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    Turkish Occupation Of Northern Kurdistan. Essay, Research Paper

    History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan.

    Eric Jensen

    Poli. Sci. ( Third World Politics )


    Since 1984, and particularly the last few months, the domestic jobs of a

    major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally province have come to the

    head of the international intelligence scene. That province is the Republic of Turkey

    and it’s primary problems stem from the past seven decennaries of bitter

    policies directed at the autochthonal cultural Kurds. The chief job, now, is the

    Kurdish popular insurgence on it’s custodies, in Turkish occupied Northern Kurdistan.

    The Kurdish inquiry has long been covered up and denied by the province of Turkey,

    but recent events has forced Turkey to profess that it has a serious Kurdish

    insurgence on its custodies. Turkey’s inability to cover with this state of affairs is the

    consequence of the past 70 old ages of cultural, political, and human rights

    maltreatments directed against the Kurdish population. In fact, this “segregation” is so

    out of manus that the Turkish authorities has endlessly appealed to it’s Alliess

    and advisories likewise to assist counter the intensifying Kurdish asperation to

    win from the Turkish democracy. Turkey’s spatter and deteriorating economic system

    is straight related to the long Kurdish battle for independency. Turkey has

    spent over eight billion dollars or twenty per centum of her GDP to battle the of all time

    deteriorating quandary in northern Kurdistan, and should pass more in the

    hereafter ( Laber ) . Because of the force, the one time comfortable tourer concern of

    Turkey, has now lost about $ 1.5 billion dollars yearly since 1990. Many people

    now talk openly of another possible military putsch, there were three major

    military putschs during the last 30 old ages ( Alister ) These fortunes in the

    province of Turkey have besides hurt her opportunities of of all time fall ining the of all time affluent

    European Union and buffeting its ailing economic state of affairs. The deepness of

    Turkey’s domestic and cultural quandary is one of the many that have arisen after

    the terminal of the cold war, yet the cold war is a simple reply to a much more

    complex one. The factors that have arisen to lend to this civil war were

    created far before Capitalism versus Communism, East versus West, or U.S versus

    the Soviet Union. In order to truly grok the holistic state of affairs in

    Turkey one must foremost be familiar with the complete history of the Turks and


    The Kurds of Turkey constitutes, by far, the largest cultural minority group in

    Turkey. The estimation of their population, nevertheless, are really doubtful because of

    the past Turkish policy to deny the really being of any minorities within the

    boundary lines of her province. In fact, past Turkish rhetoric has been that there is no

    official Kurdish job in Turkey, because officially no Kurds exist. We can

    ascertain that the Kurds make up between 25 and 33 per centum

    of the Turkey’s population. This would set the Kurdish population about 12

    to twenty million ( Morris ) . Because of past and present forced Turkish

    assimilation patterns, the Kurds live in all parts of the state, but most of

    the Kurdish population is concentrated in the southeasterly portion of Turkey. They

    represent a high per centum of the population in 15 states and take up a

    sum of 30 per centum of all of Turkey ( Kendal ) . Economically, the Kurds are

    the poorest dwellers of the state. The per capita of a Kurd is one-tenth of

    a Turk life in Istanbul; good below the poorness line ( McDowell ) . While the

    remainder of Turkey has modernized and adopted some capitalistic patterns, the

    Kurdish countries, by contrast, are developing and exploited by feudal landlords.

    The wealth of the country is “drained and channeled to the Turkish city

    ( Kendal ) .” Much of the part is comparatively unchanged since the last 70

    old ages of Turkish regulation or has suffered even worse economically. The 30

    million Kurds of the Middle East have lived in Kurdistan before record of modern

    history was kept. The really first reference of the Kurds in history was about 3,000

    BC, under the name Gutium. , as they fought the Summerians ( Spieser ) . Later around

    800 BC, the Indo-germanic Median folk settled in the Zagros mountain part

    and coalesced with the Gutiums, and therefore the modern Kurds speak from as Aryan

    linguistic communication ( Morris ) . The Kurds are mentioned by Xenaphon, a Grecian soldier of fortune, as he

    retreated from Persia with 10 thousand work forces in 401 BC, he says of the Kurds,

