategies

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According to The World Book Encyclopaedia (1988) teaching is a process by which a person helps other people to learn. Teaching strategies are tools that teachers and professors use to partake knowledge about the subject matter to the students efficiently. If one is to wonder, he/she will notice that different forms of teaching were being done by the professors, and that teaching method is also a factor and it also affects his/her progress in the education program.

As decades pass, some teaching strategies have been evolved, and sometimes even newer strategies were discovered and performed, and technology has also taken part in this innovation.

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Every student has his/her own ‘typical’ teaching method that is most effective to be used to them in their process in learning, which means different students have different preferences depending on their capabilities, and on which particular method is proven to be effective to them. A movie entitled ‘Forrest Gump’ once quoted: “Life is like a box of chocolates.

You never know what you’re gonna get. ” Of course, not every single strategy is perfect and each has its own flaw, and that makes it necessary to conduct a research to gather information about how those teaching methods work, as well as its effect to the students. In The World Book Encyclopaedia (1988), Abraham cited something about the teacher’s duties: A teacher’s job consists of four main duties: (1) Teachers must prepare for their classes. (2) They must guide, or assist the learning of students.

(3) They must check student progress. (4) Teachers must set a good example for their students. In carrying out these duties, teachers try to identify and respond to the needs of individual students. Mathematics is one of the subjects that some of the students have difficulty dealing with. Some students may find in fairly easy to understand and solve arithmetic problems, while some were perplexed at the mere sight of complicated numerical problems, and then they find the subject to be boring and confusing.

And various teaching strategies – may it be a simple lecture-discussion or a collaborative group work – were being done by professors for the sole purpose of teaching, training, and helping students to learn. High levels of mathematical skills were not simply acquired overnight;proper training and guidance along with the student’s individual hard work and effort make these things possible to happen. Universities, colleges, and schools were known to promote this training and guidance.

“Almost every kid — and I mean virtually every kid — can learn math at a very high level, to the point where they could do university level math courses,” explains John Mighton, the founder of Jump Math, a nonprofit organization whose curriculum is in use in classrooms serving 65,000 children from grades one through eight, and by 20,000 children at home. “If you ask why that’s not happening, it’s because very early in school many kids get the idea that they’re not in the smart group, especially in math.

We kind of force a choice on them: to decide that either they’re dumb or math is dumb. ” ‘Learning begins at home’ as what an old saying says; but the reality is, as a child grows up, learning is mostly done within the four corners of the classroom. Teachers, professors, and instructors play a major role in the learning process. They are known to educate students with their subject of expertise without having the students lose enthusiasm but instead pursue them to gain knowledge and interest in it. And what should effective mathematics instruction look like?

Shellard and Moyer (2002) identify three critical components: “Teaching for conceptual understanding, developing children’s procedural literacy, and promoting strategic competence through meaningful problem-solving investigations. ” In particular, math teachers often fail to make sufficient allowances for the limitations of working memory and the fact that we all need extensive practice to gain mastery in just about anything. Children who struggle in math usually have difficulty remembering math facts, handling word problems and doing multi-step arithmetic problems.

Not everyone is good at numbers. Some are math wizards while some are slow learners. It would be better to take this into consideration and nurture the students’ ability before handing out university – level problems. `There are several reasons the researcher had in mind that caused him to conduct this study. Above all of those reasons is the fact that engineering is a field that manifests itself through numbers to produce ideas and explain laws and phenomena, and it is a reason why it has become a necessity for every engineering student the capability of solving complex arithmetic.

A lot of students have failed units in accomplishing this degree, and sad to say, several have been withdrawn from the course itself. Since different individuals have different levels of learning capability in mathematics, is it because math is one of their weaknesses, or maybe they cannot cope up with the sometimes ineffectual teaching method done by some of the teachers? Or maybe even both? These are just some of the questions that had sprung out of curiosity in the researcher’s mind.

