The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French Essay
1. General Overview of the Category of Article in English and Gallic
1.1 Article. General impression
An article is a word that combines with a noun to bespeak the type of mention being made by the noun and to stipulate the volume or numerical range of that mention. Article can be besides thought of as a particular sort of adjective, because it combines with a noun and contributes to the significance of the noun-phrase. Many linguists place the article in the class of clinchers. M. Ia. Blokh in his book & # 8220 ; Theoretical Grammar of the English Language & # 8221 ; says & # 8220 ; The article is a finding unit of specific nature attach toing the noun in communicative collocation. & # 8221 ; The linguists L. A. Barmina and I. P. Verkhovskaya have the same thought about the article as a clincher. They attribute it to a syntactic category of words called clinchers which modify a noun. The lexicon of Thesaurus gives the definition of the word & # 8220 ; article & # 8221 ; as a clincher that may bespeak the specificity of mention of a noun phrase. Webster & # 8217 ; s New World College Dictionary refers to the article every bit used as adjectives. Besides in this context we would wish to add the words of the linguist B. Ilyish who devoted a whole chapter of his book & # 8220 ; Stroi sovremennogo angliyskogo eazika & # 8221 ; to the survey of the article. He comments that the article is normally a separate unit which may be divided from its noun by other words, chiefly adjectives.
So, we may reason that the first characteristic of the article can be that the article is a clincher of the noun that refers to, that is why it can hold some maps of an adjectival and it is used as a separate unit.
Another characteristic of the article is that articles, definite or indefinite, are traditionally considered to organize a separate portion of address. V. L. Kaushanskaya in her book & # 8220 ; The Grammar of the English Language & # 8221 ; specifies the article as a structural portion of address. In E. M. Gordon & # 8217 ; s book & # 8220 ; A Grammar of Present-Day English & # 8221 ; we besides meet the impression of a structural word as the linguist gives the undermentioned definition of the article: & # 8220 ; The article is a structural word stipulating the noun & # 8221 ; .
Harmonizing to these two definitions we can specify the 2nd characteristic of the article & # 8211 ; it is a structural word.
Judging upon the definitions given by the different linguists and the lexicons listed above we can pull a decision and infer a general definition for the article that would include all its characteristics: An article is a structural portion of address, which is combined with a noun to find it.
1.2 Articles in English
There are two articles in Modern English which are called the indefinite and the definite article. The absence of the article, which may be called the nothing article, besides specifies the noun and has significance.
The indefinite article has the signifiers a and an. The signifier a is used before words get downing with a harmonic sound ( a book, a tabular array, a door ) . The signifier an is used before words get downing with a vowel sound ( an apple, an hr, an purpose ) . The article is pronounced [ & # 601 ; ] , [ & # 601 ; n ] ; when stressed it is pronounced [ e & # 305 ; ] , [ & # 230 ; n ] .
1.2.1 The Definite Article in English
The definite article has one in writing signifier the, which is pronounced in two ways: [ & # 8706 ; & # 305 ; : ] before a vowel sound [ & # 8706 ; & # 305 ; : & # 900 ; & # 230 ; pl ] and [ & # 8706 ; & # 601 ; ] before a harmonic sound [ & # 8706 ; & # 601 ; & # 900 ; pen ] . This article is used before nouns in the plural, every bit good as earlier nouns in the remarkable figure.
1.2.2 The History of the Definite Article in English
Analyzing the definite article by M.A. Gashina & # 8217 ; s book & # 8220 ; English Grammar Higher School & # 8221 ; we find some words about its history. The linguist says that the definite article the is a diminished signifier of the Old English demonstrative pronoun Se ( nominative Se ; dative & # 900 ; & # 254 ; & # 230 ; m ; accusatory & # 900 ; & # 254 ; one, etc. ) which in Old English, besides the map of a demonstrative, had besides the map of the definite article. The signifier & # 8220 ; se & # 8221 ; was in the masculine gender, & # 8220 ; seo & # 8221 ; – feminine, and & # 8220 ; & # 254 ; & # 230 ; T & # 8221 ; – neuter. hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_articles beginning gives the information that in Middle English all these sorts of the demonstrative pronoun had merged into & # 254 ; vitamin E, the ascendant of the Modern English word the. It says that in Middle English the ( & # 254 ; vitamin E ) was often abbreviated as a & # 254 ; with a little vitamin E above it, similar to the abbreviation for that, which was a & # 254 ; with a little T above it. During the latter Middle English and Early Modern English periods, the missive Thorn ( & # 254 ; ) in its common book, or cursive signifier came to resemble a & # 1091 ; form. As such the usage of a & # 1091 ; with an vitamin E above it as an abbreviation became common. This can still be seen in reissues of the 1611 edition of the King James & # 8220 ; Version of the Bible & # 8221 ; in topographic points such as Romans 15:29 or in the Mayflower Compact. The article was ne’er pronounced with a & # 1091 ; sound, even so written.
