Topicality Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have the opportunity to use language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners’ attention is on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win.
This eases the fear of negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of other people.
In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated-thus communicative competence is achieved. Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language (Prasad 2003).
In other words, these activities create a meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious acquisition of inputs.
Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities hold positive attitudes towards them (Uberman 1998). An action research conducted by Huyen and Nga (2003), students said that they liked the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness, and the motivation that games brought to the classroom.
On the effectiveness of games, teachers in Huyen & Nga’s (2003) reported that action research reported that their students seem to learn more quickly and retain the learned materials better in a stress-free and comfortable environment. /8, 11/ There are names of scholars who mentioned games in teaching grammar in their work: Arif Saricoban and Esen Metin, Aydan Ersoz, Joel Bacha, Lin Hong, Agnieszka Uberman, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga. Accoring to Arif Saricoban and Esen Metin, authors of “Songs, Verse and Games for Teaching Grammar” explain how and why games work for teaching grammar in an ESL classroom.
They say, “Games and problem-solving activities, which are task-based and have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech, are the examples of the most preferable communicative activities. ” They go on to explain that grammar games help children not only gain knowledge but be able to apply and use that learning. /2, 99/ Aydan Ersoz, author of “Six Games for the ESL/EFL Classroom”, also explains more reasons why games do work for teaching grammar. Learning a language requires constant effort and that can be tiring.
Ersoz says games can counter this as because: • Games that are amusing and challenging are highly motivating. • Games allow meaningful use of the language in context. /3, 23/ Joel Bacha, author of “Play and Affect in Language Learning”, explains how this theory works. Exposure to challenges and stimulation piques the children’s natural curiosity and, in turn, promotes learning through the activity’s required skills. This is because activities that get the students to move around activate their mental capacities and stimulate neural networks, thus promoting learning and retention.
Bacha’s article goes on to point out that some studies are even beginning to show that intrinsic motivation can promote long-term language retention. /4, 201/ Lin Hong, author of “Using Games in Teaching English to Young Learners”, explains that not all games are going to work to teach the students language skills. If the game is simply for fun and not linked to educational goals it may not be the best use of your time. It is possible to have a fun game that is educationally sound, however. /10, 36/
From ‘Games for Language Learning’ by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby ‘Language learning is hard work. Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information. ‘/12, 74/
According to ‘The Use of Games For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision’ by Agnieszka Uberman ‘Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times seem overwhelming. ‘/1, 16/ From ‘Learning Vocabulary Through Games’ by Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga ‘Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily.
Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students’ use of English in a flexible, communicative way. ‘/8, 93/ The theme of our course paper is «Using games in teaching grammar» Object of investigation is the process of teaching grammar and pupils who are involved in this teaching process.
Subject of investigation are grammar games in teaching English. The aims of the research are to describe the role of games on language lessons, views of different linguists on the problem of using games and differentiate various types of grammar games. Objectives: To identify and explain the significant role of using grammar games in practice; To analyze the adequacy and efficiency in using games; To investigate grammar games in teaching process and distinguish different types of games. Hypothesis: Using games in teaching grammar makes the lesson more comprehensible and interesting;
Using varied types of grammar games increases the student’s motivation and involves them in the teaching process. Basis of investigation: Taraz State Pedagogical Institute, school № 41 Methods of investigation: 1. Analysis of the scientific literature on a theme of a course work; 2. Observation of programs and textbooks on the English language of foreign authors and for various types of schools; 3. Method of comparative analysis and method of statistical research. The theoretical value of this course paper is in the fact that we have analyzed the teaching methods and found the most appropriate one.
The practical value of our work is in the fact that given methodical recommendations and great number of exercises can be applied by teachers of foreign language in teaching process. The structure of our work consists of introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion, bibliography and appendix. CHAPTER I. Theoretical aspects of teaching grammar games 1. 1. The advantages of using games There are many advantages of using games in the classroom: 1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. 2. They are motivating and challenging. 3.
Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. 4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading. 5. They encourage students to interact and communicate. 6. They create a meaningful context for language use. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. 7, 63/ He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. “Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely” (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen).
They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, “add diversion to the regular classroom activities,” break the ice, “[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas”. In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.
Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems. There are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student’s level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced.
Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students’ abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student’s experience.
Another factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students’ level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc. Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game “should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do”. Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages.
Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. /11, 59-64/ There are a great number of benefits which make lesson more interesting and attractive for the pupils. They are divided into four groups: Affective: – lowers affective filter – encourages creative and spontaneous use of language – promotes communicative competence – motivates – fun Cognitive: – reinforces – reviews and extends – focuses on grammar communicatively Class Dynamics: – student centered – teacher acts only as facilitator – builds class cohesion fosters whole class participation – promotes healthy competition Adaptability: – easily adjusted for age, level, and interests – utilizes all four skills – requires minimum preparation after development So language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging.
Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation. Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication. 1. 2 The adequacy in using games In this paragraph we would like to reflect how modern teachers evaluate the adequacy in using games when teaching English language Famous British teacher and educator Andrew Wright in his books “Language learning is hard work”.
Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information. The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years.
A useful interpretation of ‘meaningfulness’ is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher’s repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term. 12, 156/ Another distinguished scholar, Aydan Ersoz, of USA noted them following: Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.
Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication. ‘/3, 87/ In Korea a noted teacher Lee Su Kim distinguished games as follows: “There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games. /6, 35/ Moreover, a lot of Methodists offer to use games in class time. Why Use Games in Class Time? • Games are fun and children like to play them. Through games children experiment, discover, and interact with their environment. (Lewis, 1999) • Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivational factor. Games can provide this stimulus. (Lewis, 1999) • The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children.
It brings the target language to life. (Lewis, 1999) • The game makes the reasons for speaking plausible even to reluctant children. (Lewis, 1999) • Through playing games, students can learn English the way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot. • Even shy students can participate positively. • How to Choose Games (Tyson, 2000) • A game must be more than just fun. • A game should involve “friendly” competition. • A game should keep all of the students involved and interested. A game should encourage students to focus on the use of language rather than on the language itself. • A game should give students a chance to learn, practice, or review specific language material. One more scholar, M. Martha Lengeling said the following: ‘In an effort to supplement lesson plans in the ESL classroom, teachers often turn to games. The justification for using games in the classroom has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in a variety of ways. These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co-operative group dynamics. The other question is to find the appropriate time or coincide games and teaching. When to Use Games Ms. Uberman noted that ‘Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game “should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do” (1979:3). Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. ‘ /11, 28-30/
Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency. However, can they be more successful for presentation and revision than other techniques? The following part of this article is an attempt at finding the answer to this question. 1. 3. Learning grammar through games
The collection of word games is a valuable resource for the teacher of young through adult learners of English as a second or foreign language. Focusing primarily on language development through the use of high frequency vocabulary and structures, they reinforce classroom lessons and provide additional spelling, conversation, listening and speaking practice. The most instructive language learning games are those that emphasize specific structures. They do not only practice the basic pattern but also do so in a pleasant, easy way that allows the students to forget they are drilling grammar and concentrate on having fun.
The following games are concerned with Yes/No questions, Wh-questions, tag questions, comparative and superlative, adverbs, modals, demonstratives, etc. Most learners somehow accept that the sounds of a foreign language are going to be different from those of their mother tongue. What is more difficult to accept is that the grammar of the new language is also spectacularly different from the way the mother tongue works. At a subconscious, semiconscious and conscious level it is very hard to want to switch to “to be” (‘I’m 23’, ‘I’m hungry’, ‘and I’m cold’) if it is “have” in Italian.
Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mastering and internalizing it. One way of focusing this energy is through the release offered by games. Teenagers are delighted to be asked to do something that feels like an out-class activity and in which they control what is going on in the classroom – they become the subjects, while for a lot of the 15,000 hours they spend in schools they are the objects of teaching. The point is that fun generates energy for the achievement of the serious goal.
Where exactly do such games fit into a teaching programme? Grammar games can be used in three ways: · diagnostically before presenting a given structure area to find out how much knowledge of the area is already disjointedly present in the group; · after a grammar presentation to see how much the group have grasped; · as revision of a grammar area. One should not use grammar games as a Friday afternoon ‘reward’ activity. Using them as a central part of the students’ learning process would be a better idea. Thus, each game is proposed for a given level ranging from beginner to advanced.
