Is able to lean forward to pick up an object while maintaining balance. Can rotate body to look sideways and reach out to grasp a suspended object or to pick up a toy from the floor. Demonstrates energetic movements of entire body while in cot, pram or bath. Is able to advance across the floor by using rolling or squirming movements. Makes attempts to crawl and is occasionally successful. Has the ability to strand by using surrounding objects as support to achieve an upright position.
But is unable to lower themselves back to the floor in a controlled fashion.
When supported in a standing position, can take steps using alternative feet. Demonstrates a visual awareness of people, objects and events which occur in the environment. When offered an object, they will reach out to grab it. Handles objects eagerly and inquisitively, using hands to manipulate them for examination. Pokes at small objects with index finger and Uses same finger to mint at objects which are out of reach.
Can pick up small objects between finger and thumb in a crude ‘pincer’ hold. Can release a held object by dropping it, but is unable to set it down in a controlled manner.
Correctly follows the direction of fallen objects, including those falling out of sight. Observes actions of adjacent adults, children and animals with interest for period of a few minutes. Become steady on their feet and display more controlled movements. Can carry an object such as a toy whilst walking. Can climb onto a large chair and turn to sit on it. Kneel without any support and squat to pick up an object. Begin to run steadily but cannot avoid objects. Begin to walk upstairs using a railing, putting two feet on each step. Point to objects that they recognize.
Build a small tower using 3-4 blocks. Hold their own spoon when feeding themselves. Hold a pencil with their whole hand or between the thumb and the first two fingers, known as primitive tripod grasp. Can thread large beads onto lace. Walks or run by self up and down steps. Can stand ,walk and hop. Skillfully climbs trees. Rides a trite expertly Able to cross arms and legs. Able to throw, catch, Bounce and kick a ball. Dance to music Able to walk on a fine line Able to stand alone on 1 foot for about 10 seconds Can stretch touch toes without moving knees.
Can grip strongly with both hands. Able to hop a short distance using both feet. Jump from objects with confidence Able to run and jump avoiding objects Hop with good balance and using both feet and kick a football Able to throw and catch with accuracy Use a two wheeled bicycle with or without stabilizers Skip alternating feet Build towers with blocks high and straight Hold a pencil, write numbers or letters, write their own name May start writing simple stories Walk along bean using arms for balance
Use apparatus with skill Increased stamina Use colors naturalistic (green for grass/blue for sky Draw people with features Use a large needle to sew Can ride a 2 wheeled bike quite easily Can skip, hop and run quite confidently Begin to change in appearance and experience puberty Have more control in writing Become more detailed in drawing Growth accelerates Puberty Boys voice changes Girls breast grow Appetites increase Skin may become more oily, causing problems such as acne Sweating increases CHILD DEVELOPMENT 4227 – 137 TIMELINE OF DEVELOPMENTAL NORMS FROM BIRTH TO 19 YEARS – AREA OF
DEVELOPMENT: Emotional, Social, Behavioral and Moral 6- 7 Years New born till 1 month:- Cuddling Shows pleasure at feeding 1-3 months:- Smiles at familiar adult Forces on adult face when being feed Starting to show emotions Take pleasure in sucking Looks in direction when someone is speaking 3-6 months:- Gets pleasure from familiar routine egg. Bedtime bath time Forces on parent/career giver when feeding Shows enjoyment when cradled Smiles at everyone in their surrounding Stay awake for pro-longed periods At this age 70% sleep through the night 6-months:- Copies other people emotions Starts finger foods
Becomes upset when parent/career leaves room Becomes shy around strangers Begin to share toys 9-months: Likes to chew/suck on objects Drinks from cup with a lid Takes pleasure in making noise with toys Gets pleasure from pointing at what they want Enjoys solitary play Likes familiar adult to be close by ( make strange) Gets pleasure from music and rhyme Know what they want when feeding and at bed time May want a comforter when unsettled 12-months:- Makes strange Show affectionate towards people they know Takes pleasure from comforter Relies on adult for support and comfort Display various emotions e. G. Cry laugh
Gets pleasure from social activities e. G. Mealtimes Enjoys conversation Independent with personal care i. E. Dressing and washing Understands simply instruction such as waving goodbye 15 months: Drops things repetitively through play months-areas Likes repetitive rhymes and stories. Might show a need to use the toilet verbally or fidgeting. Might have temper tantrums and become easily upset. May realism that others are uneasy when they are climbing. Keen to do things for themselves such as dress, feed etc. Enjoys solitary play close to a sibling or other familiar person. Begins to remember where things belong.
