An example of a text would be: “l went to bed early because was tired from my long day at work. I woke up the following morning feeling rested. ” A non- text is a group of words and sentences which are not cohesive, coherent and unified when read together.
An example of a non-text would be: “l went to bed early because was tired from my long day at work. Vanilla ice-cream is my favorite. ” While the two sentences make sense on their own, when put together it is evident that they are not related, and as such are incoherent when read together. ) Spoken and written text Text A A mid-ocean ridge is a general term for an underestimation system that consists of various mountain ranges (chains), typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine, formed by plate tectonics. This type of oceanic ridge is characteristic of what is known as an oceanic spreading center, which is expansible for seafloor spreading.
The uplifted seafloor results from convection currents which rise in the mantle as magma at a linear weakness in the oceanic crust, and emerge as lava, creating new crust upon cooling.
A mid-ocean ridge demarcates the boundary between two tectonic plates, and consequently is termed a divergent plate boundary. Viewed and adapted on July 2013 from: http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Mid-ocean_ridge. Text B Please be home in time for supper, honey. The O’Brien are coming at seven and don’t want them to wait. And if you have time, get some more wine – you know what Jim is like. Never seen a man who can drink like that but at least Kathy is nice. You know, she always helps out with the dishes while the rest just sit there. Ally hope they like the chicken – the beefs gotten too expensive and you know Jim – he eats for two. You-ho! Hey, you left your keys! In the two extracts provided text [A] is a written text and text [B] is a spoken text. Text [A] not only has a wider range of words (1 15), but it also contains a number of polysyllabic words (15) when compared to the spoken text [B] (O). Text CA] meets the standard conventions of language, where the spelling and punctuation s used correctly and the text is organized well for coherence.
Text [B] is casual, has numerous pauses and has more repetitions of individual words (highlighted in green). Text CA] is identifiable as a written text because it has a higher lexical density than text [B], while text [B] is identifiable as a spoken text because it has a higher grammatical density than text [A]. The contrast between the lexical and grammatical density in the provided texts has been highlighted in purple. Page 3 Question 2 a) Lexical cohesive elements Text C Sleep soundly and beat the heat – put your pillow in the fridge A sleep expert offers his top tips for a good night’s sleep during the warm, sticky nights.
High temperatures, well into the evening, affect your body’s natural cooling process as you prepare for sleep. “The body normally releases heat through hands, face and feet around the time of sleep onset, and usually continues to cool until around am,” says Dry Chris Doeskins, director of the Edinburgh Sleep Centre and author of Sound Asleep. “If anything prevents that decrease in temperature, then sleep quality is impaired and it is difficult to fall asleep. ” Although he also warns that at the point where your body temperature is at its lowest, you may wake up f you don’t have enough bed linen to keep you warm.
Make sure there is good air circulation – either by using a ceiling or portable fan, or just keeping door and windows open. Others suggest preparing your bedroom, Mediterranean- style, by leaving blinds down or curtains closed during the day to keep the sun out, and opening your windows in the evening once the heat of the day has died down. Doeskins says the ideal bedroom temperature is around ICC, though if you share a bed, your partner may prefer it to be cooler. If you’re in the grip of a sweltering insomnia, “run your wrists and hands under the cold tap for a few minutes.
Dry your hands and go straight back to bed. ” Viewed and adapted from Guardian News & Media Ltd (2013):on July 2013 from: http://www. Guardian. Co . UK/lifestyle/2013/July/1 S/sleep-soundly-heat-pillow-fridge. Type of lexical cohesion Repetition Synonymy Antonym Hypoxia Collation Cohesive element High temperature Evening Hands, face and feet Bed linen, bedroom, bed Presupposed element Sleep Heat Day Body page 4 b) Grammatical cohesive elements Text D A giant panda named Lung has given birth at Zoo Atlanta to two cubs, the first twin pandas born in the United States since 1987.