This refers simply to the grammar content of that particular game. But, as it has been already mentioned above, a lot of activities can be adapted to different classes with different grammar components. By changing the grammar content a teacher can, in many cases, use the game frame offered at a higher or lower level. Generally, any frame can be filled with any structures you want to work on with your students. The students have to take individual responsibility for what they think the grammar is about. The teacher is free to find out what the students actually know, without being the focus of their attention.
Serious work is taking place in the context of a game. The dice throwing and arguing lightens and enlivens the classroom atmosphere in a way that most people do not associate with the grammar part of a course. The ‘game’ locomotive pulls the grammar train along. Everybody is working at once- the 15-30 minutes the average game lasts is a period of intense involvement. Other reasons for including games in a language class are: 1. They focus student attention on specific structures, grammatical patterns. 2. They can function as reinforcement, review and enrichment. 3.
They involve equal participation from both slow and fast learners. 4. They can be adjusted to suit the individual ages and language levels of the students 5. They contribute to an atmosphere of healthy competition, providing an outlet for the creative use of natural language in a non-stressful situation. 6. They can be used in any language-teaching situation and with any skill area whether reading, writing, speaking or listening. 7. They provide the immediate feedback for the teacher. 8. They ensure maximum student participation for a minimum of teacher preparation.
A game should be planned into the day’s lesson right along with exercises, dialogues and reading practice. It should not be an afterthought. Games are a lively way of maintaining students’ interest in the language, they are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to take them seriously. They should also know how much time they have to play a game. It’s not useful to start a game five minutes before the end of the lesson. Students are usually given a ‘five-minute warning’ before the time is over so they can work towards the end.
The older the students are, the more selective a teacher should be in choosing a game activity. Little kids love movements, while older ones get excited with puddles, crosswords, word wheels, and poster competitions whatever. Modern language teaching requires a lot of work to make a lesson interesting for modern students who are on familiar terms with computers, Internet and electronic entertainment of any kind. Sympathetic relations must exist not only among students but between students and a teacher. It’s of special importance for junior students because very often they consider their teachers to be the subject itself, i. . interesting and attractive or terrible and disgusting, necessary to know or useless and thus better to avoid. A teacher should bear in mind that it is the content, not the form, which is of interest to the child. A toddler does not learn to say,”Cookie, please”, in her native language because she is practicing the request form. “Cookie, please” is learned because the child wants a cookie. So children learn with their whole beings. Whole-child involvement means that one should arrange for the child’s participation in the lesson with as many senses as possible.
Seeing pictures of children performing actions and repeating, “The boy is running”, “The girl is hopping” is not at all as effective as when students do the actions themselves in response to commands and demonstrations from the teacher. All said above is fairly true to adult learners not only children, because of our common human nature to possess habits through experience. We all learned to understand and speak our first language by hearing and using it in natural situations, with people who cared for and about us.
This is the most effective and interesting way to learn a second language as well. The experts now advise language teachers to spend most of the classroom time an activities that foster natural acquisition, rather than on formal vocabulary and structure explanations and drills. They insist that “once you have become accustomed to the rewards and pleasures gained from teaching through activities, you will wonder how second-language teaching ever got to be anything else. Your own ideas for activities and their management will flow, and your students’ learning rates will soar! “Activities’ mean action games, finger and hand-clapping games, jump rope and ball-bouncing games, seat and card games, speaking and guessing games and even handicraft activities. Judging the results we have nothing but believe them. CHAPTER II. Samples grammar games 2. 1. Games with prepositions There is a number of grammar games that make lesson easy to comprehend PREPOSITIONS OF TIME AND PLACE 1. SCAVENGER HUNT Materials: Worksheet 1. 1, objects filled in various objects provided by instructor. (see Appendix 1) Dynamic: Pairs Time: 20 minutes Procedure: 1.
Before students come into the classroom, distribute various objects around the room, placing them in visible positions that students can describe using their prepositions of place. List the objects on the worksheet. 2. Divide the class into pairs and give each pair a copy of the worksheet. 3. The students look around the room for each object listed on the worksheet and write a complete sentence describing its location. The first group to finish brings their worksheet to you t3. PREPOSITIONAL CHAIN DRILL Materials: None Dynamic: Whole class Time: 10 minutes Procedure: 1.
