AP World History Summer Assignment 10 Questions By Omar Mohammad APWH 2nd

Table of Content

The discovery of beer can be traced back to the 5th Millennium BC and is still widely known today. However, its main use declined during the industrialization era as beer started being transformed into other more beneficial products with global appeal. It all began when nomadic societies shifted to agriculture and started cultivating grains like wheat and barley, which eventually fermented into beer. Rather than coming to an end, this process evolved into the modern day. This was evident when beer began to be marketed and became more refined through processing. It was also modified into various products that are still used today, such as bread, stain cleaners, and meat-tenderizing marinades.

Standage argues that beer was not invented, but rather discovered. He asserts that the purpose of beer has remained consistent throughout history – to provide refreshment, facilitate celebration, preserve traditions, and foster cultural interactions. In ancient Greece, people would gather at symposia to drink, appreciate music, and partake in intellectual discourse. Likewise, ancient Romans would attend convivia for feasts or drinking festivities.

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My Definition: A group of people per area with one goal survival and prosperity that reflect their own culture, technology, beliefs, and custom based on the environmental imprint they have created. 3) Standage simply described all spirits as entities that have diverged over time into all the channels of life that he listed: materials, people, technologies from around the world, and several intersecting forces. One example is the Holy Spirit that Christians around the world follow for guidance as they believe the Holy Spirit covers those channels and will guide them to a greater afterlife.

Coffeehouses are places where coffee is served and people typically gather in groups to enjoy music, poetry readings, and other informal entertainment. The services provided at coffeehouses are usually paid for by customers. Meeting with people at a coffeehouse generally implies a greater focus on leisure and entertainment compared to other venues. Furthermore, going to a coffeehouse alone or staying for shorter periods of time is more common in modern developed nations, due to advancements in technology and changing priorities. It is also possible that earlier times imposed certain routines.

The Greek Symposium was a gathering of ancient Greeks for drinking, music, and intellectual discussion, while the Latin Symposium, also known as Roman Convivium, referred to a drinking party or a meal get-together. Both were driven by leisure rather than a specific purpose. It is believed that coffee originated in the Middle East, possibly discovered by a Yemeni goat herder. The influence coffee has had on Western culture is significant.

Mr. Standage explores the events tied to the emergence of coffee and coffee houses, connecting the proliferation of rational thinking with them. Coffee, known for enhancing mental acuity, became a safer alternative to beer, particularly during morning hours. Consuming coffee in the morning enabled individuals to start their day alert and sharp, thus augmenting their productivity. These aspects played a significant role in the industrialization of society, with the coffee house serving as the internet equivalent of the 17th and 18th centuries.

The coffeehouses of the Eighteenth century played a significant role in shaping the contemporary world, similar to how the internet is doing today. The emergence of tea in Britain was closely linked to its rise as a global power, contributing to the growth of its commercial and imperial influence. Regardless of personal agreement or disagreement with this assertion, it is evident from the text that tea, despite not being indigenous to Britain, gained popularity and firmly established itself within the country.

Tom Standage’s A History of the World in Six Glasses skillfully showcases the global journey and profound influence of tea, despite causing division among individuals during the Industrial Revolution. While some embraced it, others shunned it and faced difficulties in finding their place. The Lipton tea company appropriately claims that “Tea can do that.” Tea has its origins in China and comes from the Himalayan forests along the India-China border. Buddhist monks were the ones who discovered this region’s tea plant and recognized its invigorating and healing properties, which improved meditation, focus, and alleviated tiredness.

Tea was brought to China in the 6th century BCE by a migratory group. Emperor Shen Nung is credited with brewing the first cup of tea around 2737-2697, according to Chinese belief. However, it wasn’t until the 1st century BC that tea gained popularity as a domestic beverage in China, and mass cultivation started in the 4th century. The British preference for Indian tea ultimately had a detrimental effect on China’s economy, causing a shift in their trading focus. The introduction of tea had significant impacts on the economies and cultures of China, Britain, and India.

The history of tea is rich, initially enjoyed by leaders and later embraced by the general public. It played a significant role during the Industrial Revolution, providing solace to workers. However, there were disagreements among governments, institutions, and individuals regarding taxes on tea. In countries like India, tea held economic importance while also serving as a reminder of British imperialism. Despite its involvement in conflicts during the 17th and 18th centuries, drinking tea continues to offer warmth.

In contrast, examining the history of Coca-Cola can help us understand the concept of “globalization”. Like other beverages discussed by Standage, Coca-Cola was originally used for medicinal purposes. The use of soda water in pharmacies dates back to 1820. In 1886, John Pemberton created a non-alcoholic version of his medicinal mixture using French wine, coca (from the Incas), and kola extract due to societal opposition against alcohol consumption known as temperance movement. This marked the beginning of Coca-Cola’s journey.

Thanks to advertising and marketing using testimonials, a distinctive logo, and free samples, the syrup became profitable when added to existing soda fountains. By 1895 it had become a national drink. However, legal controversy forced it to stop making medicinal claims and instead promoted it as “delicious and refreshing.” The drink faced additional challenges during the end of Prohibition, the Great Depression, and the rise of Pepsi. During World War II, America ended isolationism and sent out 16 million servicemen with Coke in their hands.

Coke sought to boost the morale of soldiers by providing them with a familiar drink while they were stationed abroad. In order to cut down on shipping costs, only the syrup was sent, and bottling plants were established wherever American servicemen were stationed. This quickly led to Coke becoming closely associated with patriotism. After the war, there were criticisms of Coca-colonization by French communists during the Cold War. In response, the company argued that Coca Cola was symbolic of capitalism and represented freedom, especially since Pepsi had managed to penetrate the “iron curtain.” Ideological divisions persisted as Coca Cola was marketed in Israel while Pepsi dominated the Arab world. Coca Cola serves as a reflection of the historical trend towards increasing globalization throughout the past century. Its history also brings attention to global processes such as industrialization, mass transportation, mass consumerism, global capitalism, conflict, the Cold War, and ideological battles. Standage’s claim that “the six beverages highlighted in this book demonstrate the complex interplay of different civilizations and the interconnectedness of world cultures” should be evaluated.

Tom Standage has categorized the history of humankind based on different beverages, akin to how archaeologists divide history into different ages. He begins with beer during the Neolithic period, followed by wine in Greece and Rome, spirits during the Age of Exploration, coffee in the Age of Reason, tea with the British Empire, and concludes with Coca-Cola, symbolizing the rise of America and globalization. These beverages became dominant during specific historical periods and shed light on the connections between cultures. Furthermore, they had unexpected influences on history and continue to be consumed today. However, it is noteworthy to consider what Standage chose not to include in his book, “A History of the World in Six Glasses.” Specifically, water and milk were omitted from his narrative. While water is predicted to be the next significant drink of the century, milk, which dates back to 8000 B.C.E or 9000 B.C.E, is not culturally significant.

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