The implications have a great impact on mankind, so it is important to understand both the causes and effect of desertification. Environment factors are one of the reasons of desertification. Firstly, drought combined with unsustainable human practices leads to desertification. During drought season, the temperature rises and there is less rainfall. This leads to the soil becoming drier and less fertile. For instance, in 1972, Sale experienced a severe drought where crops and grass cannot grow in the marginal lands due to certification (Cunningham, 2010, p. 16).
Ultimately, less food can be grown and can lead to starvation. Another environment factor is seasonal wind. Seasonal wind combined with unsustainable human activity leads to desertification. The seasonal wind blows away the good topsoil that becomes dry and fine due to constant plugging and planting of crops. This will result in the formation of dust storms. For example, dust storm enveloped the Great Plains, United States for ten years as a result of desertification (Green, n. D. , p. 35). Eventually, people may leave the degraded and and may migrate en mass to other areas.
Human activities are also one of the reasons of desertification. Firstly, overpopulation leads to desertification. Overpopulation strains soil of its resources such as water and nutrients to plant crops to supply food for the need of the population. In turn, the fertility of the soil will be depleted as it is overused. For example, crops and grass cannot be grown in marginal lands of Sale in 1972 as the increased number of population had depleted its natural resources such as nutrients and water due to desertification (Cunningham, 2010, p. 6).
In the end, many humans and livestock die because of starvation. Another human activity that leads to desertification is deforestation. When trees are cut down, fertile topsoil is exposed to erosion elements such as wind and rain. The good topsoil erodes, leaving bare land which is infertile. When soil is infertile, crops and plants cannot be grown. For instance, harvests are inadequate in Eschew Village, Sudan as the soil is infertile. This is because perennials that sheltered the soil from annual rain and maintain the soil fertility was cleared and replaced by crops (n. , 1994, p. 30). Over time, more land need to be used to plant for crops to sustain the need of population, continuing this vicious desertification cycle. In addition, poor farming methods also lead to desertification. Slash and burn, a traditional farming method, contributes to desertification. The good topsoil is blown away by wind as the natural forest which covers it and keeps it together is burnt. For example, the loss of soil fertility in in Brazil due to slash and burning of rain forest negatively impacted its local population (n. A. , 1994, p. 31).
Over mime, this poor farming method leads to a lesser farming production quality, which leads to lesser quantity of harvest. Overuse of irrigation is another poor farming method that leads to desertification. Water from rivers that flows to a natural lake is diverted to crops through irrigation. The diversion of water causes the lake to dry up. In turn, this dries the soil within its radius, making it infertile. For instance, the Oral Sea dried up because the feeding rivers, the Sorry Dairy and the AMA Dairy was diverted to crops through irrigation (Schmitt, D. Schmitt, N. , 2005, p. 24) which lead to he desertification of the Oral Sea region. As an impact, humans migrate to other fertile areas to sustain their living. It can be seen that desertification is caused by natural factors and human activities. These include normal weather cycles, as poor farming methods, overuse of irrigation, large increases in population and deforestation. Desertification also has serious ramifications for the environment and for people. Desertification impacts negatively on land. Desertification leads to infertile soil.
The destruction of perennials that protects crops and helps soil to maintain its artillery leads to desertification. For example, annual cropping expansion in Cinder Region in Niger at the cost of perennial vegetation resulted in the degradation of soil. Ultimately, harvests from crops decreases, affecting a nation’s income. Desertification also impacts negatively on biodiversity. The shrinking of a natural lake causes its salinity level to increase. Freshwater organisms die if the salinity level of water is high (Schmitt, D. & Schmitt, N. , 2005, p. 25).
For instance, in the Oral Sea, twenty out of twenty four species of fish died y early 1 sass and commercial catch fell to zero from 48000 metric tons in 1957 because of the very high salinity level of the lake (Schmitt, D. & Schmitt, N. , 2005, p. 25). Over time, ecosystem of natural lakes is disrupted as species of organisms become extinct. Desertification also brings negative effects to humans. Desertification impacts human health negatively. Soil becomes dry and fine during droughts. When wind blows, the soil is carried with it forming dust storms. These dusts enter human lungs when inhaled and may fill it.
For example, humans die of “dust pneumonia” cause their lungs were filled with dusts from dust storms of the Great Plains of United States during the 1935 spring (Green, n. D. , p. 35). In turn, a country has to allocate much of its budget that can be used in other important sectors to cure citizens with lungs filled with dust. Desertification also contributes to starvation. When land is infertile, crops cannot grow to support the demand for food. For instance, between 100000 and 250000 people died in Sale as lands were infertile, hence, food cannot be grown.