Review prepositions of place. 2. Take a small object, such as a pen, and do something with it, then describe your action. (Put the pen on the desk and say, “I put the pen on the desk. “) 3. Give the pen to a student and ask him/her, “What did I do with the pen? ” 4. The student answers and then does something different with the object that involves a different preposition of place. 5. The student then passes the object to the next student and asks, “What did we do with the pen? ” That student repeats what the teacher did and what the first student did with the object.
The second student then does something different with the object before passing it to the third student. Example: Teacher: I put the pen on the desk. What did I do with the pen? Alfredo: You put the pen on the desk. (to the next student, Damian) I put the pen above my head. What did we do with the pen? Damian: The teacher put the pen on the desk. Alfredo put the pen above his head. I put the pen under my book. (to the next student) What did we do with the pen? etc. 6. This activity continues until no one can do something different with the pen that can be described using a preposition of place.
NOTE: You may want to write the prepositions that have been used on the board to help the students remember. PHRASAL VERBS 1. CONCENTRATION Materials: Board, instructor’s grid Dynamic: Groups Time: 25 minutes Procedure: 1. Draw a grid on the board with just the numbers. On a paper, your grid will have the answers written in. NOTE: In the example below, the phrasal verbs have been taken from the list in Fundamentals of English Grammar. Several of the verbs in the chart below can take more than one particle, but the list is usually limited to one or two combinations.
It is important to choose combinations you have studied and to limit entries so that three or even four matches are not possible. If you have studied more than one combination (such as ask out, ask over, and ask around,) and you want to review them using this activity, you will need to use some particles more than once. That way, the students will be able to make matches such as ask out, drop out, and so on. This chart is intended only as a model to help you explain the game; your own chart will be geared to the lessons in your class. 2. Divide the class into groups of about five.
Tell them that this is a memory game and no writing is allowed. Explain that they are looking for matches and will get a point for each match. They can confer as a team, but you will accept an answer only from the student whose turn it is. They can call out two numbers together the first time since no one knows where any of the words are. In subsequent turns, they should wait for you to write the first answer before they call out their second number. 3. As the first student calls out numbers, write the words that correspond to these numbers in the blanks. Ask the class if it is a match.
If not, erase the words. If so, leave them there and cross them out (see below). Variation: Instead of matching the verb with an appropriate preposition, you can set up the grid to review meaning. Your instructor’s grid might then look like this model. Follow the same rules for the game above. Variation: Give each student a card to use with a preposition of place on it. 2. 2. Conditionals and Wishes TRUE IN THE PRESENT/FUTURE 1. SUPERSTITIONS Materials: None Dynamic: Small groups Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1. Write a few superstitions on the board. Here are some examples.
If a black cat crosses your path, you’ll have bad luck. If your palm itches, you’re going to receive money. If you break a mirror, you’ll have seven years bad luck. If you step on a crack, you’ll break your mother’s back. Look at the verb forms in the if-clause and result clause together. Ask students to generate a rule (if this is an introduction) or review the rule (if you have already introduced this form). 2. Break students into small groups and have them discuss superstitions from their countries. They should list three or four to share with the rest of the class. 3.
As a whole group, share the superstitions and discuss which are universal and which seem to exist only in one or two cultures. Students often have similar superstitions in their countries and like to share them, and it is interesting to compare slight variations. 4. For further review of forms, you may want to write several of the students’ superstitions on the board and analyze them (Were they written correctly? ). 2. SUPERSTITIONS MATCH A Materials: Worksheet 2. 1 Dynamic: Whole class Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1. Cut up the worksheet or make your own. Give each student half of a superstition, that is, one card. . The students circulate and try to find the missing half of their superstition. When students feel they have a match, they sit down. You will probably have to check student matches and advise them to sit down or find a different match. (In case you are unfamiliar with some of the superstitions in the worksheet, the //-clause on the left matches the result clause directly across from it. ) 3. Go over the superstitions together, talking about meaning and form. 3. SUPERSTITIONS MATCH В Materials: 3″ x 5″ cards, or paper cut into strips at least 2″ x 4″ Dynamic: Groups Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1.