    “These people, lived in the mountains and were really war-like and non capable to

    the Iranian male monarch. Indeed one time a royal ground forces of 120,000 1000 had one time invaded

    their state, and non a adult male of them came back.. ( Morris ) .” When the Arabs spread

    Islam to the Middle East in the 7th century, most of the Kurds bit by bit

    adopted the faith but ferociously resisted Arab regulation, much like today in modern

    twenty-four hours Iraq and Syria. This is apparent in a fable about the prophesier Mohammed ;

    when the prophesier called all the princes of the universe to encompass the new faith,

    they all hurried to subject to the prophesier of the new faith. When the Prophet

    saw the Kurdish representative, named Zemin, with his elephantine size and piercing

    eyes, the prophesier prayed to God that such a terrorizing people ne’er unite as a

    individual state ( Morris ) . Around the 10th century the Kurds became a military

    force to be reckoned with in the Middle East and defended Islam against the

    occupying Christian reformers and defeated the Mongolian ground forcess at both Cerq De

    Chavalier and the fortress of Irbile. Saladine, and the bulk of his military personnels

    were Kurdish ( Safrastian ) . The Kurds established independent princedoms,

    that ne’er united, but frequently fought each other for the benefit of foreign powers.

    During the rough reign of Shah Ismail in Persia, most of the Kurds who were

    Sunni Muslims, allied themselves with the Ottoman Sultan Selim “the Cruel” and

    played the polar portion in get the better ofing the Iranian ground forcess at Chaldiran in 1514,

    and therefore most of the Kurds in Iran are still Sunni Muslims among a predominately

    Shiite bulk. The Kurdish princedoms, at this clip were free from the

    cardinal authorities and struck their ain mintage and had Friday supplications in the

    name of the local prince ( Morris ) . At that point of Kurdish history Kurdish

    civilization and literature flourished. This lasted until the 19th century

    when the Ottoman imperium tried to spread out its regulation into the Kurdish districts.

    Using the tool of divide and conquer, the Ottamans use Kurdish folks to contend

    fellow Kurds. Though, the Ottoman authorities gained nominal control of the

    Kurdish countries, they were ne’er able to set up direct regulation ( McDowell ) . During

    World War One, many Kurds really remained loyal to the Empire. They fought

    courageously in many conflicts. The Kurds inflicted such heavy amendss against the

    Czarist authorities that they about conceded to evacuating the full Caucus

    part. Some historiographers besides suggest, they were 80 per centum of the Ottoman

    casualties at the ill-famed conflict of Galilopi ( Gunter ) . During the war the Young

    Turk authorities, in chase of a strictly Turkic imperium, massacred more so one

    million Armenians and seven hundred thousand Kurds. After the Ottoman loss, the

    Empire collapsed and was on the brink of atomization when a immature ground forces officer

    by the name of Mustafa Kemal emerged on the scene.

    Following the fatal licking of the Ottoman imperium after World War one, the

    leftovers of the former imperium were divided up among the winning allied powers,

    even the Turkish speech production part were to come under the authorization of foreign

    disposal. In fact, much of Anatolia was already occupied by Greek or

    Armenian forces. On August 10, 1920, Turkey and the allied powers signed the

    pact of Sevres. This pact allowed for the creative activity of an independent

    Kurdish and Armenian province on the remittal of the former Ottoman imperium. This

    pact was to go void and null. Around the same clip the Serves pact was

    being discussed, Mustafa Kemal gained power of what remained of the armed forces and

    political substructure in Anatolia. Kemal, get downing in the Kurdish part and

    proclaiming the integrity of Turks and Kurds, organized opposition to the Armenian

    and Georgian forces in eastern Anatolia. These forces were defeated by about

    wholly Kurdish ground forcess, who thought they were contending for a province where,

    “Turks and Kurds would populate as brothers and as peers ( Kendal )” as stated by

    Mustafa Kemal. However, after the licking of the Grecian ground forcess in western Turkey,

