Discuss food sources associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Several ways to reduce cardiovascular disease risks include limiting the amounts of saturated and trans fats consumed which can cause and increase in cholesterol. Alternatives such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease. Other food sources that reduce risk of developing cardiovascular disease are oily fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, oils that include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and moderate alcohol consumption. Discuss the selected special approaches to healthy eating including the DASH diet, Mediterranean Diet, and vegetarianism/ veganism.
DASH Diet, short for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, is a selected special approach to create a heart healthy eating lifestyle. Common foods in this diet are fruits, vegetables and whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, nuts and vegetable oils. However, this diet really focuses on limiting full fat dairy products, foods high in saturated or trans fats, as well at sweetened beverages. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, those that followed the DASH plan saw a decrease in LDL cholesterol and a lower blood pressure.
A Mediterranean diet is a diet that contains more fruit and seafood but often sees a decrease in dairy consumption. The decreased dairy consumption in the Mediterranean diet often causes a deficiency in calcium and vitamin D; however, the nutrient levels in the other areas were similar in comparison to the Healthy U.S.-Style Pattern.
Vegetarians vary differently from nonvegetarians in the fact that they have an increased intake of whole grains, nuts, seeds, and soy products. In addition, they usually keep dairy and eggs in their daily diet, but all meat and poultry are eradicated. However, one downfall to a vegetarian diet often includes a B12 deficiency and can only be consumed through supplements. According to the 2015-2020 dietary guidelines a balanced 2,000 calorie vegan diet should approximately include the following:
- 2 ½ cups of Vegetables
- 2 cups of fruits
- 6 ½ ounces of grains
- 3 cups of diary
- 3 ½ ounces of foods that are protein rich
- 27 grams of oils
List some of the warning signs which might be evident in a patient with poor nutritional health. Some warning signs of poor nutrition are:
- Poor skin turgor that could be related to dehydration
- Dry or brittle hair
- Nail changes
- Involuntary weight gain or weight loss
In addition to food choices, discuss other ways to achieve a balanced healthy lifestyle. Besides a healthy diet, a balanced lifestyle includes exercise, muscle strengthening activities. Adults are recommended to exercise moderately for 150 minutes per week and are encouraged to do muscle strengthening activities at least two days a week. Examples of moderate activities include brisk walking, water aerobics, and riding a stationary bike or biking on level ground. However, children are recommended to exercise at least 60 minutes with both moderate and intense exercise incorporated during that time. Other ways to achieve a healthy lifestyle include coping with stress, getting enough sleep, limiting alcohol intake, and attempting to cease smoking and tobacco use, if applicable.
- Calorie Chart, Nutrition Facts, Calories in Food. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.myfitnesspal.com/food/search
- DASH Eating Plan. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/dash-eating-plan
- Department of Health & Human Services. (2012, September 30). Heart disease and food. Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/heart-disease-and-food
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 Eighth Edition. (2015, December). Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf
- How much physical activity do adults need? (2015, June 04). Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/adults/index.htm
- Nutrition Calculator. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.chipotle.com/nutrition-calculator
- Starbucks Refreshers. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2018, from https://www.starbucks.com/menu/drinks