Follow steps 1 and 2 for Superstitions. 2. Have the students write their superstitions on the cards or paper strips so that one half of the superstition is on one card and the other half is on a different card. (Each group should produce only half as many superstitions as there are members in their group, so that a group of four students will write two superstitions, a total of four cards. In step 2 of Activity 1, students may have generated many superstitions, so instruct them to choose the ones they like best. ) 3. Collect and shuffle the cards. Hand one card to each student. Students circulate and try to find their match. The student who wrote the superstition will have to be the judge of whether or not the match is good because you will probably be unfamiliar with several of the superstitions. ) 4. As a class, go over the superstitions and check (as a group) to see if the correct grammar forms were used. (see Appendix 3) MIXED CONDITIONALS 1. WHAT IF Materials: None Dynamic: Pairs/Small groups Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1. Break the class into pairs or groups of three or four. Explain (or review) that some actions have results not only in the time they happened, but can also carry over into the present or future.
Example: If I had eaten more last night… I wouldn’t be hungry now. 2. Give each group or pair several if-clauses—things that happened in the past. Tell them this activity has results in the present and that they should make sentences with a past condition and a present result. SUGGESTIONS: If I had written my essay last weekend If I had gone to bed earlier last night If I had washed my hair yesterday If I had gone to the movies with my friends last night If I had studied more English in my own country 2. COMIC STRIP ADVICE Materials: Worksheet 2. 7 Dynamic: Small groups Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1.
Distribute copies of the comic strip Cathy (Worksheet 2. 7) to each group. 2. After they read the comic strip, have the groups work together to complete the (if-clauses. They can use the information provided by the mother in the strip or just make a logical ending. Example: Cathy says: If only I weren’t so fat. Student results: I could wear my new dress. 2. 3. Relationships between ideas JOINING IDEAS 1. EITHER/NEITHER/TOO Materials: 3″x 5″ index cards Dynamic: Whole class Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1. Write out two kinds of cards: one set has sentences; the other set has short answers that agree or disagree.
Each sentence in Set One has only one matching answer in Set Two. Example: Set One Set Two I’m having a good time I am, too. I’m not having fun. I’m not either. The U. S. president lives in Washington, D. C His wife does, too. I don’t have a headache. Neither do I. I didn’t do the homework. Neither did I. You’re a good student. You are, too. 2. Divide the students into two groups. Each student receives one card. The students circulate and look for their match. They can say their sentences to each opposite group member until they find the appropriate matching answer. . Students can then invent their own sentences and see if their classmates can give an appropriate answer. 2. USING CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Materials: Worksheet 3. 2 Dynamic: Pairs Time: 15 minutes Procedure: 1. Put students into pairs. Fill the blanks in the worksheet with your students’ names. Give one copy of the worksheet to each pair of students. 2. Have the pairs work together to write one sentence, joining the pairs of sentences on the paper with an appropriate correlative conjunction (both … and, not only . . . but also, either … or, and neither . . . nor). Example:
Guillermo has black hair. Jorge has black hair. Possible combinations; Both Guillermo and Jorge have black hair. Not only Guillermo but also Jorge has black hair. Variation: Use the worksheet as a model only. Write your own sentences containing” information about students in your class. This will make it seem less like an exercise and more fun for your students. Conclusion Summarizing the results of our work we would like to mention the importance of developing grammar skills through games. Game is one of the main approaches in a primary school owing to which pupils rapidly acquire the lesson.
Games help to develop pupils’ intelligence, will, and imagination. Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language. Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mastering and internalizing it. Games are a lively way of maintaining students’ interest in the language, they are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to take them seriously.
Having done the theoretical and practical parts of our course paper we identify and approve the significant role of using grammar games in practice, we analyze the adequacy and efficiency in using games, also investigate grammar games in teaching process and distinguish different types of games. We used different kind of sources referring to the valuable works of great foreign scholars. The theory part of this work includes the theoretical aspects of teaching grammar games. We revealed the advantages and benefits of using games which make lesson more interesting and attractive for the pupils.