At the point of realization it has been concluded that teaching strategies is a factor learning, and also in earning a passing mark in the said subject. Though individual aspects should be recognized, it will be of no doubt that an effective way of teaching is also vital, especially in a subject that consists of variables, signs and numbers. How can different teaching strategies affect students? What other aids can be used in teaching? How do we help students who get failing marks?

What is the most efficient way in teaching mathematics? How do you stimulate a student’s interest in math? Through conducting a research study, the researchers would like to investigate the answers to these questions. In order to raise the present quality of education, won’t it be necessary to improve teaching strategies as well? After all, education molds the society. People who dream make things possible through learning and education. And a good quality education helps us to reach our fullest potential.

In the past years until now, many schools, institutes, universities and et al. conducted a research about teaching strategies to make better plan for a child going into study until he/she fulfil their goals. Today mathematics is very broad and complex topic in our world and one of the fundamental of science studies. It deals in the abstract study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change. Mathematics arises from many different kinds of problems.

At first these were found in commerce, land measurement, architecture and later astronomy; today, all sciences suggest problems studied by mathematicians, and many problems arise within mathematics itself. For example, the physicist Richard Feynman invented the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics using a combination of mathematical reasoning and physical insight, and today’s string theory, a still-developing scientific theory which attempts to unify the four fundamental forces of nature, continues to inspire new mathematics. Some

mathematics is only relevant in the area that inspired it, and is applied to solve further problems in that area. But often mathematics inspired by one area proves useful in many areas, and joins the general stock of mathematical concepts. A distinction is often made between pure mathematics and applied mathematics. However pure mathematics topics often turn out to have applications, e. g. number theory in cryptography. This remarkable fact that even the “purest” mathematics often turns out to have practical applications is what Eugene Wigner has called “the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics”.

As in most areas of study, the explosion of knowledge in the scientific age has led to specialization: there are now hundreds of specialized areas in mathematics and the latest Mathematics Subject Classification runs to 46 pages. Several areas of applied mathematics have merged with related traditions outside of mathematics and become disciplines in their own right, including statistics, operations research, and computer science. For those who are mathematically inclined, there is often a definite aesthetic aspect to much of mathematics.

Many mathematicians talk about the elegance of mathematics, its intrinsic aesthetics and inner beauty. Simplicity and generality are valued. There is beauty in a simple and elegant proof, such as Euclid’s proof that there are infinitely many prime numbers, and in an elegant numerical method that speeds calculation, such as the fast Fourier transform. G. H. Hardy in A Mathematician’s Apology expressed the belief that these aesthetic considerations are, in themselves, sufficient to justify the study of pure mathematics.

He identified criteria such as significance, unexpectedness, inevitability, and economy as factors that contribute to a mathematical aesthetic. Mathematicians often strive to find proofs that are particularly elegant, proofs from “The Book” of God according to Paul Erdos. The popularity of recreational mathematics is another sign of the pleasure many find in solving mathematical questions. While family and students’ out-of-school experiences play important roles in theirlearning (Cai, 2003; Lave, 1988), students acquire much of their knowledge anddevelop their thinking skills from classroom instruction.

Thus, researchers have long tried to understand the nature of classroom instruction to maximize students’learning opportunities. Because classroom instruction is a complex enterprise(Leinhardt, 1993), researchers have attempted to identify its important aspects inorder to investigate the kinds of classroom instruction that are effective in fosteringstudents’ learning (Brophy& Good, 1996; Carpenter, Franke, Jacobs, Fennema, &Empson, 1998; Good, Grouws, &Ebmeier, 1983; Hiebert& Wearne, 1993; Perry, VanderStoep, & Yu, 1993).

