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Dante Alighieri was born in Florence, Italy in 1265. In his life, he created two major

books of poesy: Vita Nuova and The Comedy. The Comedy, which was later renamed The

Divine Comedy, is an heroic verse form interrupt down into three books in each of which Dante recounts

his travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven. The first installment of The Comedy, Dante & # 8217 ; s

Inferno, is an particularly brilliant narrative. He narrates his descent and observation of Hell

through the assorted circles and pouches. An first-class poet in his ain right, admired much about

Virgil ( besides spelt Vergil ) , idolizing him to such an extent that he turned him into the guiding

character, the instructor to Dante the pilgrim, in the Purgatory and Inferno. Dante borrowed from

Virgil much of his linguistic communication, manner, and content. While Dante improved upon Virgil & # 8217 ; s works in

many respects, his alterations in the theological content in peculiar, uncover the differences between

the constructs of the afterworld/underworld of the two writers & # 8217 ; several clip periods. As

Erich Auerbach writes, with mention to Dante & # 8217 ; s extensively ordered otherworld, & # 8220 ; Dante had no

true precursors, except for the 6th book of the Aeneid. & # 8221 ; ( Auerbach, Erich. p. 88 ) . A big

part of Dante? s Inferno is simply an enlargement of one book ( VI -the Underworld ) of Virgil? s

Aeneid. Though much of Dante & # 8217 ; s Hell is original, he seemed to utilize the Aeneid as a base and that

which he did pull out from the Aeneid, he carefully adapted for his ain intents and beliefs. In

prosecuting his Christian vision of the hereafter, Dante created an otherworld theoretically and

doctrinally different from, yet still ineluctably reminiscent of Virgil & # 8217 ; s Underworld. Dante, of

class, structured his Hell to suit the confines and basicss of his Christian political orientation, but still

used The Aeneid as his foundation. Therefore, in order to portray the Christian existence and to

stand for the afterworldly constructs of justness for one? s actions during life, Dante looked to

Virgil & # 8217 ; s Aeneid for both, the inspiration to make and the tools to make so. Similarities between

Virgil? s Underworld and Dante? s Hell are rather noticeable to even the untrained oculus.

The entryway or gate to Virgil & # 8217 ; s Underworld in the Aeneid marks a crisp division, as besides

found in The Inferno, between the land of the life and the land of the dead. A premonition

anteroom precedes the entryway to the Underworld, intentionally there non ease any journey toward

the bosom of Hades, and assist remind them that this is the hereafter they chose. Populating Virgil? s

anteroom are the causes of decease, incarnated into religious signifiers as agents of decease ( Virgil,

274-280 ) , but they are non clearly seen signifiers, nor are any of the signifiers in both, Virgil? s and

Dante? s visions of Hell. All the Underworld in Dante? s and Virgil? s readings is portrayed in

a shadowy, colorless environment to make the semblance of decease and hopelessness.

? I am the manner to the mournful metropolis, I am the manner into ageless heartache, I am the manner to a forsaken race.

Justice it was that moved my great Creator ; Divine omnipotence created me, and highest wisdom

joined with cardinal love.

Before me nil but ageless things were made, and I shall last everlastingly. Abandon every hope,

all you who enter. ? -reading on Vestibule Gate ( Dante, 89 ) .

Virgil topographic points high importance on this anteroom to define clearly one chief difference between

the Underworld and the exterior: the former has an inescapably intangible, bodiless, and abstract

( nil clearly defined ) quality to it, compared to the latter? s concrete, physical world. The

presence of the agents of decease, most notably & # 8220 ; Sleep the brother of Death & # 8221 ; ( Virgil, 278 ) , are here

to typify the passage from the universe of life outside the anteroom, to a room full of the causes

of decease, and eventually take to the land of decease itself ( Hell itself ) . The anteroom can be considered

to be a no-man? s-land, your non wholly in Hell yet, but at that place? s nowhere else to travel except

down. Dante? s Hell is besides preceded by a premonition anteroom which is place to the psyches who

could non make up one’s mind to make good or evil with their lives. The angels who did non pick a side in the

battle between Michael ( God & # 8217 ; s general ) or with Lucifer ( Satan ) in the conflict of Heaven reside here.

This entryway of Hell begins the universe of darkness and unidentifiable sunglassess, colorless in their

symbolisation of motionlessness. Dante compares the lifeless shades to? ? dead leaves fliting to the

land in fall? , weightless and lifeless, as when falling foliages? detach themselves? from the

tree of life. All the souls descend? one-by-one? , like foliages falling? first one and so the other? ?

( Dante, pp. 112-117 ) . This simile that Dante uses is about indistinguishable to Virgil? s description of the

psyches as? & # 8230 ; a battalion of foliages & # 8230 ; ? ( Virgil, p. 309 ) .

In making the environment for his Hell, Dante clip and once more borrowed from Virgil? s

Hagiographas, but for more extended terminals. While Virgil used the illations of lividness and shadiness to

bespeak a deficiency of hope and the completeness of decease, Dante & # 8217 ; s usage of similar subjects was used in a

more Christian involvement, how the lost psyches would attest into their anguished religious nature.