One of the linguists who were interested in the history of the English linguistic communication – Barbara M. H. Strang, in her book & # 8220 ; A History of English & # 8221 ; provinces that the definite article was by 1170 merely marginally related to the pronoun system. It had two distinguishable types throughout the period. In most parts of the state it was indeclinable & # 254 ; vitamin E, subsequently the, or at the really most it varied between remarkable & # 254 ; vitamin E and plural & # 254 ; a. However, in the S and SW Mid it was declinable, with three genders in the singular and up to four instances. Where it had declinable signifiers they were the same as those for the & # 8216 ; further & # 8217 ; – demonstrative, that, since, in fact, they had originated in a particular usage of that signifier. The signifiers set out below were in some parts merely demonstrative, in others they had dual map ; they are presented for reference-purposes, but they tend to propose far more distinction than most talkers knew. In the masc seaborgium there were four signifiers: Se, subj ; & # 254 ; east northeast, & # 254 ; ane, Air Combat Command ; & # 254 ; an, & # 254 ; east northeast, Kt & # 254 ; a ( Kentish ) , subsequently & # 254 ; O, digital audiotape ( i.e. , some talkers reduced the case-system to three even here ) . The fem seaborgium normally had three signifiers: seo, Si ( SW and SE ) subj ; & # 254 ; a, subsequently & # 254 ; O, enclitic to, oblique ; & # 254 ; Er, & # 254 ; & # 230 ; rhenium, gen. The neuter ( like the 3rd individual pronoun ) had the same signifier for subj and direct obj & # 254 ; et or & # 254 ; at ( harmonizing to idiom, but a tended to occupy e-areas, as a weak signifier, or by internal adoption, or both ) ; the digital audiotape was normally & # 254 ; an, the gen & # 254 ; Es or & # 254 ; as. In the plural all the genders had subj-obj & # 254 ; a, subsequently & # 254 ; O, digital audiotape or oblique & # 254 ; an, gen & # 254 ; ere.
The linguist emphasizes that after the really beginning of Middle English period, and outside Kt, instance and gender differentiations, in article or demonstrative, occur merely patchily, and so in fortunes demoing that their historical maps have been forgotten. Otherwise, except for some continuity of plural Tho, the definite article has become to the full indeclinable by the terminal of the period.
As the definite article comes from the demonstrative pronoun of Old English it had preserved its demonstrative significance that is still felt in such looks as nil of the ( that ) sort ; at the ( that ) clip ; under the ( those ) fortunes ; for the ( that ) intent ; The lady ( = this lady ) is waiting to see you.
Therefore we can pull the decision that the definite article takes its beginning from the Old English demonstrative pronoun Se which was declinable in conformance with the gender, figure and instance of the noun it modified. Later in the Middle English it changed into & # 254 ; vitamin E with nouns in singular and & # 254 ; a with nouns in plural that became the in the Contemporary English. The definite article retained its demonstrative significance throughout all the periods of the English linguistic communication development and nowadays its first and most of import significance is one of a demonstrative.
1.3 The Article in Gallic Grammar
The etymology of the word & # 8220 ; article & # 8221 ; comes from Latin articulus and it means & # 8220 ; little member & # 8221 ; .
Harmonizing to the Gallic linguist Maurice Grevisse article is a word placed before the noun in order to tag that this noun is taken in its complete or uncomplete determined significance ; it besides serves to bespeak the gender and the figure of the noun it precedes.
N.B. Grevisse besides says in his book & # 8220 ; Le bon use & # 8221 ; that the article can be arranged among the adjectives as it serves to present the noun.
Therefore, comparing with English we see that in the Gallic grammar the article is besides placed before the noun. It besides has the map of a clincher. But, as distinguishable from the English article the article in Gallic besides its finding of the noun semantically has the map of finding it from the grammatical point of position. It serves to bespeak the noun & # 8217 ; s gender and figure. Hence it appears the first difference between the articles in English and in French.
There are two types of articles in Gallic: definite ( 500 & # 233 ; fini ) and indefinite ( ind & # 233 ; fini ) .
Note: it is distinguished frequently the 3rd type of the article in French & # 8211 ; the partitif article, but this one can be relevant by its signifiers to the definite article and by its intending it can be belonged to the group of the indefinite article.
So, we find out the 2nd difference between the articles of the two linguistic communications. The English and the Gallic Languages have three types of articles and we saw that the first two types coincide in their names: definite and indefinite. Talking about the 3rd type of articles in both linguistic communications it should be noted that in English it is called zero article and in written address it is rendered by the absence of the article but in Gallic it is called the partitif article which has four signifiers but we will talk about them in greater length in 1.3.3
1.3.1 The Definite Article in Gallic
Making the analogue between the English and the Gallic grammar we can detect that in the Gallic linguistic communication articles agree with nouns they determine in gender and figure.
The Gallic definite articles ( cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; article vitamin D & # 233 ; fini ) are:
lupus erythematosus & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine, remarkable, le billfish & # 231 ; on ;
La & # 8211 ; with nouns in feminine, remarkable, la girl ;
cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine and feminine in the remarkable signifier
get downing with a vowel or deaf-and-dumb person H, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; arbre, l & # 8217 ; & # 232 ; rhenium, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; habitude, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; homme ;
lupus erythematosuss & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine and feminine in the plural signifier, les enfants.
22.214.171.124 The History of the Gallic Definite Article
Talking about the Gallic definite article one should cognize that it was a Roman invention. It came from Latin ille ( masculine ) and illa ( feminine ) which served as adjectives and demonstrative pronouns every bit good. In ancient France merely the proclitic signifier of them was preserved that lost early their first syllable and became unstressed.
