Assignment Management Essay

As a leader of some organization woman was rounded by strong-willed, hardworking and purpose-driven women. It is through their leadership that the traditions, values and legacy of our family have been upheld. They have taught that a woman’s instincts and emotional intelligence can be off the chart. For a man it so difficult to understand about what women thinking, because what woman thinking and what man thinking is have a little different. Also in woman act and innovation, unless he has been closely influenced by the women in his life.

I’ve learned that women may process things differently and in their own terms. Fortunately for me, I’ve been influenced by great women who made me appreciate their approach towards leadership. I’ve grown to understand their decision-making processes, the dynamics and subtleties of their personality and style, and other special character qualities that women possess. What I know about woman are the best leader that have circular vision that enables them to be well-rounded people.

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For example, they have their finger on the pulse of the culture and can talk to you about the latest pop-culture news, but then easily switch gears to give you their perspective on what is taking place on Wall Street. Women leaders seeking a chance to be significant see the world through a lens of opportunity; they are especially in search of those opportunities previously unseen. Woman also enjoy their own space to test themselves and find their own rhythm. These women leaders are like scientists: many of them want to make new discoveries or solve for problems where others have failed.

The women leaders I’ve been around don’t stop pursuing until the job gets done. This is why believe they are good collaborative leaders and not afraid of trial and error as long as they continue to build the resource infrastructure around them that test them closer towards accomplishing their goals. Women leaders also invest in themselves and become knowledge seekers. Because they not afraid to ask questions when given a safe platform to express themselves. Though extremely curious, it’s often balanced with a bit of skepticism after all, they don’t want to be fooled or taken advantageous.

My experiences have taught me that women leaders need to trust a person before they will endorse what they have to say. Many just want to know that there is legitimacy behind the opportunity. The secret of women leader share on managing her organization and what inspiration from the interview ) Strategic In the videos that I have been watched, “A woman’s lens of skepticism oftentimes forces them to see well beyond the most obvious details before them. They enjoy stretching their perspective to broaden their observations. Many women are not hesitant to peel the onion in order to get to the root of the matter. So, Women see what often times others don’t see. Successful women leaders know how to play the game when they have to and can anticipate the unexpected. They know what cards to play and keenly calculate the timing of each move they make. I learned that women who enjoy the ebbs and flows of cuisines activity also know that the best things are accomplished when they are done naturally and unforced. When things are happening organically, this means that they are functioning within a natural rhythm and speed that is safer and risk adverse.

So this all things about woman would not surprise me. Woman will often tackle risk head on in order to get to the root cause of a problem and to solve for it (they value time and money). Women leaders who don’t allow their egos to stand in the way of good business are in the mind set of getting things done for the betterment of a healthier whole. 2) Entrepreneurial Woman can be extremely resourceful, connect the dots of opportunity and become expert in developing the relationships they need to get the job done. Because entrepreneurship is just a way of life for many women.

They know that to create and sustain momentum requires 100% focus on the objective and so they don’t enjoy being disrupted by unnecessary noise and distractions. On one that video that watched “Women can play into the politics of the workplace, and do so if it means adding value to the momentum they are attempting to create. ” They avoid falling too far behind on projects – knowing that f they do it will disrupt their focus and momentum. Many women leaders find excitement and motivation by being extremely creative and resourceful when completing tasks and other duties and responsibilities. ) Opportunity driven The women know look for the opportunity within when confronted with challenge. They push the boundaries and, when faced with adverse circumstances, they learn all they can from it. Optimism is their mind set because they see opportunity in everything. In that video that I watched, Est©e Lauder, the child of Hungarian immigrant parents, was quite the opportunist in the cosmetics industry. During the post war consumer boom, women wanted to start sampling cosmetic products before buying them. It’s exactly this type of inventiveness that other women use to pursue the opportunities in front of them. ) purposeful and Meaningful They know what it’s like to be the underdog and work hard not to disappoint themselves and others. Women leaders in particular often have high standards and their attention to detail makes it difficult for others to cut corners or abuse any special privileges. That what I have found that many women leaders enjoy inspiring others to achieve. They enjoy creating ecosystems ND support a collaborative leadership style that melds the thinking and ideas of others; this is what multiplies the size of an opportunity and/or its speed in execution in order to create a larger sphere of influence and overall impact.