Dante? s evildoers would stand for the wickednesss they committed ; those who were choked with fury in

life, are choked by a boiling pitch. Virgil? s sunglassess were lost on the Bankss of the Styx to stand for

the arrant desperation and indefinite unreality of decease, whereas Dante? s lost psyches represented non merely

the Greenwich Mean Time

ter desperation of decease, but besides the nothingness that is Hell ; those who left a nothingness in their lives where

ethical motives and good should hold been now acquire to populate in the nothingness they created. Dante? s Hell and

Virgil? s Underworld are likewise in their general auras and atmosphere, but their structural

organisational differences show how Dante digressed more in the involvement of a Christian

construct of the underworld. The premier differences in both verse forms is caused by the age at which

theses verse forms were written ; Virgil? s and Dante? s reading of Hell were arranged to suit how

the societies of their clip viewed the hereafter.

Dante did, nevertheless, better upon Virgil? s Underworld. In his Underworld, Virgil

divided Hell into three parts: Tartarus, Elysium, and Lugentes Campi, and nine subdivisions? & # 8230 ; and

nine times the river Styx, poured between, confines? ( Virgil, 439 ) . The blasted psyches in the

Underworlds are all agony in a disorganised society. All the psyches are punished for their wickednesss in

life, but none are placed in organized subdivisions where all evildoers of the same frailty suffer together.

Rather, in Dante? s Hell requital for wickednesss are organized in an orderly hereafter. All evildoers of the

same immoral act are tortured together in the same circle of Hell, and as one moves deeper into

the deepnesss of Hell, the Acts of the Apostless against God grow malicious as do the psyche? s penalties. Like the

ageless hamlets in the Underworld, Dante? s Circles of Hell each provide a lasting image of

justness, specifically godly Christian justness. Hell & # 8217 ; s overall physical construction reflects this thought of

justness. Dante conveys a sense of agonizingly precise justness with each new Circle of Hell: if

you were deceitful, you are punished similarly, and if you had been violent, you would hold been

punished consequently. This preciseness is a contemplation of Dante & # 8217 ; s Catholic construct of Godhead

justness. The penalties of Hell, being created by God, would merely be precisely just, every bit good as

reflective of His comparative displeasure with the wickedness that was executed in life.

Virgil was besides a major character in Dante? s Inferno. For the first portion of his journey,

Dante needed a usher who knew approximately Hell, Virgil was the perfect usher. Virgil had navigated

through Hell before and, hence, knew the district. Harmonizing to Brother Etienne, ? Virgil

becomes in the Inferno the symbol of human ground? Early on in the verse form, Virgil tells Dante that he

is at that place because Heaven wanted him at that place and that he can take Dante merely portion of the manner.

( Virgil can & # 8217 ; t come in Heaven or see God because he lacked a religion in God ) Someone & # 8220 ; more worthy & # 8221 ;

will take Dante to God. Most critics interpret this as stating that adult male & # 8217 ; s ground is finite, while God

is infinite. Man & # 8217 ; s ground and doctrine will acquire him started on the right manner, but the ultimate

manner to God is guided by a higher power. ( Glen, Chris. English 12 notebook ) Virgil is Dante? s

merely friend and guardian spirit in his journey through Hell. With the aid of Virgil? s wisdom and

counsel, Dante safely passed through the land of the dead, and can go on on in his expedition

to Heaven.

In borrowing the dark, pale environment so exhaustively explored by Virgil? s Aeneid, Dante

on the one manus shows off his ability to integrate classical subjects into a Christian

model of thoughts. Dante & # 8217 ; s in-depth description of the layout of Hell shows his deep religion in

stand foring the Christian thoughts of the Last Judgement, such as justness. Dante desired to

transform the critical elements in the Underworld of Vergil & # 8217 ; s authoritative work Aeneid into the Hell of the

Christian existence.

Plants Sited

Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy: Inferno. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Uracil of

California P. 1980.

Auerbach, Erich. Dante: Poet of the Secular World. Trans. Ralph Manheim. Chicago: Uracil of

Chicago P. 1961.

Vergil. Vergil & # 8217 ; s Aeneid: Books I & # 8211 ; Vl. Ed. Clyde Pharr. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co. ,


Interview with Brother Ethienne 12/3/98

Glen, Christopher. English 12 Notebook. New York. 1998


Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy: Inferno. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Uracil of

California P. 1980.

Auerbach, Erich. Dante: Poet of the Secular World. Trans. Ralph Manheim. Chicago: Uracil of

Chicago P. 1961.

Auerbach. Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Trans. Willard R. Trask.

Princeton: Princeton U P. 1953.

Austin, R.G. Aeneid VI: Commentary. Oxford: Oxford U P. 1979.

Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Trans. S. G. C. Middlemore. vol.

l. New York: Harper & A ; Row, 1958.

Commager, Steele, erectile dysfunction. Vergil: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,

Inc. , 1966.

Comparetti, Domenico. Vergil in the Middle Ages. Trans. E. F. M. Benecke. London: George

Allen & A ; Unwin, Ltd. 1966.

Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Aaes. Trans. Willard R. Trask.

New York: Harper & A ; Row, 1953.

F [ letcher ] , A. S. & # 8220 ; Fable, Parable, and Allegory. & # 8221 ; Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropedia. 1985.

Freccero, John, erectile dysfunction. Dante: A Collection ofritical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ,


Kline, Morris. Mathematicss in Western Culture. New York: Oxford U P. 1953.

Otis, Brooks. Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry. Oxford: Clarendon P. 1964.

Quinn, Kenneth. Virgil & # 8217 ; s Aeneid: A Critical Description. Ann Arbor: Uracil of Michigan P. 1969.

Vergil. Vergil & # 8217 ; s Aeneid: Books I & # 8211 ; Vl. Ed. Clyde Pharr. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Co. ,



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