( Illinois ) Li & gt ; li & # 8722 ; Nominative instance, masculine, remarkable
( Illinois ) Lu ( m ) & gt ; lo was used till the terminal of the XIth c. and so deafened in le & # 8722 ; Objective instance, masculine, remarkable
ailment & # 299 ; & gt ; li, illos & gt ; los shortly was replaced by lupus erythematosuss & # 8722 ; masculine, plural ;
illa & gt ; la & # 8722 ; feminine, singular ;
illas & gt ; les & # 8722 ; feminine, plural.
The Gallic definite article retains a long clip the demonstrative and the deciding significances:
e.g. : Tresqu & # 8217 ; en la mer cunquist La tere altaigne. ( Rol.,3 )
Jusqu ‘ & # 224 ; la mer Illinoiss conquist la terre hautaine.
He conquered the august land till the sea.
This is an illustration of the Gallic article & # 8217 ; s understanding with the noun in gender, figure and instance ; at the same clip the article determines the noun being used as ancient demonstrative: & # 8220 ; la mer & # 8221 ; means & # 8220 ; this sea & # 8221 ; = & # 8216 ; the sea & # 8217 ; .
So, we notice that the development of the Gallic linguistic communication was influenced by Latin which already had some impressions of gender, figure and instance. It should be mentioned that from the old times the Gallic definite article had the signifiers of masculine and feminine. It had distinctions between remarkable and plural signifiers. Apparently the Gallic article had the same significance of a demonstrative.
Since English and Gallic are two linguistic communications from different lingual households they were developed otherwise. The articles have different beginnings. That is why there are many differences in their features.
However, both, the English definite article and the Gallic definite article, take their beginning from the demonstrative pronoun retaining the demonstrative significance boulder clay presents.
126.96.36.199 Article & # 233 ; lid & # 233 ;
One of the signifiers of the definite article in French is used with the apostrophe ( fifty & # 8217 ; ) and has its ain name article & # 233 ; lid & # 233 ; ( amalgamate article ) . It is used merely with nouns that begin with a vowel or deaf-and-dumb person H in singular. The definite articles le, la lose their vowels in such instances and take the apostrophe & # 8211 ; l & # 8217 ; , e.g. cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; arbre, l & # 8217 ; & # 232 ; rhenium, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; homme, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; habitude.
188.8.131.52 The Fused Definite Article
The 2nd type of the Gallic definite article is named article contract & # 233 ; which can be translated into English as the amalgamate article. It comes from the use of the definite articles in masculine, remarkable lupus erythematosus and plural lupus erythematosuss with the prepositions & # 224 ; and de. The preposition & # 224 ; has the significance of way and the preposition Delaware has the significance of ownership. When these prepositions are used before the definite articles they merge with each other and do new signifiers, continuing their significances. The signifiers of the amalgamate article are:
& # 224 ; + le = gold Je Donne lupus erythematosus livre au professeur. ( I give the book to the instructor ) .
& # 224 ; + lupus erythematosuss = aux Je Donne les livres aux & # 233 ; cubic decimeter & # 232 ; degree Fahrenheits. ( I give the books to the students ) .
de + le = du le livre du professeur ( the instructor & # 8217 ; s book ) .
de + les = diethylstilbestrols les livres des & # 233 ; cubic decimeter & # 232 ; degree Fahrenheits ( the student & # 8217 ; books ) .
We can assume that the first two signifiers of the amalgamate article can be translated into English by the signifier of the Dative instance and are rendered by the preposition to. The signifiers du, diethylstilbestrols are translated into English by the Genitive instance and take the signifier of & # 180 ; s and holding the same significance of ownership as in French.
1.3.2 The Indefinite Article in Gallic
The Gallic indefinite articles ( cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; article ind & # 233 ; fini ) are:
un & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine, remarkable, un billfish & # 231 ; on ;
une & # 8211 ; with nouns in feminine, remarkable, une girl ;
diethylstilbestrols & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine and feminine, plural signifier, des enfants.
1.3.3 The Partial Article ( article partitif )
The French partial article has three signifiers:
du & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine, singular, du billfish & # 231 ; on ;
de la & # 8211 ; with nouns in feminine, remarkable, de la fille ;
diethylstilbestrols & # 8211 ; with nouns in masculine and feminine, in the plural signifier, des enfants.
The & # 8220 ; partitif & # 8221 ; article does non hold its exact equivalent in English. It is used with mass nouns such as H2O, to bespeak merely a portion or a non-specific measure of it. As in the undermentioned illustration:
Gallic: Je voudrais du lait et du hurting.
English: I would wish some milk and some staff of life.
Gallic: Voulez-vous du caf & # 233 ; ?
English: Do you desire ( some ) java?
We may presume that the Gallic partial article corresponds to the English indefinite pronoun & # 8220 ; some & # 8221 ; .
As we largely are interested in the definite article we will analyse and compare merely its signifiers, its beginnings in both linguistic communications. Size uping the definite articles of the English and the Gallic languages we can happen important differences in their signifiers. First of all one should retrieve that the English definite article takes its beginning from the Old English demonstrative pronoun Se, whereas the Gallic definite article has the Latin beginning and besides comes from the demonstrative pronoun ( ille ) . Another difference is that the English definite article has one in writing signifier the, and the Gallic definite article has four signifiers: lupus erythematosus, La, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; , les. One of the most of import differences in the definite article between the two linguistic communications is that the Gallic definite articles agree in gender and figure with the noun they belong to, which is non observed in English. The Gallic definite article besides its four signifiers le, la, l & # 8217 ; , les has another type of article that besides belongs to the group of the definite article & # 8211 ; article contract & # 233 ; which besides has four signifiers ( gold, aux, du, diethylstilbestrols ) .