    Kemal declared to an assembly that “The province the we have merely created is a

    Turkish province ( Kendal )” Immediately after, a reinforced Turkey renegotiated

    the Treaty of Lausanne with the Alliess. With much more favourable footings for the

    Turks, but no reference of the Kurds in the pact. Thus the Kurds went from equal

    spouses to non-existent citizens in the new Turkish province. After the pact of

    Lousanne, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk proceeded to incorporate the state and get down a

    procedure of Westernize the one time Orthodox Islamic imperium. Kemal abolished the

    Caliphate Arabic alphabet, and adopted the western Latin alphabet, therefore

    implementing some capitalistic steps in the name of a freshly established

    secular authorities. Mustafa Kemal enacted rough Torahs on Islam in general. Kemal

    made the Islamic call for supplication illegal and went every bit far as censoring Islamists.

    The most of import of these determinations against Islam, was the criminalizing all

    Islamic sanctum houses of learning. This was to hold profound impacts on the

    spreading of Islamic fundementalists within Turkey. This backfired against

    Mustafa, by coercing Islam to travel underground, the signifier of fundamentalism that

    manifested in Turkey was much harsher so the 1s that existed before being

    banned by Kemal. Kemal seeking to make a state province, came upon a job.

    The new province of Turkey was a heterogenous one, composed of multi-ethnical

    groups, non a homogeneous one of merely pure cultural Turks, as Mustafa Kemal

    proclaimed. The capitalisation on a new found Turkish patriot motion

    yielded a good tuned systematic run of killing the kernel of the

    Kurdish within the boundaries of freshly formed Turkey. Kemal abolished all of the,

    ” Kurdish schools, associations, publications, spiritual fraternities, and

    medressehs ( McDowell ) .” The Kurdish state represented such a menace to the

    territorial unity of Turkey that all people and names of topographic points were

    forcibly Turkicized by the authorities. This was to became referred to as cultural

    cleansing or race murder. Old archaeological memorials and construction that proved the

    ancient history of Kurdish people in Anatolia were consistently destroyed. The

    words ‘ Kurds’and ‘ Kurdistan’were eradicated from all books and publications.

    Anything that would take to a separate individuality of the Kurdish people were

    eliminated in order output the assimilation of the ethnically different Kurdish

    state. Even the Kurdish linguistic communication was banned, a fact unparalleled in history! No

    one in the province of Turkey was allowed to talk Kurdish, even though it was the

    linguistic communication of 30 per centum of the people. All Kurdish pupils were feed

    Turkish propaganda on the cultural lineage of the Kurdish people, they were

    taught that Kurds, were a pure ‘ Turkic race,’whereas in actuality the Kurds are

    ethnically Indo-Aryan, and the Turks are a mixture of Hun-Mongolian people. The

    Turkish instruction curate proclaimed that, the Kurds had forgotten their

    “Turkic” linguistic communication in the speed of the mountains of sou’-east Anatolia, therefore

    mentioning to them as, “Mountain Turks. ( Gunter ) .” The racialist spoon provender

    propaganda of the Turkish educational establishments has reached to such a grade

    of reducibility, that it is frequently taught in the schools of Turkey, all the great

    Babylonian, Summerian, Egyptian, and Hittite civilisations had been created by

    the Turks ( Kendal ) . In order to conceal the fact that the Kurds had lived in

    Anatolia four thousand old ages before one Turk stepped in. The Turkish

    clerisy determined the Kurds came from Central Asia five 1000s old ages

    ago. The state of affairs deteriorated to the point where to province” I am a Kurd” was

    a offense so serious as to justify the decease punishment under Turkey’s anti-terrorist

    Torahs ( Kendal ) . All past steps were non plenty in the eyes of the Kemalist

    authorities to destruct the leftovers of five thousand old ages of Kurdish presence in