Alternates between independence and cleanliness. 2-3 years Vary between independence and cleanliness. Enjoy helping others, only when it suits them. Can now dress themselves independently. May have frequent tantrums when unable to express themselves. Enjoy new experiences. Show natural curiosity about their environment. Developing ability to express their thoughts and feelings. May use the toilet but need a little assistance. Might be able to eat using a spoon. Emotionally dependent on caregiver. Plays with other children but may not share. Shows awareness of good / bad conduct Chooses friends but this may change rapidly
Is more aware of peoples feelings Gets pleasure joining in with imaginative play with other friends i. E. Mum/dad, shop etc Improves playing co-operating i. E. Sharing, turn-taking Takes part in simple games however may change rules as they play Controlling anger/frustration improves Demonstrates an perceptive of right and wrong May pay attention when others are speaking Shows interest in exploring sex differences Loves trying anything new and being adventurous Develops self-responsibility and likes being dependable 5 years-May boss other children or criticize them May lie to other children, parent or career
Consistently happy and feels secure Starts to have best friends of same sex Expresses feelings openly and freely May become jealous more often of friend Knows non family members Aware of their own gender Dislike of opposite sex Becomes more independent not like being fussed by mother Wants acceptance from peer group and being included by friends Enjoys being given responsibility Looking for new experiences Likes to succeed Have a best friend Enjoys TV and computer games Settled/accustomed to school Peer groups are very important Want to blend in with peers and not stand out Worried about what others may think of them
Understand complex rules and the consequences of breaking rules Experience mixed feelings Identify how their actions make people feel Adjust behaviors towards certain people (mostly parents) May begin to take an interest in something/hobby Take on and enjoy responsibility Begins to notice the opposite sex and may develop crushes although continues to spend most of there time with members of their own sex Want to become increasingly independent Will ant to try adult things and will not appreciate authority figures and limitations Develops a sense of conscience Peer pressure/ want to be part of a gang
Argues with adults May explore drink, drugs Feels no one understands them Can experience mood swings Will be influenced by friends rather than parents Become more conscious About body changes Will become more interested in forming intimate relationships and exploring sexuality. DEVELOPMENT: Cognitive/language and communication Newborn- 6 months 9 months -15 moths moths -3 years years 8-12 years 13-19 years Up to one month: babies are beginning to develop ideas based on the senses. Ex. Physical, such as hunger: they respond by crying.
They make eye contact and cry to tell the adult they have a need. They try to copy the adults by opening their mouths when the adult does so. 1 month: babies show recognition of parents for example by cooing or smiling at them. When an adult holds the baby face-to- face the baby will interact by looking and listening, making noises and moving their limbs. 3 months: babies will become more interested in their surroundings and playthings. Babies will begin to use their own method of conversation by exchanging coos and gurgles with a familiar person.
Babies will express a need by crying loudly. 6 months: babies should show understanding of some words egg ‘mama and dad’ , should turn in response to mummy/main careers voice at a distance and should begin to show understanding of how that person is feeling. Understand words ‘up’ and ‘down’ and show understanding by raising their arms to be picked up. 9 months Uses vocal noises to get attention, listens and then repeats this behavior. Understands simple language ex. Coo-coo, bye- bye. Able to recognize change of tone of voice ex. Pappy, cross. 12 months. Responds to own name when spoken to. Starts to show response to words such as car, ball, cup and own name. Recognizes objects and hand them when asked. 5 month. Able to follow simple instructions ex. :” Give me the spoon. ” Understands and speaks 2-6 or more words that are in correct context. Recognizes familiar persons, objects and animals. Mats Able to understand and recognize 6-20+words. Demands object s using louder voice. Shows interest in nursery rhymes and may take part. Yr Understands and uses 50+words. Begins to join words together to make simple sentences. 2 years mats. Asks questions continually ex. Who, what, why. Knows full name and talks about events happening now. 3 years. Repeats full name sex sometimes age. Engages in conversation and repeats own experiences may report present activities. Listens and enjoys the same story time again. Attempts to count to 10 but may not get order after 3. Able to tell the differences with the past and the future. Able to sort objects into groups .
Memory ability has increased can recall events that have happened months ago for example a family holiday. Is able to count to 20 in sequence and understands number 1-3. Problem solving skills are developing and can give explanations. Their drawings include more details for example body parts on people. They get mixed up with fact and fiction. Ask open ended questions beginning with ‘Why, When, How’ and understands answers. Quite competent with Nursery Rhymes and songs with some mistakes. Can almost say their full name and address.
Repeats long stories mixing up fact and fantasy. Shows an understanding of a sense of humor and enjoys plays on words. Begins to understand the English language word patterns but still hasn’t made link between words and irregular forms for example I Runner, I Ran. 6 years old. Children could read (understand symbols world); explained the difference between objects and use more than 2 examples; basic matching ND with using numbers and symbols; they have increased fine and small manipulative movements: writing; draw and paint with more details on the picture; 7 years.