2. Contrastive Study of the Definite Article & # 8217 ; s Usage in English and
Before talking about the use of the definite article with category nouns in English and Gallic linguistic communications we would wish to show foremost of all the maps of the definite article in both linguistic communications.
2.1 The Functions of the Definite Article in English
For uncovering the maps of the English definite article we consulted the books of the undermentioned linguists as M.Ia. Blokh, E.M. Gordon and Barmina and Verkhovskaya. After analyzing Barmina and Verkhovskaya & # 8217 ; s theory on the article we can determine some maps of the definite article. Harmonizing to the linguists it can hold:
& # 183 ; the morphologic map that consists in functioning as a formal index of the noun: the presence of the article signals that what follows is a noun.
& # 183 ; syntactic map. The definite article may link sentences within a text by correlating a noun it modifies with some word or a group of words in the old context. In the illustration below the definite article has the connecting map.
John has brought a book. The book is interesting.
M. Ia. Blokh references that the definite article expresses the designation or individualisation of the referent of the noun: the usage of this article shows that the object denoted is taken in its concrete, single quality. E. M. Gordon besides mentions the thought of individualisation. He distinguishes the undermentioned maps of the definite article.
When used with denumerable nouns, either concrete or abstract, the English definite article has two distinguishable maps:
1 ) It may be used with remarkable and plural nouns to demo that the noun denotes a peculiar object ( a thing, a individual, an animate being or an abstract impression ) or a group of objects as distinct from the others of the same sort. In other words, the definite article serves to individual out an object or several objects from all the other objects of the same category. This map is called the individualised map of the definite article.
e. g. The auto stopped. Paul got out and stretched himself.
2 ) The definite article may besides hold the generic map with denumerable nouns.
With nouns in the singular it serves to bespeak that the noun becomes a composite image of the category.
e.g. The tiger has ever had the repute of being a cannibal.
With uncountable nouns, the map of the definite article can be called restricting.
The definite article restricts the stuff denoted by a concrete uncountable noun to a definite measure, part or to a definite vicinity ( a ) ; it besides restricts the abstract impression expressed by an uncountable noun to a peculiar case ( B ) .
e.g. a ) As we came out into the cold moistness air, she shivered.
B ) The work seemed to dwell chiefly on questioning immature adult females for occupations in section shops.
We are largely concerned in the maps of the definite article with denumerable nouns. Therefore, we learned that the definite article has two maps with denumerable nouns: individualized and generic maps. In the first instance it distinguishes one object from the others of the same sort, in the 2nd it serves to show an object alternatively of the whole category as compared to other categories.
2.2 The maps of the definite article in Gallic
1 ) Talking about the Gallic definite article it should be known that it serves to bespeak a specific noun.
Je vais & # 224 ; La banque. Voici le livre que j’ai Lu.
I ‘m traveling to the bank. Here is the book I read.
Therefore the first map of the Gallic definite article is demonstrative map.
2 ) Besides its demonstrative significance it has a genitive significance:
Alexandre se frotta lupus erythematosuss yeux avec le reveres du pouce, et orifice lupus erythematosuss mains & # 224 ; Ses reins. ( R. Merle )
Alex wiped his eyes with the dorsum of his pollex, and set his custodies on his pubess.
From this illustration is clearly seen that the Gallic usage the definite article alternatively of genitive pronouns in English.
3 ) the significance of generalisation.
e.g. L & # 8217 ; homme est plut & # 244 ; t un animate being bienveillant quand Illinois n & # 8217 ; est Ni jaloux ni inquiet. ( A. Maurois ) & # 8211 ; Man is instead a well-wishing animate being when he is neither covetous nor dying.
We can detect the difference in utilizing the definite article in English and French. In Gallic sentence we have the noun used with the definite article in its generalizing map. The noun in English discrepancy is non used with the definite article as in this instance the noun adult male has a generic sense and no article is used.
4 ) distributive significance.
e.g. & # 8230 ; Nous ne pouvons vous racheter cela & # 224 ; plus de deux cents francs le m & # 232 ; tre.
We can & # 8217 ; t purchase it more than two 100s francs per metre.
The definite article used in Gallic sentence is translated by the term per in English with the significance of each.
5 ) It can bespeak a usual fact that is repeated on a regular basis.
e.g. Comme & # 231 ; a doit vous assommer de vous habiller devant elle, le matin.
Therefore you have to presume that you have to dress up before her every forenoon.
In this illustration lupus erythematosus matin has the significance of every forenoon that is why we translate it in English with the indefinite adjectival every.
6 ) Before central numbers it can denominate estimate in the significance of & # 8220 ; about & # 8221 ; . This refers to the instances when the definite article precedes such nouns as heure ( hr ) , autonomic nervous systems, ann & # 233 ; es ( old ages ) , mois ( month ) , etc.
e.g. Elle avais un countenance Si clair, un peau Si tendre ; elle & # 233 ; tait bien jolie dans sa robe rose et menue, elle pouvait avoir dans les huit autonomic nervous systems.