One of the important aspects of classroom instructionthat has been considered for such investigation is on the beliefs1 of teachers aboutmathematics, mathematics learning and mathematics teaching (Battista, 1994;Beswick, 2007; Leder, Pehkonen, &Torner, 2002; Pehkonen&Torner, 1998; Perry,Howard, & Tracey, 1999; Thompson, 2004; Wong, Marton, Wong, & Lam, 2002). However, beliefs about mathematics and its learning and teaching are not theonly teacher beliefs that need to be considered when we are looking for influenceson the effectiveness of teaching (Gates, 2006; Sztajn, 2003).

Mathematicseducators recently have begun to examine other sets of beliefs that influencemathematics teaching practices. Skott (2001) showed how beliefs not directlyrelated to mathematics teaching also help one understand mathematics teachers’practices. In his study, he considered micro-aspects of the social contexts ofmathematics classrooms. He presented the teacher’s overarching concern aboutstudents’ self-esteem as justification for mathematics teaching episodes. For many people, mathematicsis a discipline characterized by abstract knowledge, accurate results, and stronglogical procedures.

However, people’s views vary greatly about the origin of thisabstract knowledge system and how people can partake of it. Strategic teaching is a way of making decisions about a course, an individual class, or even an entire curriculum, beginning with an analysis of key variables in the teaching situation. These variables include the characteristics of the learners, the learning objectives, and the instructional preferences of the teacher. Once these variables have been analyzed, informed decisions can be made about course content, structure, methods of assessment, and other key components.

The process of planning a course is not an easy one. (Although ‘the course’ is the unit of analysis being discussed, the process of creating an instructional strategy works equally well for an individual class or an entire curriculum. ) As an instructor, you need to make decisions about what topics to include and which to leave out; the order in which those topics will be presented; which pedagogical methods to use (e. g. , lecture, discussion, hands-on experiments); appropriate means of assessing the students; materials and technology to employ; how to get feedback; etc.

More often than not those decisions are made based upon what other faculty have done when they taught the class, or perhaps on what your instructor did when you took the same or a similar course. But those models may or may not accomplish the overarching goal of teaching: to help students master a set of key ideas and skills related to your discipline. Teaching effectiveness is important because effective teaching helps student learning. It has become even more important as the emphasis on quality in higher education has increased. Effective teaching does not occur by chance.

Effective teachers have become good at what they do because they evaluate their practice. James (n/d) suggests that “educational evaluation is a professional responsibility for academic staff, arising from a commitment to understanding the effects of teaching on students and to enhance student learning. ” There are numerous ways of evaluating teaching or monitoring its effectiveness. Beck (2005) identifies “twelve potential sources of evidence of teaching effectiveness. ” These include: Student ratings (such as Student Evaluations of Teaching); Peer reviews; Self-reviews; Videos of practice;

Interviews with student; Alumni, employer and administrator ratings; Teaching awards and scholarship; Learning outcome measures; and Maintenance of teaching portfolios. The sources identified above provide a diverse range of measures of teaching effectiveness. Institutions, departments and schools encourage a broad range of sources to evidence good teaching practice. The source that is used depends on why teaching effectiveness is being measured. For example, if the intention is promotion then a review may be performed by a supervisor using a specific set of criteria which aids in making a summative decision on the

academic’s effectiveness. If the objective is to improve teaching practice and to modify the teaching plan or structure then a different set of criteria is applied. For example, a number of student evaluations may be used to determine which aspects of teaching are effective. Evaluations to improve teaching practice and design are referred to as formative evaluation, while evaluations used in making decisions (for example, for purposes of promotion) are referred to as summative evaluations of teaching effectiveness.

Various teaching strategies preferred by ME students will be evaluated in this study. Survey questionnaires will then be handed out to selected ME students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines to determine the outcome of the research. Math is important in everyday life, as well as an effective method of teaching it to students. We may not be able to encounter quadratic equations, derivatives, or the equation of a parabola in our daily lives, but the thing is, numbers will always be there, and we should always be there to solve it.

Cite this Teaching Strategies

Teaching Strategies. (2016, Jul 15). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/teaching-strategies/

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