We reflected how modern teachers evaluate the adequacy in using games. Moreover, we answered some different questions why we use games in class time, when it is suitable to use games or in what three ways grammar games could be used. In practical part we gave a great number of various types of games which related to the grammatical aspects. It can be games with prepositions, conditionals and wishes, also games concerning to the relationship between ideas. Besides, some games require dividing students in groups or working in pairs. It makes students become closer and assist to each other in comprehension the lesson.
Bibliography: 1. Agnieszka Uberman. The Use of Games. Vol 36 No 1, January – March 1998 2. Arif Saricoban & Esen Metin. ‘Songs, Verse and Games for Teaching Grammar’, The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 10, 2000. 3. Ersoz Aydan. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000. 4. Joel Bacha. “Play and Affect in Language Learning. Granada, London (1972) 5. Horwitz E. K. , Horwitz, M. B. , and Cope, J. A. 1986. Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal 70 (2) 6. Lee Su Kim. Creative Games for the Language. Class Forum Vol. 33 No 1, January – March 1995 7. Lee, W.
R. 1979. Language teaching games and contests. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 8. Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen, Khuat Thi Thu Nga. Learning Vocabulary Through Games. ‘Asian EFL Journal’ – December 2003 9. Rinvolucri Mario. Grammar Games: cognitive, affective and drama activities for EFL students. Cambridge, 1989. 10. Lin Hong “Using Games in Teaching English to Young Learners”. Hong Kong: Longman. Rivers, Wilga M. 1981 11. Rixon, S. 1981. How to use games in language teaching. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 12. Wright A. Games for Language Learning. Cambridge University Press, 1984. 13. Wilga M.
Rivers, Mary S. Temperley. A practical guide to the teaching of English as a second language. – Cambridge, 1978. 14. Yin Yong Mei and Jang Yu-jing. ‘Using Games in an EFL Class for Children’ Daejin University ELT Research Paper. Fall, 2000. 15. Internet: http://search. atomz. com/ Internet: http://e. usia. gov/forum/vols/vol36/no1/p20. htm-games Internet: http://iteslj. org/Techniques/Chen-Games. html Internet: http://e. usia. gov/forum/vols/vol34/no2/p22. htm-note-taking Appendix 1 (taken from Chapter 1: Worksheet 1. 1: SCAVENGER HUNT) Objects: 1. 6. 2. 7. 3. 8. 4. 9. 5. 10. Locations: 1. __________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________________ 7. ___________________________________________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________________ 9. ____________________________________________________________ 10. __________________________________________________________ Appendix 2
On the board: |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 | |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 | |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 | Instructor’s grid: 1 ask |2 back |3 drop |4 up |5 through | |6 around |7 out |8 off |9 down |10 fill | |11 in |12 get |13 write |14 start |15 throw | |16 over |17 away |18 put |19 fool |20 call | On the board: 1 |2 |3 |4 up |5 | |6 around |7 |8 |9 |10 | |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 | |16 |17 |18 |19 fool |20 call |
Instructor’s grid: |1 call back |2 give back |3 stop sleeping |4 stop a machine/ light |5 get through | | | | | |with | |6 return |7 invent |8 return a call |9 start a machine/light |10 throw out | |11 make up 12 shut off |13 be careful |14 put off |15 discard | |16 wake up |17 postpone |18 turn on |19 watch out for |20 finish | Appendix 3 (taken from Worksheet 2. 1: SUPERSTITIONS MATCH) if you sleep with a mirror under your pillow |you will dream of what your future husband looks like | |if you trip on a flight of stairs |you will have triplets | |if your cat washes its face |company is coming | |if your eyebrows grow together or your arms are hairy |you will be very rich | |if the bottom of one of your feet itches |you are going to take a trip | |if your nose itches |you’ll kiss a fool | |if a cat licks its tail |it will rain | |if your ears burn |someone is talking about you | |if you find a four-leaf clover |you will have good luck | |if you walk under a ladder |you will have bad luck | |if you use the same pillow your dog uses |you will dream what he dreams | |if you step on your shadow |you will have bad luck | |if you want to do well on a test |use the same pencil you used for studying because it will remember the| | |answers | Appendix 4 (taken from Worksheet 2. 7: COMMIC STRIP ADVICE) [pic] [pic]
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