She had a bright face, a soft tegument, she was beautiful in her all right pink frock, and she was approximately eight old ages.
The definite article used in French is translated by the preposition about in the significance of imprecise figure.
After analysing the usage of the definite article in Gallic sentences and analyzing their interlingual renditions into English we discover some differences in the maps and significances of the definite article in English and French. The differences appear in instances when the definite article in French is translated in English by genitive, indefinite adjectives and prepositions depending on the significance it conveys:
1. genitive significance of the Gallic definite article ;
2. generalising significance ;
3. distributive significance ;
4. indicant of the usual fact ;
5. in the significance of imprecise figure.
The lone similarity that exists between the maps of the definite article in both linguistic communications is that of a demonstrative that serves for denoting a individual object from the others.
2.3 The Use of the Definite Article with Class Nouns in English
As it was stated in the paragraph 1.2.1 the definite article is used before the nouns in remarkable and plural. The definite article can be used with different types of nouns: proper nouns and common nouns. We are largely interested in the usage of the definite article with common nouns viz. the usage of the definite article with category nouns. Class nouns are the nouns that denote individuals or things belonging to a category. Th
ey are denumerable and have two Numberss: singular and plural.
For specifying the general regulations of the definite article & # 8217 ; s use with category nouns we consulted the books on the English grammar of several linguists: V. L. Kaushanskaya, E. M. Gordon, Gashina, L. A. Barmina and I. P. Verkhovskaya. After looking up Kaushanskaya & # 8217 ; s, Gashina & # 8217 ; s and Vasilevskaya & # 8217 ; s books we singled out the undermentioned instances of the use of the definite article with category nouns.
The definite article can be used with category nouns:
1. When a class-noun denotes an object which is regarded by the talker as a definite object distinct from all other objects of a certain category. The context or the whole state of affairs shows that the talker has a definite object in head and therefore uses the definite article. An object is singled out in the undermentioned instances:
a ) when the talker and the listener know what peculiar object is meant. No particular indicant is necessary.
How did you like the drama?
That means that middlemans know which play they are speaking about. In this instance the is a sort of index.
B ) when the talker uses an property indicating out a peculiar object. Such an property might be called a particularizing property. A specifying property is used to individual out an object from all the objects of the category, to indicate out one peculiar object or group of objects. A specifying property can be expressed by an & # 8220 ; of & # 8221 ; -phrase or an prenominal clause. It is ever used in post-position.
e. g. : He knocked at the door of a really orderly house.
The letters that I have here have come to me rather by accident.
When a noun is used with an property it is clear that one certain object from the whole group is meant. The definite article precedes the noun therefore assisting the reader to calculate out that object.
degree Celsiuss ) when the state of affairs itself makes the object definite.
e. g. : The nuptials looked blue. The bride was excessively old and the bridegroom was excessively immature.
From this illustration we understand that non any bride and bridegroom are meant, but those from the blue nuptials.
When an object is singled out from all the objects of a given category the definite article retains its demonstrative significance, and the English use the definite article much oftener than the demonstrative pronouns this or that. This can be explained by the relaxation in pronunciation. Analyzing all these three cases we notice that the is used largely in the map of a deciding to separate an object from a figure of objects similar to it.
2. The definite article is used with category nouns which denote things considered to be alone, such as the Earth, the Sun, the Moon. Here we have a particular instance: the category consists merely of one representative, and hence the object denoted by the noun is ever definite in our head.
e. g. The Earth and the sky were already get downing to be enriched with the eventide ( Chesterton ) .
3. With nouns used in a generic sense.
A remarkable denumerable noun with a definite article may stand for a whole category of objects, therefore going a composite image of that category ( but non a typical representative ) . A noun in this map is called a generic singular. A noun used in a generic sense denotes a genus taken as a whole, a thing taken as a type, a genre.
e. g. The violet is a lovely flower.
The calamity and the comedy foremost appeared in Greece.
Note 1. It is besides sometimes possible to utilize the indefinite article in similar instances.
e. g. A violet is a lovely flower.
This usage of the indefinite article is non to be identified, nevertheless, with the generic map of the definite article. The indefinite article is used here in its nominating map, connoting any representative of the category. Hence the usage of the indefinite article is non tantamount to that of the definite article when the noun is used as a composite image of a whole category. For that ground the indefinite article is non possible in the undermentioned sentences:
e. g. Now the Equus caballus has been replaced by the tractor.
& # 8220 ; In this talk I am traveling to talk about the article in English & # 8221 ; , said the professor.
Note 2. When the noun adult male in a generic sense no article is used.
e. g. Silas felt that his trust in adult male had been cruelly destroyed. ( Eliot )
When the noun adult female is used in a generic sense it is used with the definite article or on occasion without an article.
e. g. He had ever been interested in that cryptic being the adult female.
( Bennett )
Woman is adult male & # 8217 ; s helpmeet.
A noun used in a generic sense should non be confused with a noun used in a general sense.
A noun used in a general sense denotes an object regarded as an single representative of a category.
e. g. A detective narrative helps to while away the clip.
( Every or any detective narrative is meant here ) .