    Anatolia. After these and more inhibitory steps were taken out, the

    significant Kurdish population began to revolt from the force per unit areas below the belt

    exerted on them by the oppressive and force prone province of Turkey. The early

    rebellions were unorganised, lacked money, and ill supplied. They lasted, on and

    away, a small over 13 yea

    R. The requital of the Turkish ground forces was so

    extreme, they about destroyed, looted, and burned the full eastern part of

    the state. Whole small towns were either deported to Western Turkey to be

    assimilated or, if the authorities knew that the peculiar folk or small town were

    non traveling to be assimilated that easy, they merely merely massacred them. much

    like the Nazi slaughter of Judaic civilians ( Morris ) . Throughout these barbarian

    methods of inhuman treatment instituted by the Turkish governmental constitution, the

    barbarian Turkish authorities managed to slaughter or behave one million, five

    hundred thousand Kurdish civilians ( Kendal ) . The repression was so haneous that

    the full Eastern subdivision of the province of Turkey was prohibited to all

    aliens and under soldierly jurisprudence for about 30 old ages, so as non to disciple

    to the West. In contrast to Western Turkey, the whole of Eastern Turkey was made

    into a military cantonment, and it has remained that manner until today. The Turkish

    curate of justness made the relationship of Turks and Kurds clear:

    I believe that the Turk must be the lone Godhead, the lone maestro of this state.

    Those who are non of pure Turkish stock ( Kurds and Armenians ) can hold merely one

    right in this state, the right to be retainers and slaves ( McDowell ) .

    After Kemal’s decease, more consecutive and broad minded governments came to power.

    The 1960 putsch by the ground forces attempted to Turkicize the whole of the Kurdish part.

    Every individual street, river, mountain, small town, or metropolis was given Turkish name to

    the really last item. What small hope the Kurdish population had in the hope

    more or less disappears as the putsch ne’er truly brought out cardinal alteration

    for the Kurdish people. The rights of the Kurds were still non-existent, the

    Kurdish linguistic communication denied to them, and their civilization still prohibited. The

    consecutive putschs of 1971 and 1980 ever tended to convey Kurdish freedom and

    self-expression to a arrest. To warrant a putsch, the ground forces would province that there

    was a planned Kurdish rebellion. Nevertheless, throughout the sixtiess and 1970s,

    Kurdish patriotism did emanate in the signifier of little belowground publications

    and newspapers, but they were ever outright banned and the editors

    instantly apprehended and given drawn-out gaol footings. Throughout all the

    repression, the Kurds were able to take part in political life, although under

    forced Turkish individualities ( Gunter ) . Today the foreign curate of Turkey, Ardal

    Inunu, is a Kurd; every bit good as his male parent the late president Ismat Inunu, former

    presidents Fahrey Koruturk, and Cevdet Sunany, even the late president Turgut

    Ozal claimed Kurdish heritage ( Gunter ) . The female parent of all sarcasms, is that two

    people who made the bases of Turkish patriotism were Kurds, Ziya Gokalp and

    Ismet Inunu, who were born in the Kurdish metropoliss of Diarbekr ( Kendal ) . The sum

    of Kurdish people successfully assimilated into chief watercourse Turkish society is

    so minute that over 91 per centum of the Kurdish population doesn’T

    even talk one word of Turkish ( Kendal ) . Reporter, who have merely late been

    allowed to come in Eastern Turkey, are amazed at how, in this built-in part of

    Turkey no 1 speaks a word of Turkish.

    During the uneasy times of the 1970s many leftist pro-Kurdish groups

    manifested periodically throughout the Turkish province. The 1980 putsch put an terminal

    to many of these organisations and political parties. After the barbarous policies

    of the military junta that took control of Turkey, may Kurds were put in prison

    and executed for “segregation” which would intend anything from guerilla warfare

    to merely talking Kurdish in public. During those times of extremism, even by

    Turkish criterions, a group of socialist-Kurdish young person began to form and

    formed a political party. Their simple selfless end was to obtain the God given

    right of self-government for the worthy Kurdish state, which included out-

    right independency from the Turkish mainstream authorities. The chief leader for

    this independency motion was a immature political scientific discipline pupil from the

    Kurdish metropolis of Urfa, named Abdullah Ocalan or Apo ( Kurdish for Uncle ) . This

    group of organisers were Marxist-Lenninst in political orientation and adamantly stated that

    the Kurds and Turks were separate people and therefore Forth, the Turkish military

    force nowadays in Kurdistan was a aggressive action of business of Kurdistan.