Because Women leaders with a nurturing nature are good listeners and excellent networks/connecters. 5) Traditions and Family Women are often the glue that keeps things together and that is why they represent great leadership for America’s future. No matter whether at home or at work place. The most successful women leaders enjoy taking charge fore circumstances force their hand. They provide the leadership within the home and in the workplace to assure that legacies remain strong by being fed with the right nutrients and ingredients.

To the great women in my personal and professional life, thank you for the opportunity to be inspired and mentored by your leadership. Rarely have I read something from a man who has been inspired and influenced by the wisdom off woman’s leadership. Hopefully this perspective helps awaken more of us to the opportunity of learning about leadership from the women in our lives, whether in the home or at work. Usually The most successful women leaders are big believers in team building and the enforcement of mission, goals and values to assure that everyone is on the same page with like intentions.

This secures a sense of continuity making it easier for everyone to have each other’s backs. No wonder women are assuming more management and leadership roles in family owned businesses. 6) Passionate While women in general were historically viewed and stereotyped as emotional leaders by men, I believe they are just passionate explorers in pursuit of excellence. In the video that I watched, “They enjoy order and stability and a genuine sense of control. Many women have learned not to depend upon others for their advancement and thus have a tendency to be too independent.

A woman’s independent nature is her way of finding her focus and dialing up her pursuits. ” When women leaders are not satisfied with the status quo, they will want to make things better. These women leaders get things done and avoid procrastination. Their passionate pursuits allow them to become potent pioneers of new possibilities. No wonder minority women represent the largest growing segment of entrepreneurs. These women leaders are locked into what they are searching for move out of the way.

Assignment Management Essay

There should be a leader in the group at any given time and the person who is formally appointed is not necessarily the leader. They should have people functions for example developing skills of members, giving recognition and providing opportunities so as to optimize the combined potential of all the members. . 2. 2 Roles Conflict occurs in groups when members perceive their roles differently to what is expected from them, therefore the roles that each one has to play has to be clarified by open communication. 12. 3 Norms and conformity Norms are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by all the members in the group.

Conformity is the acceptance of the norms within the group by all the members. The success of the existence of a group may depend on whether the group members adhere to the group norms. It is important therefore for group members to conform to basic norms such as showing respect o each other, but also to be divergent and creative. 1. 2. 4 Status When groups meet to brainstorm their ideas, those group members with a lower status often are hesitant to share ideas and then end up criticizing the ideas of others. 3 Indifference’s of status in groups can either facilitate or hinder the group’s interaction.

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Quality assurance will be affected. A decline in customer satisfaction. Decline in profit margin. ‘The development of management theory has resulted in a paradigm shift from the management of the worker to management of situations. ” Do you agree? (30) The search for better ways to use organizational resources is the driving force behind evolution of management theory. As managers and researches found better ways to perform the basic principle management tasks of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, management theory advanced.

The two management schools of thought were the: A) Classical Approach that emerged around the turn of the twentieth century included: Scientific Management Administration Management Human Relations Management Quantitative Management Scientific Management These were managers who were searching for new techniques to manage the organizations resources more efficiently and they therefore focused on matching people and their tasks. Frederick W. Taylor was the founder of Scientific Management Approach at round about the end of 1 890 into the sass’s and he was one of the first people to study the behavior and performance of working people.

He developed four principles to increase efficiency in the workplace namely: 7 Principle 1: Experimenting with ways of improving how tasks are done after studying the way workers performed their tasks and after gaining all the casual job knowledge. Principle 2: The new methods of doing tasks were written down and became rules and standard procedures by which all workers were taught to perform the same task. Principle 3: In order to increase specialization, workers with certain skills and abilities to do a certain task, were carefully selected to do a task according to the new rules and operating procedures.

Principle 4: A realistic and fair level of performance for a task was set with a suitable pay system in place and a reward benefit system for an above average worker. However this approach had problems that arose: * Managers increased the work that each worker had to do without sharing the performance gains with them in the form of bonuses. * Workers were expected to do more work for the same pay. * Workers were threatened with layoffs as fewer workers were needed. * Workers became dissatisfied as the specialized tasks were simplified to be extremely boring.

Mistrust grew among the workers towards their managers who did not care about their well-being therefore they withheld job knowledge for protection of their jobs and pay. 8 At about the same time of the Scientific Management other researches were focusing on: Administration Management This focused on creating an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. Max Weber, a German professor of sociology and Henry Payola, a French manager both developed theories and models of management.