A noun in a generic sense denotes the whole category.
e. g. Conan Doyle is a maestro of the detective narrative.
( The investigator narrative is regarded here as a certain genre ) .
These are all the instances of the use of the definite article with category nouns harmonizing to Kaushanskaya. Looking over Gordon & # 8217 ; s and Barmina & # 8217 ; s books on grammar of the English linguistic communication we can detect that they make a more elaborate scrutiny of the use of the definite article with category nouns used with properties. E. M. Gordon references that since the pick of articles is determined by the context or the general state of affairs, we should take into consideration attributes modifying the noun. He distinguishes two sorts of properties: modification and descriptive.
A cubic decimeter I m one t one n g property indicates such a quality or feature of an object ( or a group of objects ) which makes it distinguishable from all other objects of the category.
A vitamin D vitamin E s hundred R I p T I v vitamin E property is used to depict an object ( or a group of objects ) or give extra information about it. This sort of property does non individual out an object ( or a group of objects ) but merely narrows the category to which it belongs.
The linguist states that nouns modified by restricting properties are used with the definite article and nouns modified by descriptive properties may be used with either the indefinite or the definite articles, as the pick of articles for denumerable nouns is non affected by this sort of property. So, we can do the decision that in the bulk of instances when nouns are modified by a limited property it is used with the definite article, but it appears that it can be used with nouns modified by the descriptive properties.
We examined all the instances when the definite article is used with nouns modified by both sorts of properties and selected merely those that refer to the use of the definite article with category nouns.
1 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by adjectives.
The definite article in such instance is accounted for by the state of affairs but non by the property:
e. g. The adult female looked at me astutely and at that place was a flicker of temper in the dark eyes.
Adjectives in the greatest grade, nevertheless, are ever restricting properties. That is why nouns modified by the adjectives in the greatest grade are ever used with the definite article:
e.g. She was the smartest miss.
Some adjectives, adjectival pronouns and adjectivized ing-forms ever serve as restricting properties. The definite article is used before the nouns modified by them. The most of import of them are: right and incorrect, really, merely, chief, chief, cardinal, left and right, same, coming, following, present, former and latter.
e. g. My female parent was the lone individual whom I told what had happened.
Note 1: Class nouns modified by the adjectives next and last are by and large used with the definite article, particularly when they are followed by an ordinal numerical the definite article is obligatory.
e. g. We shall likely eat at the following tabular array to him.
Note 2: The definite article is used with a remarkable category noun modified by other if there are merely two objects of the same description.
e. g. He pulled on the other baseball mitt and said he would run along to his office.
The definite article is used with a plural category noun modified by other if there is a definite figure of objects divided into two definite groups.
e. g. My female parent needed me more than the other members of the household.
Aboard to these sorts of adjectives proposed by Gordon Barmina and Verkhovskaya give one more instance of the usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by the adjectives that are postposed, i.e. they can follow the noun they qualify. Postposition is characteristic for such adjectives and adjectivized participials as absent, present, proper, involved, concerned and some others that function as restricting properties.
e. g. The delegates present discussed the docket of the conference.
2 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by numbers.
If a category noun modified by a central number is used with the definite article, this is accounted for by the state of affairs or context.
e. g. By candlelight the two work forces seemed of an age if so non of the same household.
Ordinal numbers are normally restricting properties, so the nouns they precede are used with definite article.
e.g. & # 8220 ; It & # 8217 ; s the 4th room down the corridor, & # 8221 ; the clerk said.
Note 1: This regulation does non use to the numerical the first. The combination a first dark and a
foremost award are to be regarded as set phrases.
Note 2: It is of import to retrieve the usage of articles in the undermentioned forms with nouns
Modified by central and ordinal numbers: the 3rd chapter but chapter 3 ( three ) , the 5th page but page 5 ( five ) .
3 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by participials.
The definite article can be used with category nouns modified by participials but it is normally accounted for by the context or the general state of affairs.
e.g. At the corner of the street at that place shone the lit Windowss of a nine.
4 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by ing-forms when they have the modification significance.
e.g. He took the way taking to the alone bungalow.
5 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by infinitives.
Properties expressed by infinitives tend to be descriptive and the nouns modified by them are used with the indefinite article. Yet, sometimes, depending on the general state of affairs or context, the infinitive may go a confining property. Therefore, the definite article is used.
e.g. & # 8220 ; May be he is the adult male to inquire about work, & # 8221 ; she thought.
6 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by clauses.
Harmonizing to Gordon nouns can be modified by two sorts of clauses & # 8211 ; prenominal and appositional. As appositional clauses modify merely certain abstract nouns we are non traveling to discourse them. But as for the prenominal clauses Gordon divides them into non-defining clauses and specifying clauses. Non-defining clauses are those that can be removed from the sentence without destructing its significance. They are marked by a intermission dividing them from the principal clause. In composing they may be separated by a comma. Non-defining clauses are ever descriptive and in the bulk of instances are used with the indefinite article.
Specifying clauses are so closely connected with the ancestor that they can non be left out without destructing the significance of the sentence. There is no intermission between this sort of clause and the principal clause, and in composing they are ne’er marked off by comma. Specifying properties may be restricting or descriptive, depending on state of affairs or context.
Barmina and Verkhovskaya do non give such a categorization for the clauses. They say that the prenominal clauses may be restricting or descriptive.