The zoo released a video of the other and the tiny hairless babies in their enclosure. The twins were a surprise to zoo staff who had been expecting one cub. While pandas often give birth to twins in the wild, they are only able to raise one at a time – leaving the second twin to perish. But in a zoo setting, staff are able to incubate one cub while the mother takes care of the other, and then swap them out so she can have a chance at successfully raising both. Viewed and adapted from Guardian News & Media Ltd (201 3):on July 2013 from: http://www. Guardian. Co. K/world/video /2013/July/16/giant-panda-twins-born-Atlanta-zoo-video. Type of grammatical cohesion Reference Substitution Ellipsis Conjunction The mother Other Expecting one cub While A giant panda One cub The twins Staff are able to incubate one cub while the mother takes care of the other Question 3 a) Narrative and Expository texts Text E My grandfather’s farm, which was fifteen miles away from the city, and in those days around us were plantations of sugar cane fields. Over 100 acres of land was called Phoenix Settlement. It was the most beautiful piece of land, untouched by the then racial laws.
It was a hard life for my parents. There were no proper roads o go into the city. If it rained there was mud all over and the little bridges would be overrun by the water and it was impossible to go anywhere. Viewed and adapted on 17 July 2013 from: http://www. Literalism’s. Co. AZ/index. PH? Option=com_content& view?article&id=285:sitagandhi-&catid=13:authors<emid=28. Text Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTD) uses low pressures inside chambers created by vacuum pumps and the principle that water boils at low pressures, even at ambient temperature.
To Page 5 cool the water vapors, cold sea water located 600 meters below the sea level s pumped through coils to condense the water vapors and then collect the pure water into storage tanks. Viewed and adapted on 17 July 2013 from: http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Desalination. In the above texts, text [E] is a narrative text and text [F] is an expository text. A narrative text is used to entertain and amuse, it consists of simple vocabulary and active verbs often written in past tense.
Narrative text is divided into three stages, namely: orientation, complication and resolution. In the case of text [E] we are able to identify it as a narrative text because it fits the criteria of being in the orientation stage of the everyday vocabulary as opposed to vocabulary from specialist fields as well as character introductions (grandfather, parents) assists us in identifying it as a narrative text. Text [F] is an expository text because of the impersonal style of writing used. It serves to explain and inform the reader of what Desalination is.
The vocabulary is complicated and contains technical terms particular to this field of study (the principle that water boils at low pressures, LTD). B) Pragmatic and Contextual knowledge Pragmatic knowledge as defined in (Venezuela, 2011-2013) enables us to use language appropriately in specific contexts. In a classroom setting, one would refer to the teacher as Sir or AMA and not by their first name, whereas in a social setting one would refer to their counterparts by their first names and not Sir or AMA.
Contextual knowledge refers to how a reader interprets text depending on how it is presented to them and how the text is arranged. This is referred to as understanding a text “above the sentence. ” Question 4 a) Theme and Rhyme Distinguishing between theme and rhyme means being able to identify what the text you are reading is about, and then identifying the information that is hen provided in support of the text. The theme is usually at the beginning of a sentence, with the rhyme being everything else that follows.
In the sentence “The referee gave him a red card while the other players were still arguing the foul” “The referee” is the theme, or the subject which is up for discussion. “… Gave him a red card while the other players were still arguing the foul” is the rhyme, or that which is said about the theme. Page 6 b) Schema Theory The schema theory states that a reader of a text uses his or her embedded knowledge of the world around them to make sense of what they are reading. This allows the reader to interpret, as well as reconstruct the meaning to reach an understanding of said text.
With each piece of information provided in a text, the reader either confirms or reconstructs its meaning. In the sentence “The nurse saved the patient on the pavement” the underlying schema would be that the nurse is female, this is a stereotypical inference because we assume that all nurses are female. We would also deduce that the patient was in need of urgent medical attention because he or she is not in a hospital and might have been walking or standing on the pavement when they found themselves in a medical emergency.
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