Max Weber (1864 – 1920) developed the principles of bureaucracy, a formal system of organization and administration to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. He developed five principles: Principle 1: A manager’s formal authority comes from the position that they hold in the organization, not related to any personal status. Their authority gives them the right to direct and control their workers behavior to achieve organizational goals. Positions that people hold in an organization is not because of who they know or who they are, but purely on their performance.

Principle 3: In an organization all workers are to know exactly what is required of them and hat their roles are not only for the image of the organization but also to be accountable to each other. Principle 4: In an organization positions are to be arranged hierarchically in order for employees to know and follow the correct reporting line. This enforces accountability for your actions. 9 Principle 5: Rules, Standard Operating procedures and norms must be well defined in order for behavior control to be effective within an organization.

This Approach also had their problems: * Managers sometimes allowed rules and standard operating procedures to become a burden and this slowed down decision making. Managers did not trust their own judgments’ and skills and rather relied on rules to solve problems. This affected their management behavior and style. A challenge for managers is to use the bureaucratic principles to benefit the organization and not harm it. Payola introduced fourteen principles of management: (1841 – 1925) Principle 1: Division of labor: By making workers more efficient, specialization of tasks were increased.

Principle 2: Authority and Responsibility: Managers have the right to give orders to workers and they also have to take the responsibility. Principle 3: Unity of Command: A worker should receive orders only from one manager. Principle 4: Line of Authority: There should be a limit to the number of managers from top to bottom. Principle 5: Centralization: Authority should not be concentrated at the top of the chain of command. 10 Principle 6: Unity of Direction: There should be a single plan of action for both managers and workers.

Principle 7: Equity: All workers should be treated fairly and with respect. Principle 8: Order: Workers should be provided with satisfying career opportunities, therefore all roles in the organization must be arranged in such a way that everyone does heir job efficiently. Principle 9: Initiative: Workers should be allowed to be creative and innovative. Principle 10: Discipline: A workforce must be created that strives to attain organizational goals. Principle 1 1: Remuneration of Personnel: Should be fair to the worker and employer.

Principle 12: Stability of Tenure of Personnel: Long-term employees develop skills that can improve organizational efficiency. Principle 13: Subordination of Individual Interests to the Common Interest: Workers should understand that their performance has an impact on the whole organization. Principle 14: Team Spirit: Where there is team spirit, there will be a sense of unity and enthusiasm. 1 1 Human Relations Approach (1924 – 1933) Managing people became a major issue and managers became more human relations orientated.

The “Hawthorne Studies” started investigations in relation to the level of lighting in the workplace and the workers productivity level. It was then discovered by Mayo that there were a group of circumstances that affected productivity. It was founded that the situation that workers found them in rather than what managers demanded from them, had the strongest influence on their productivity. Workers were more motivated by social needs than economic needs. It became clear to researches that to achieve high level of performance you have to understand the behavior patterns and needs of the workers.

Moscow, a well known behavioral scientist suggested that people have five levels of needs and that the most basic one is the physical need for food and water and the most advanced, for personal fulfillment or self-actualization. McGregor another behavioral scientist distinguished that people have two assumptions, namely: Theory X and Theory Y The Quantitative Management Approach This is used as a tool to help with decision making for managers within an organization to invest their financial capital and develop techniques to produce their products and services more efficiently. B) Contemporary Approach emerged during the 1 ass’s which included: Systems Theory/Approach Contingency Theory/Approach also known as Situational Approach Chaos Theory/Approach Other Contemporary Theories/Approaches which includes: * Total quality management (TTS) 12 * Learning Organization * Re-Engineering Systems Approach This approach was developed in the 1 ass’s and this approach compensated for he two main limitations of the classical approach namely: * They ignored the relationship between the organization and its external environment. * They focused on specific aspects of the organization at the expense of the workers.

An open system shows in a four step process how an organization acquires resources for example money, raw materials and skilled workers to produce services and goods. * Input: resources – raw materials, money * Conversion/Transformation: use of techniques, workforce and managerial processes * Output: finished products or services rendered Feedback: customers purchase items to satisfy their needs and the reaction from environment The Open system should give a clear indication of how all interrelated divisions within an organization work together to provide efficiency and effectiveness.