Anyhow, all the linguists come to the decision that when the prenominal clauses are restricting, the definite article is used with the ancestor.
e.g. He took the coffin nail that Robert offered him.
7 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by nouns in the common instance.
Properties expressed by nouns in the common instance are normally descriptive and the indefinite article is used. The definite article besides can be used but this is accounted for by state of affairs.
e.g. Lanny looked at the dining room window and smiled.
8 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by category nouns in the possessive instance.
The significances of the definite article used with nouns in the possessive instance are the same as with nouns in the common instance:
a ) the stipulating significance which denotes a peculiar individual or thing, as in: my female parent & # 8217 ; s image, the river & # 8217 ; s bed.
B ) the generic significance:
I stand in the topographic point of the physician. The physician first diagnoses the patient & # 8217 ; s upset ( =the upset the patient suffers from ) , so he recommends a class of intervention.
9 ) The usage of the definite article with category nouns modified by prepositional phrases.
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition followed by a noun ( at the window ) . A prepositional phrase may be used as a ) a modification or B ) a descriptive property. Bing used as a confining prepositional phrase it requires the usage of the definite article:
e.g. He ever felt ailment at easiness among the companies at his sister & # 8217 ; s house.
Within this type of properties particular consideration should be given to the alleged of-phrase which is really common. Kaushanskaya calls of-phrase properties as specifying properties.
As restricting of-phrase express a great assortment of significances there is no point in sorting them. The most common types of combinations with the category nouns are: the house of my neighbour, the married woman of a mineworker, the pes of a mountain, the neckband of a shirt, the shadow of a tree.
If the head-noun denotes an object which is the lone carrier of the belongings expressed by the of-phrase, the definite article is used: the president of the nine, the freshness of a lamp, the liquidator of Caesar, the proctor of the group, etc.
But if there are many objects of the same description, the indefinite article is used.
Sometimes, nevertheless, the definite article is used, alongside of the indefinite article, even if there is more than one object of the same description. This occurs when there is a 500 vitamin E degree Fahrenheit I n I t e figure of component parts: the ( a ) leg of the tabular array, the ( a ) wheel of the auto, the ( an ) ear of a Canis familiaris.
& # 183 ; The definite article is found in the undermentioned forms in which an of-phrase is preceded by one, some, any, each, many, most, none, all, several, the last, the remainder, the bulk.
e.g. & # 8220 ; One of the letters is from Tom, & # 8221 ; she said.
2.3.1 Certain Peculiarities in the Use of the Definite Article with Class
Besides the instances of the use of the definite article with category nouns listed above we should note that there are certain cases of the usage of the definite article which are to be regarded as a affair of tradition. E. M. Gordon distinguishes two instances:
1 ) the definite article used by ground of vicinity, e.g. with mention to objects that surround the talker ( or the people and things described by him ) . This normally refers to objects either indoors ( e.g. the corner, the window, the tabular array, the door, the wall, etc. ) or out- of-doors ( e.g. the stars, the trees, the flowers, the houses, the foliages, the birds, the bees, etc. )
e.g. As I came up our street, I saw my female parent and my brother wave
from the window.
The trees swayed to and fro under the Grey sky.
2 ) The definite article is used with category nouns denoting objects that are usually found in a peculiar topographic point. For illustration, when we speak about the film or the theater we say: & # 8220 ; I couldn & # 8217 ; t happen my place and asked the attender to assist me. & # 8221 ;
2.4 The Use of the Definite Article with Class Nouns in French
The Gallic definite article is used much more frequently than its English opposite number.
Note: When there are two or more nouns listed in a Gallic sentence, the definite article must be listed in forepart of each one.
The Gallic for the & # 8220 ; category nouns & # 8221 ; is lupus erythematosuss noms concrets – concrete nouns. Having consulted the book of E. K. Nikolskaia and T. Y. Goldenberg & # 8220 ; Grammaire Fran & # 231 ; aise & # 8221 ; we learned that the Gallic definite article is used:
1. Before concrete nouns when they designate a stuff in their wide sense.
Le bronze est un alliage de cuivre et vitamin D & # 8217 ; & # 233 ; tain.
Bronze is an metal of Cu and of Sn.
Therefore we see a considerable difference between the impression of category nouns in English and noms concrets in Gallic: the nouns of stuff besides belong to the group of category nouns in Gallic that is non observed in English. So there are differences in the use of the definite article with category nouns in English and French. Another illustration of the different use of the definite article in English and Gallic can be:
|L’essence est tr & # 232 ; s ch & # 232 ; re en France.||Gas is really expensive in France.|
|J’aime La glace, le chocolat et lupus erythematosus g & # 226 ; teau.||I like ice pick, cocoa, and bar.|
These sentences are good illustrations of the fact when the definite article is used in Gallic with nouns in their general sense whereas in English the given nouns belong to the group of stuff nouns and they do non acquire any article when used in general sense.
2. Before concrete nouns which designate a kind.
L & # 8217 ; hirondelle est cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; avant-coureur du printemps.
The sup is the spring precursor.
This illustration coincides with the English discrepancy when the definite article is used with the nouns in their generic sense.
3. Before concrete nouns in plural for denominating the entirety of the objects.
Et La foule de rire, surtout lupus erythematosuss enfants et lupus erythematosuss jeunes girls. ( By this illustration the Gallic mean that all the misss and all the kids enter to this crowd. )
And the laughing crowd, particularly the kids and the misss.