Children more compare themselves with others; friendships are more important; they write down the small text by they own; could read properly. Increased memory skills and attention skills and can express clearly their ideas. Have developed their thinking skills and can evaluate the action. Are increasingly able to think and reason. Increased sentence structure and increased vocabulary. Enjoy telling stories and jokes. Are becoming more competent readers. 10 – 11 year olds; are becoming aware of actions having consequences.
Concentration periods are longer Can write factual stories. Develop talents Forward thinking is developing – starting to plan ahead; risk taking; good understanding of themselves; Begin thinking strategy – like that of an adult; tray to develop their own ideas, that might be different then parents; Approach a problem in a systematic way. Use imagination when solving problems. Handwriting becomes fast and legible. The children this age focus on relationship with boy or girl friends; good seriously hinging about getting independent (study, work, new family).
Section A (i) 137 1. 1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth to 19 years. As part of a group task, the above tables were put together explaining the sequence and rate of development from 0-19 years. Table 1 looks at physical development, Table 2 outlines Emotional, Social, Behavioral and Moral and Table 3 focuses on Cognitive, language and communication. Hobart and Franken (1999), Megabit, (2006) and Sheridan (1997) informed our class discussions and roof work. Ii) Analyses the difference between the sequence of development and the rate of development and why the distinction is important. What is sequence of development? Sequence of development is the steps in order or pattern that a child develops. Developmental milestones show us an expectation of how a child’s development happens and the sequence is the ordered pattern, for example see tables above Unit 137 1. 1 . Children cannot talk when they are newborns but by 6 months you may expect some babies to be sitting up without support and some might even begin to make crawling movements.
So sequence of development are the steps/ pattern or order of how children meet their developmental milestones. What is rate of development? The rate of development is the speed or time it takes for each child to climb their sequence of developmental milestones. Each child is an individual and so their rate or speed of development is different. Developmental milestones are a guide to help adults be that early years practitioners, parents or health professionals to see where a child is at in his/her development.
So the rate of development is the speed of a child’s development and how quickly or slowly they meet their elections. Why do you think it is important to understand the distinction in each of these terms? Analyses the difference in each of these terms giving relevant links to practice. Firstly it is obvious from what sequence of development is and what rate of development is that each child follows the same sequence or steps of development BUT the rate or time it takes them to get there is unique and individual to each child just as they are individuals.
For example in my setting the age ranges from 2 years 2 months to 3 years 2 months the 12 months age difference in these children can make a world of difference. At times when are ewe intake come in in September you can spot the younger children of the group straight away. Sometimes by their unclear speech or lack of confidence physically or sometimes their social skills of turning were they may need a lot of adult support. However in my years of experience it isn’t always the case I have seen very competent 2 year olds who have very clear speech and can string 3-4 words together and can climb and play physically confident.
On the other hand have seen 3 year old children the complete opposite. Personally feel it depends on the environment that the child has been exposed to before coming onto our setting. At home etc may take time to converse with the child or may read and have read to the child from newborn this will greatly enhance the child’s speech,language and communication. I feel it is important to understand the distinction between sequence and rate of development so that we (practitioners) treat each child as an individual.
And that we don’t put them to one side and label them. It is important to know and understand the individual child to enable us to take observations,assess and plan and provide not only age appropriate resources but also resources that that individual child s interested in to enable him/her to engage and reach their developmental milestones. As our programmer specialist said to me recently from reading our observations she should be able to come into our setting and pick out the child she is reading about.
They should tell a story of that child. Personally I feel a great pride in myself and a sense of achievement when I know a particular child inside out, when see that child happy and content and smile at me because did something to help him/her there’s no other feeling like it in this world. Once when I was working in a playgroup setting at a parent meeting when I as discussing a particular child to her Dad the Dad said to me, “You know my daughter so well you have her off to a tee. ” smiled and said, “Thanks that’s part of my job. And having this dad say this to me made me feel that was doing my job properly at the time it was my first job working in early years. It is important for us as practitioners to support each child’s individual rate of development and help them reach their milestones for that year they are with us. It also helps us to pick up any concerns if a child with our support isn’t making any headway. And from that if we have concerns about a particular child we should be able to ass this information on to the child’s parents and signpost them to the relevant health professionals etc.
Corrective (2008) page 68 points outs,” It is important to understand that children do not necessarily progress sequentially through stages/norms of development. Each child is a unique person who is a competent learner from birth,albeit within their own individual time frame. ” As an Early Years Practitioner my challenge is to meet each child’s individual needs by recording observations,assessing the individuality and planning to provide resources/activities so that each child with our help and support are able to each their full potential.
Unit 137: (iii) Analyses how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal (2. 1) and external factors (2. 2) Analyses the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected (1. 3) Each individual child’s rate or speed of development is highly influenced by a myriad of factors both which can be personal to the child for example learning difficulties,pre-natal,DNA, etc or external factors such as family,education,personal choices or poverty and deprivation.
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