Contingency Approach/Situational Approach This emphasizes the managers actions to match up to a particular situation. As this approach is a flexible one, there is no best way to manage. It is therefore imperative for managers to see that every organization exists in a unique environment with unique employees and unique aims or goals. 3 There are various contingencies: The organizations external environment (degree of complexity and rate of exchange) * The organizations own capabilities (its strengths and weaknesses) * Managers and workers (their goals, values, skills and attitudes) * The technology used by the organization Chaos Approach This theory focuses on “web of feedback loops present in every system” as per Attenuate 1998:24. He says that certain systems have linear feedback loops whilst others have non-linear for example business organization. He also points out that the Industrial era of the past is very different to the Information age of the present.

The previous one had a stable and organizational work pattern and work was very much of a routine nature. He points out that the Information age has the following characteristics: * Technology which increases production and consumer power * Globalization * Competition has become stronger because of technology and globalization * Change * Speed The above characteristics now forces managers to face more conflicting challenges. The approach points out two other contingencies: Chaos Order Challenges/problems are of a more complex nature and there is a repeat in behavioral patterns almost all the time in a similar manner. Chaos as a Self-Organizing Entity Organizations have a self-organizing structure that develops and this brings change. This differs from the Classical Approach as it imposes structure. Characteristics of an organization which adopts the cardiac paradigm * Sharing information and knowledge * Creativity and innovation * Teamwork * Diversity * Strong core values The Role of the Manager is * To manage the transition period * To build resilience in the workers * Destabilize the system * Manage the Present and the Future or Order and Disorder maintain a Learning organization Other Contemporary Approaches include

Total Quality Management (TTS) Focuses on improving quality through preventing mistakes. * Create and Principles of TTS: * Customer emphasis 15 * Continual improvement * Quality improvement on all levels of the organization * Measurement Accuracy * Empowerment of employees The Six Sigma Approach Focuses on improving quality and eliminating costs which is of no value to the customer This approach applies to manufacturing processes, human resources, sales and customer service.

The Learning Organization Approach Organizations should overcome their learning disabilities through: * Lifelong earning * Challenging generalizations and assumptions * Being a part of the organizations vision * Good communication skills on all levels in the organization * Encouraging systems thinking Re-Engineering Approach: Focuses on increased value for customers and managing costs effectively Re- designing of the organizations processes finally agree that there was a definite paradigm shift that resulted from the various managerial approaches or theories from managing the worker to managing the situation. 6 The classical approach with all its various approaches where most of them slighted a very stable and organized environment with pretty much routine tasks being done by the workers. It was expected of workers to do what they were told by the managers and they were exploited to a certain point. It was the Human relations approach which started zooming in on the situations that workers found themselves in rather than the demands of the managers and discovered that this was their greatest obstacle in productivity.

Having looked at the Contemporary approaches, I discovered most of these ones were flexible and focused on how departments within an organization that were inter- elated provided a higher performance and productivity. They zoomed in on the workers situations and issues that they were facing more than the demands from managers. Technology and the environment also plays an important part in the Information Age as it is mentioned in the Chaos Approach as challenges were on the increase.

My final conclusion is that when employers and organizations have a high regard for their workers and invest in them as people and not see them as machines of productivity only, the organization can only benefit in the end and reach their goals when there is evidence of good employer/employee relations . 1 The control process serves as the feedback mechanism to the manager’s functions. Make use of an appropriate example to demonstrate the four step control process in action. 12) An example that I am using for this question is the ‘Registration Process of students’ in particular for the Faculty of Education and Social Sciences. * Must establish standards at strategic points * Standards are planned targets against which the actual performance will be compared which normally is set in the planning stage Performance standards should be attainable, measurable and realistic The process f registration starts at a certain date and ends at a certain date. It usually commences early in January of each year.

These dates to be agreed upon by all role-players such as: Faculty staff, Library staff, IT staff, Head of Departments, International Office, Finance Office, Registration & Application Office, Security, Student Assistants and Student Representative Council Firstly all first year students are registered followed by our returning students meaning the second, third and fourth year students. Early in February registrations are done for the part-time B. De (Honors), ACE- Multistage, M. De and D. De students. 3. 1. Measure actual performance * Collection on information and reporting on actual performance are continuous activities * Observation and measurement must be carried out at the various strategic points * Reporting of activities of what information and how much information should be fed back, and to whom At the end of each registration day, a report is generated to give an indication of how many registered students went through the system. The Hemi office has to in turn give Executive Council totals of those students, so that they would have n indication of how much money was generated through registration, course, hostel, books fees.

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