4. Before the nouns that are alone: soleil ( Sun ) , lune ( Moon ) , ciel ( sky ) , skyline ( skyline ) in instance they are non individualized. The same instance of the usage we find in English every bit good.
La terre est verte & # 224 ; perte de vue.
The Earth is green far and broad.
5. Before the nouns that indicate a certain object.
A noun can be determined by:
a ) the context:
Comme Luc arrivait devant cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; Ab & # 238 ; me, il aper & # 231 ; ut & # 224 ; cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; angle du pont de bois, deux figures noires et ch & # 233 ; tives. Son coeur Se Serra. C & # 8217 ; & # 233 ; tait une femme, cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; air tr & # 232 ; s jeune, pauvrement V & # 234 ; tue, et c & # 8217 ; & # 233 ; tait United Nations enfant, de six autonomic nervous systems environ & # 224 ; peine couvert, la face P & # 226 ; lupus erythematosus, qui se tenait dans ses jupes. Comme Luc s & # 8217 ; & # 233 ; tait arr & # 234 ; Te & # 224 ; quelques pas de la jeune femme et de l & # 8217 ; enfant, forty-nine entendit Ce dernier qui disait…
This sentence presents an illustration of the usage of the definite article when it points out a noun determined by the context.
B ) the state of affairs in the given fortunes: the middlemans are familiar with the individuals and the objects they are talking about:
O & # 249 ; peut-il & # 234 ; tre? Au R & # 233 ; fectoire, & # 224 ; la sale de talk?
Where can he be? Is he in the dining room or in the reading room? ( The middlemans speak about the suites of the edifice where they are. )
degree Celsius ) a noun can be determined by the prenominal which is expressed by a noun or infinitive used with preposition Delawares:
Esmeralda Se dirigea, & # 224 ; travers les spectateurs & # 233 ; bahis, vers la porte de la maison o & # 249 ; Phoebus cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; appelait, & # 224 ; pas Lents, chancelante, et avec lupus erythematosus respect troubl & # 233 ; vitamin D & # 8217 ; un oiseau qui degree Celsius & # 232 ; de & # 224 ; la captivation vitamin D & # 8217 ; un snake.
Esmeralda made her manner through the perplexed audience towards the door of the house where Phoebus was naming her, she went easy and her expression was troubled as of a bird that yielded to the serpent & # 8217 ; s captivation.
& # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; towards the door of the house where Phoebus was naming her & # 8221 ; stands for & # 8216 ; & # 8230 ; vers la porte de la maison o & # 249 ; Phoebus cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; appelait & # 8217 ; . In this instance the use of the definite article coincides in both linguistic communications. In English it is the instance of a prepositional phrase, viz. of-phrase which requires the usage of the definite article.
vitamin D ) sometimes a noun can be determined by a comparative clause:
J & # 8217 ; ai achet & # 233 ; le livre que tu m & # 8217 ; avais recommand & # 233 ; .
I bought the book that you recommended me.
This instance of the use of the definite article in Gallic coincides with that in English when a noun is used with a specifying property.
vitamin E ) a noun can be determined by certain adjectives as Prime Minister, dernier, chief, indispensable, aboriginal, etc. every bit good as seul, alone and all the adjectives in greatest grade:
Cristophe se mit & # 224 ; cubic decimeter & # 8217 ; abri sous lupus erythematosus toit avan & # 231 ; emmet de la premi & # 232 ; rhenium maison. ( Roland )
Cristophe hid under the shadiness of the first house roof.
The usage of the definite article in English is accounted for the presence of the ordinal numerical before the noun which has the map of restricting property.
degree Fahrenheit ) a noun can be determined by the significance of the verb:
Je revis La grande cour s & # 232 ; che, le Pr & # 233 ; gold, la classe vide. ( Fournier )
I saw once more a large dry tribunal, a pace, an empty category.
The use of the definite article in Gallic histories for the significance of the verb used in the sentence that implies a perennial action, so the nouns are used with the definite article as they are already known for the talker. As for English the indefinite article is used as it presupposes the significance of one.
Judging by the illustrations presented above we can reason that the similar instances in the use of the definite article in the English and the Gallic linguistic communications are:
– when it is used as a determiner of a certain object and here are some instances that coincide in both linguistic communications:
a ) when the context and the state of affairs itself make the noun definite ;
B ) when the noun is modified by prepositional phrases: of-phrases and other prepositional phrases in English and phrases with the preposition de in French ;
degree Celsiuss ) when the noun is used with a specifying property ;
– when a noun is used in its generic sense indicating out the whole category ;
– with the nouns that are alone ;
– when a noun is used with ordinal numbers.
As for the differences in the use of the definite article in Gallic that we do non run into in English they are the followerss:
– the chief difference that appears between these two linguistic communications is that in French the group of category nouns contains the nouns that denote a stuff whereas in English this type of nouns is classified in a separate group and does non hold the same regulations in the use of the definite article.
– the definite article in Gallic can be used with the noun which is determined by the verb denoting a perennial action ;
– the definite article is used in Gallic with material nouns, and it is non used in English.
But taking into consideration all the remainder instances of the use of the definite article in English there will look many more differences as presented above.