    The P.K.K ( Party Kereykarey Kurdistan or Kurdistan Workers Party ) besides called

    for the abolition of tribalism, feudal system, and the “slave-like dependance of

    women.” A great sum of the P.K.K military force were female. The P.K.K besides

    believed the lone manner to achieve freedom and independency were through force,

    much like the American and Gallic revolution of mid 1700s.

    To gestate the P.K.K as wholly left-of-center is untrue, they have adapted the

    Communist subject of political orientation to counter-weight the Turkish entity as a NATO province,

    so it is safe to presume that the P.K.K has chosen the Marxist way by default.

    Similar to the American fore-fathers taking a republic signifier of authorities to

    defy the British signifier of authorities, and France taking a parliamentary signifier

    of authorities to dominate the history of monarchal reign of France. This

    might look to be absurd, but non when you see a “democratic” Turkey that

    espouses a contradictory patriotism and topographic points marks everyplace in Kurdistan

    that says,” Proud is He who calls oneself a TURK” or” A TURK is worth the

    whole existence ( Kendal ) .” So consequently, underneath all the political orientation and

    propaganda of the Cold War, what you basically have is two combating


    The 1980 putsch mentioned earlier reasonably much halted all of P.K.K’s political

    activities and other similar leftist organisations. But the P.K.K’s political

    politburo instantly regrouped in Syria and Lebanon. With aid from some

    neighbouring states, the P.K.K was able to establish little foraies into Turkey in

    1984. After the onslaughts grew in strength and figure, the Turkish authorities

    became earnestly alarmed. The P.K.K was every bit violent as it advertised, many times

    killing Kurds join forcesing with the Turkish authorities. This didn’t raise their

    popularity with the local thickly settled. But, one thing they did carry through was that

    no other party or group in Turkey of all time did, was the acknowledgment of a Kurdish

    job in Turkey and a acknowledgment of a Kurdish people in Turkey ( Gunter ) . Therefore,

    the Kurdish state of affairs was brought out to the international sphere for the whole

    universe to witness the of all time dynamic quandary in Northern Kurdistan. The Kurds

    went from “Mountain Turks” to a “Kurdish world in Turkey.” The Turkish ground forces

    so extended soldierly jurisprudence to thirteen states in Eastern Turkey. The Turkish

    ground forces head of staff admitted that “status of war … exists in sou’-east

    Turkey ( Smyth ) . &#8221 ;

    The P.K.K so began to follow a less hostile attitude towards the civilian

    population, recognizing they can non run without the aid of the people. While

    the P.K.K ceased to assail civilians, the Turkish ground forces’s attitude towards

    Kurdish civilians took an even harsher tone. What happened in the yearss of

    Attaturk, were being implemented one time once more. It was like the state of affairs was

    dorment for 45 old ages, and one time once more it came back to populate. Amnesty

    knowing reported the sweeping apprehension and anguish of Kurds in all parts of

    Turkey. The full small town of Sirnak, population 25,000, was demolished and it’s

    dwellers forced to fly ( Pilger ) . In all the Turkish ground forces has destroyed an

    estimated 1,700 Kurdish small towns and towns ( Montalbano ) . The P.K.K has

    successfully begun to infiltrate larger metropoliss and forming merchandiser work stoppages

    and mass protest against the Turkish authorities. The Turkish ground forces and secret

    constabularies reacted by covert blackwashs and “decease squads” that killed anyone

    that was even remotely linked to the P.K.K. These decease squads have even killed

    journalists who have reported the Turkish atrociousnesss in Northern Kurdistan.

