Apush Ch. 27&28 Study Guide Info – Hitchcock Essay
1: Reverend Josiah Strong- looked overseas to convert people. “Our country: its possible future and its present crisis” 2: Theodore Roosevelt- darwinist, national parks 3: Henry Cabot Lodge- used darwinism to prove that the world belonged to the strongest nation (america) 4: Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan- “Influence of sea power upon history” stated that control of seas leads to world dominance, stimulated the naval race among nations, enhanced american navy. 5: James G. Blaine- secretary of state, wanted to ally American and Latin American, “Big sister” policy, hemispheric relations. wanted to open ports in south america to merican traders. 6: diplomatic crises- germany vs. US OVER SAMOAN islands. canada vs. US over seal clubbing. lynching of eleven italians in new orleans. 7: Venezuelan dispute- dispute with venezuela and british over borders. americans put ships there to show their muscle. 8: Kaiser Wilhem III- leader of germany, challnged british navy. 9: Great Rapprochement- reconciliation between US and GB 10: Hawaii- a place were a lot of sugar plantation people went in search for new land to farm on. We kinda’ just went in there and slowly acted out in their government and slowly but surely took it over.
Also many natives died due to diseases the white man brought. 11: Queen Luliuokani- She was the last monarch leader of Hawaii. She had power when Americans started to come in but she lost it as their numbers increased and they started demanding more stuff. The group that over threw her was known as “Committee of Safety”. They wanted to overthrow her to annex Hawaii to the USA. 12: “Butcher” Weyler- He was the man sent by Spain to take control and set order in Cuba; treated the Cubans very poorly, and even sent them into concentration camps. 13: “yellow journalism”- most notably used when the US ship exploded.
They made it look like the Spanish army attacked an American vessel, while in reality the engine exploded. This in turn angered the US people and ultimately resulted in the US entering the war. 14: Maine Incident- So first of all, Americans saw Cuba’s war like America’s revolutionary war, and loved it! So they sent the USS Maine to help out, but when it got there, it exploded from an engine error. Due to yellow journalism, the people thought Spain attacked it and got angry and then ultimately joined in on the war. 15: “Wobblie Willie McKinley- McKinley was the president in this time period, and he was kinda’ made fun of by US people.
Everyone saw him as a “soft” president who was very timid. But when another country started to make fun of him, US citizens got angry and acted hostile toward them. 16: Commodore George Dewey- He was the captain of the ship during the Battle of Manila Bay. It was also the “flag carrying ship”. Its first major battle was in the Philippines and it had a very triumphant career. 17: Emilio Aguinaldo- He was a Filipino general. He played an big part in Philippine independence during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine-American War that fought against American occupation.
He eventually pledged his allegiance to the US government. 18: invasion of Cuba- Washington sent useless ships for morale support after Admiral Cervera ordered warships to cuba. Americans were unprepared for war. 19: Rough Riders- volunteer servicemen, “short on discipline but long on dash”, ex-polo players and ex-convicts. 20: Leonard Wood- commanded the rough riders 21: General William R. Shafter- extremely fat, commanded the united states navy in the spanish american war. 22: San Juan Hill- theodore roosevelt shot a dude there. rough riders suffered heavy casualties. 3: Admiral Cervera- commander of the spanish fleet, odds were against him. 24: Filipinos- at first mickinley didn’t know what to do with the philippines but decided that if they were left alone they would either fall into anarchy or be ruled by the germans. Therefore, he decided to christianize them. 25: Anito-Imperialist League- It was formed on June 15, 1898 to fight the annexation of the Philippines, aka insular areas. it opposed annexation because it was immoral, and bad legal/economic practice. George S. Boutwell and Moorfield Storey served as president. The people in this league are known as Grover Cleveland Democrats. 6: Expantionists/Imperialists- umm, not totally sure what to say for this one, I guess she wants us to say that like, the US was expanding all over the place like into Cuba, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, and Philippines. The US was kinda’ just going into all of these places and trying to take all of them over, but we occupied them all and how a lot of influence, but we were forced by our own laws to let them run themselves (except for Hawaii) 27: Foraker Act- Aka Organic Act of 1900. This act put US political civilians onto Puerto Rico after the spanish american war.
It also established Puerto Rican citizanship. William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900. In Puerto Rico, 35 people were chosen by the supreme court to be political people, and 5 of them held major positions. 28: insular cases- This case was talking about how like, territories that the US controls like Puerto Rico are not protected under the constitution, and the citizens in those countries do not have to abide by them. The end result was, places like Hawaii and Alaska, that were like, legally party of the USA have to follow the constitution, but places ike Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam only have to follow it partly. 29: Dr. Walter Reed- He was a leading medical person for the USA. He discovered that yellow fever is transmitted via mosquitoes and helped develop a fixer to allow people to continue working on the panama canal. 30: Teller Amendment- it is an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress and it is in response to McKinley’s war message. It stated that the US could not annex cuba, but it must be controlled by it’s people. 31: Platt Amendment- Proposed by Senator Orville H. Platt (1827-1905) replacing the earlier Teller Amendment.
