Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist. Because of his work in metaphysics, logic, natural sciences, ethics, political science, and literary criticism, he is ranked as one of the world’s great thinkers.
According to Aristotle, Morality is the purpose of a thing, as revealed by its form, is what it strives toward. A thing is good when it performs its purpose, and, if conscious, it feels pleasure when it does so efficiently. But although each thing has its own purpose, this purpose is also a means to a higher purpose.
Only man, who has both consciousness and reason, is capable of happiness, which accompanies conscious performance of a higher purpose. Man’s highest purpose is to imitate the action of the ultimate “unmoved mover”, corresponding to God, whose only action is contemplation.
The specific virtues Aristotle listed reflect those valued by his culture. They include courage, temperance, liberality, self- respect, friendliness, and justice. Aristotle stressed motive and also suitability of the action to the circumstances.
Aristotle believes that having these virtues leads to happiness. Virtues can be seen when an individual responses to a certain situation. Man should react in such a way that is not in contrast with morality, and also by showing the virtues which Aristotle has identified.
For Aristotle having happiness does not depend on circumstances but it is about achieving things through your innate skills and capability, it was tagged by Aristotle as Eudaimonia (happiness). Virtues, morality and happiness are intertwined. Aristotle points out that morality’s foundation focuses on the basic longings or wishes of a human being like riches and fame which sometimes chokes or prevents men from doing what is right. When one lives with virtues basing on the moral that one should be following then he will achieve such happiness.
“Aristotle”. New Standard Encyclopedia. Volume 2. Pages 561-562.
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