    Turkey has the highest decease rate for journalists in the universe, even transcending

    Bosnia and Tadjikistan. Many pro-Kurdish politicians and human rights militants

    have been killed, doing mass protest from the Kurdish population, even the

    protest control constabulary unfastened fire on unarmed civilian dissenters, killing

    100s of work forces, adult females, seniors, and kids indiscrimenantly ( Kendal ) . The

    province sanctioned DEP ( People’s Democratic Party ) , a legal political entity was

    forcibly closed down after their top political representatives were cryptically

    assassinated, their newspaper affiliates ( Ozgur Daily ) bombed, and it’s

    Parliamentarians arrested. All of these went against the established Turkish

    constitutional Torahs. The lifting of Parliamentary unsusceptibility is a direct misdemeanor,

    but when it comes to utilizing illegal Torahs against Kurdish civilians there are no


    Acerate leaf to state, the brutal and genocidal Acts of the Apostless of the Turkish authorities have

    merely fanned the flair of the Kurdish thrust for independency. In some parts of

    Turkey, over 90 per centum of the people support the P.K.K ( Marks ) . When the

    people see the authorities firing their houses, farms, and household members how

    can one truly back up the constitution? How can the people believe the

    authorities when they have publically broken parliamentary Torahs by collaring

    Kurdish parliamentary members for talking Kurdish? The people has two picks,

    the foreign residents or their boies, brothers, girls, sisters, or male parents.

    In response to the “cultural cleaning” and soldierly jurisprudence, the Turkish authorities

    has besides stationed over 450,000 military personnels in the country, backed by US made modern

    armored combat vehicles, Apache choppers, Super Cobra choppers, F-16 combatant jets, and

    50,000 elect contra-rebels in the Kurdish part. Many generals in the armed

    forces have openly talked about utilizing chemical arms on the Kurds ( Turkey used

    chemical arms on the Kurds in the 1930s, British used it in the 1920s, and

    Saddam Hussien used it in 1988 ) ( Kendal ) .

    Turkey has went every bit far as busting Iraqi Kurdistan with the air planes given to

    them by the US. As late as March 20, 1995, Turkey invaded Iraqi Kurdistan.

    They said the invation was to seek for and destruct the P.K.K, but in actuality

    the ground forces couldn’t fight the P.K.K. The 35,000 occupying force did little more

    so destructing civilian small towns, killing civilian Kurds, and destroying farm

    harvests. UNHCR ( United Nations Higher Commission for Refugees ) reported that

    10,000 Turkish Kurds, who escaped Turkey’s systematic combustion and destroying

    Kurdish small towns were forcibly detained and forced to return to Turkey. The

    whereabouts of the refugees are unknown; knowning the Turkish path record,

    their hopes are blue.

    Abdullah Ocalan

    It now appears that the P.K.K has ascertained itself as the voice of the Kurdish

    people, after 70 old ages of grim subjugation. The P.K.K’s unequivical

    insisting of independency is rebuffed by Ankara, who province that everyone in

    Turkey is equal and there are no room for minorities in Turkey. The ground forces, an

    organisation who operates independently from the political wing of Turkey, will

    non even pacify a intimation of even a signifier of bantam local liberty for the

    Kurdish people. The P.K.K is exhibiting, and for their portion turn outing to the

    Kurdish multitudes that their violent manner is the lone avenue for any signifier of Kurdish

    independency. Since the creative activity of the irredentent Turkish province the Kurds have

    non received anything more so a gravestone with a forced Turkish family name. The

    P.K.K has given 15,000 sufferer in the span of 11 old ages ( Marcus ) , the ground forces

    has massacred more so 1,500,000 in the span of 60 old ages, more the 1,500

    small towns destroyed, every signifier of Kurdish individuality denied, and their politicians

    and journalists killed by secret constabulary. After all it is the US fundamental law

    that has written:

    ” When in the class of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to

    fade out the political sets which have connected them with another, and to

    presume among the powers of the Earth, the separate and equal station to which

    the Torahs of nature’s God entitle them, a nice regard to the sentiments of

    world requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the

    separation … ..whenever any signifier of authorities becomes destructive of these

    terminals, it is the right of the people to change it, or to get rid of it, and to

    establish a new government.. &#8221 ;

    It is the really illustration the United States has set, that the Kurdish people

    wants to declare their independency. For, the lone thing different between the

    Kurdish revolution and the U.S one, is merely two hundred and nine old ages. All

    subjugations are bad, all businesss are incorrect, every state has the right to

    make up one’s mind their ain destiny.

    Turkish Occupation Of Northern Kurdistan Research. (2018, May 21). Retrieved from

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