It suggests the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U. S. 32: Spanish-American War- Spain was attacking Cuba for a while, and America was supplying Cuba with arms, so then Spain captured one of America’s ships and that ticked them off so America got angry and considered joining. They finally joined and pretty much just moped up after the war. 33: John Philip Sousa- Known as “The March King. ” He was a great American composer and conductor in the army. Known for his army marches and stuff. 4: John Hay- He is known widely for writing a letter to Roosevelt about the Spanish American war and talking about how it is a “splendid little war. ” He also served under Lincoln. 35: Elihu Root- He won the nobel peace prize in 1912. Known as the model 20th century wise man. He was the secretary of war for 5 years, and made West Point larger. He pretty much revolutionized military schooling. In 1905 he was called up as Roosevelt’s secretary of state. He also established the Root-Takahira Agreement, which limited Japanese and American naval fortifications in the Pacific. 6: General Joseph Wheeler- He was cavalry general in the Confederate States Army in the 1860s during the American Civil War, and later as a general in the United States Army during both the Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War. In both wars he helped surmount injuries and helped his men win battles and ultimately the war. 1. What were causes of America’s sudden turn toward international involvement? I)new markets, which were needed because of an increase in population, wealth, and production. The imperialistic tendencies of other nations, particularly Africa and China, aused competition for the United States and motivated them to seek out new territories. The popular yellow journalism of the time, which sought the attention of the public by sending artists and reporters to other nations, helped to steer the attention of the people towards other countries 2. How did the US get into the Spanish American War over the initial objections of McKinley? II)The spark that set off the war was the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana harbor, which the US blamed on Spain 3. What role did the press and public play in the origin, conduct, and results of the Spanish-American War?
III) Yellow journalism in the Spanish American War emerged as a new form of propaganda that played a critical role 4. What were arguments for and against Imperialism? IV) against: to annex colonies would violate the “consent of the governed” philosophy in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Despotism abroad might well beget despotism at home. Imperialism was costly and was unlikely to turn into a profit. annexation would propel the U. S. into the political and military cauldron of East Asia. For: played possible trade profits. And “civilizing mission 5.
What were some of the short and long term results of the American acquisition of the Philippines and Puerto Rico? V)Short term effects: Puerto Rico used as a military outpost. Filipinos wanted freedom, but annexing them would go against the Declaration of Independence US played up possible trade profits with the Philippines Angered Anti-imperialists Long term effects: Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship. Great amounts of Puerto Ricans moved to New York City. More cultural diversity 6. How was US overseas imperialism in 1898 similar to and different from earlier expansion across North America, or Manifest Destiny?
Was this “new imperialism” a fundamental departure from America’s traditions, or simply a further extension of “westward migration”? VI) It is similar, because people are going out there in search of “new land” and in hopes to gain political and/or economic power. It is different because we are not negotiating with anyone, and we did not purchase the land from anyone, we are pretty much just going in and passively taking the place over. I feel that it was a fundamental departure from America’s traditions because like, they were greedy and went out and attacked a free land, and America claimed to be the land of the free and stuff. ) American policy in the Philippines: Philippines were captured after treaty, and thus not part of spoils, but kept as territory with an inevitable movement for independence 2) William H. Taft: “trustbuster” (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split) 3) Open Door Policy: sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the powers in mind 4) John Hay: ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes’ acceptance from the major powers 5) Makers of America- The Filipinos: U. S. promised to build democracy in Philippines -U. S. tried to train some Filipino students in leadership, so that they could one day lead the Philippines themselves, but it didn’t work -a lot of Filipinos came to the U. S. to work, not study -Filipinos used for cheap agricultural labor b/c Chinese immigration now banned -one Filipino woman for every fourteen Filipino men, leading to intermarriage (intermarriage = bad b/c Filipinos were majorly rejected; sometimes Americans would get violent w/ them if they so much as looked at a Caucasian woman) -after WWII, Filipino immigration surged; from ’50 to ’70, Filipino pop about doubled immigration & work helped make better lives for Filipinos in U. S. and families 6) Election of 1900- candidates/issues/results: winner: McKinley (R) w/ T. Roosevelt for vp; loser: Bryan (D) 7) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: treaty that was negotiated with Britain in 1850 which stated that the US could not secure absolute control over an oceanic canal. 8) Hay-Paunceforte Treaty: replaced the Clayton Bulwer Treaty. gave the US the a-okay to build, control, and fortify an oceanic canal. (panama) 9) Hay-Buneau Treaty: justified that the US was to receive rights to a canal zone extending 10 miles on each side of the canal. as exchanged to panama for 10 million dollars and an annual payment of 250,000 dollars 10) “cowboy diplomacy”: Roosevelt’s “carry the big stick” policy ended up with US entering panama affairs. raised european speculation 11) Colonel Gorgas: physician known for fighting tropical disease and made the panama canal zone “as safe as a health resort” 12) Colonel George Washington Goethals: conducted the building and opening of the panama canal. west point engineer. resolutions with columbia. 13) Roosevelt corollary – “protective intervention”, no outsiders could push around latin nations. “Policeman of the carribean. 4) Roosevelt/Nobel Peace Prize: gained thru peace negotiations btwn russia and japan. also mediated in north african disputes. he hurt relations w us and japan but strengthened w/ Russia. 15) “yellow peril”: california segregated the asians in public schools. japan got pissed. 16) “Gentleman’s Agreement: it allowed the asians back in (asians as in chinese, japanese and koreans) 17) the Great White Fleet: ship sent by roosevelt around the world for peaceful relations 18) “Big Stick Policy: wasn’t an actual policy, “Speak softly and carry around a big stick, and you will go far”; good w/ foreign relations Varying Viewpoints: many ashamed of imperialism in US -some tried to explain imperialism by aberration (sudden departure of American values) -others by spasmodic lapse (idk wtf that is) – Richard Hofstradter- said it was because of an economic crisis and populist upheaval -Howard Beale- peer pressure from other nations on Teddy Roosevelt – most controversial issue (by New left school of writhers founded by William Appleman Williams (WTF KINDA NAME IS THAT?? )) -they saw it as economic expansion to get more raw materials in another area – Roosevelt believed he was the superior race to blacks and indians, so it was their “burden” to imperialize